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Univ.  of 
Toronto 

J8RARY 


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THE    SCOTTISH 


GEOGRAPHICAL 


MAGAZINE 


Author's  are  alone  responsible  for  their  respective  statements. 


THE    SCOTTISH 

GEOGRAPHICAL 

MAGAZINE 


PUBLISHED  BY  THE  KOYAL  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  SOCIETY 

PROFESSOR  JAMES  GEIKIE,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.,  HON.  EDITOR 

MARION  I.  NEWBIGIN,  D.Sc,  ACTING  EDITOR 


VOLUME    XXIII:    1907 


4<f 

/    0 
4 


EDINBURGH 

Printed  by  T.  and  A.  CONSTABLE,  Printers  to  His  Majesty 

AT   THE    UNIVERSITY   PRESS 
1907 


7 


ROYAL  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  SOCIETY. 


PATRON. 

HIS  MAJESTY  THE  KING. 

COUNCIL. 

(Elected  12th  November  1907.) 

President. 
Professor  JAMES  GEIKIE,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. 


His  Grace  The  Doke  of  Hamilton. 

His  Grace  The  Duke  of  Montrose,  K.T. 

Tlie  Most  Hon.  The  Marquess  of  Twkeddalk,  K.T. 

The  Most  Hon.  The  Marquess  of  Linlithgow,  K.T., 

G.C.M.G.,G.C.V.O. 
The  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  of  Dalkeith. 
The    Right    Hon.    The    Earl   of  Crawford  and 

BAiCAKRES,  K.T.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  P.R.A.S. 
The  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  of  Wemyss  and  March, 

LL.D. 
The  Right  Hon.   The  Earl  of   Aberdeen,   K.T., 

G.C.M.G.,  LL.D. 
The  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  of  Stair. 
The  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  of  Rosebery,  K.G.,  K.T., 

D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  P.S.A. 


The  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  of  Camperdown,  LL.D. 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Forbes. 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Saltoun. 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Sempill. 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Elphinstone. 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Balfour  of  Burlbioh,  K.T., 

LL.D. 
The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Reay,  G.G.S.L,  G.C.LE.,  D.O.L., 

LL.D.,  P.B.A. 
Colonel  The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Playfair,  C.V.O.,  R.A. 
The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Overtoun. 
The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Kinnear,  LL.D. 
The  Hon.  Lord  Stormonth  Darling,  LL.D. 
The  Hon.  Lord  Guthrie. 
Sir  Donald  Currie,  G.C.M.G.,  LL.D. 
Sir  John  Murray,  K. C. B.  ,  D. Sc. ,  Ph.D. ,  LL. D. ,  F.  R. S. 


Chairmen  of  Centres. 

Glasgmv      .        .      Paul  Rottenburg,  LL.D. 

Dundee       .        .      I.  Julius  Weinberg,  J.P.,  F.R.G.S. 

Aberdeen    .        .      William  Smith. 


Henry  A.  R.  Chancellor. 

James  J.  Dobbie,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S, 

Captain  Alan  Foster. 

John  Geddie,  F.R.G.S. 

A.  P.  Laurie,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.E. 

Lieut.  E.  H.  Shackleton,  M.V.O. 

W.  F.  G.  Anderson,  Glasgow. 

J.  Horne,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

John  Clarke,  M.A.,  Aberdeen. 

H.  B.  FiNLAY. 

William  B.  Wilson,  W.S. 

John  Gunn,  M.A.,  D.Sc. 

Lieut. -Colonel  F.  Bailey. 

Kenneth  Sanderson,  W.S. 

Sir  James  A.  Russell,  LL.D. 

H.  M.  Cadell,  B.Sc. 

Robert  Fullerton,  M.D.,  Glasgow. 

Alexander  Mackay,  C.A.,  Dundee. 

Harry  W.  Smith,  W.S.,  F.R.S.6.S. 

David  Christison,  M.D.,  LL.D. 

George  Smith,  M.A. 

George  Mackenzie  Brown. 

Charles  E.  Price,  M.P. 

Hon.  John  Abercromby. 


Ordinary  Members  of  Council. 

W.  G.  Burn-Murdoch. 

Ebenezer  Duncan,  M.  D.,  Glasgow. 

A.  E.  Maylard,  B.Sc,  Glasgow. 

D.  F.  Lowe,  M.A.,  LL.D. 

George  Smith,  LL.D.,  CLE. 

W.  B.  Blaikie,  F.R.S.E. 

Captain  D.  Livingstone  Bruce. 

Colonel  T.  Cadell,  V.C,  C.B. 

Colonel  Wardlaw  Ramsay. 

John  Kerr,  LL.D. 

Robert  S.  Allan,  Glasgow. 

A.  Crosbie  Turner,  Glasgow. 

A.  B.  Gilroy. 

Sir  George  W.  Baxter,  LL.D.,  Dundee. 

The   Right    Hon.  James  P.  Gibson,   Lord   Provost 

OF  Edinburgh. 
Professor  Alex.  Darroch,  M.A. 
Professor  T.  Hudson  Beare,  B.A.,  B.Sc,  M.I.C.B. 
W.  S.  Bruce,  LL.D. 
The  Hon.  Sir  William  Bilsland,  Bart.,  Lord  Provost 

of  Glasgow. 
R.  B.  Don,  Dundee. 
Robert  Sinclair,  M.D.,  Dundee. 
Professor  J.  Arthur  Thomson,  M.A.,  Abei-deen. 


CrusUea— James  Currie,  M.A.,  F.R.S.E. ;   James  R. 
Reid,  CLE. ;  F.  Grant  Ooilvie.CB.,  M.A.,  B.Sc  ; 
William  C  Smith,  K.C,  M.A.  ;  and  the  Honorary 
Treasurers,  ex  officio. 
Sonorarg  STreassutEtB— James  Currie,  M.A.,  F.R.S.E., 
Edinburgh;    Robert  Gourlay,   LL.D.,   Bank    of 
Scotland,  Glasgow, 
i^onorarp     Stcrttartea  —  Ralph     Richardson,     W.S., 
F.R.S.E. ;  John  George  Bartholomew,  F.R.S.E. 
Glasgow :  A.  Crosbie  Turner,  65  Bath  Street. 
Dundee :  David  Wylie,  38  Reform  Street. 
Aberdeen :  R.  W.  K.  Bain,  375  Union  Street. 


ionorarg  lEUitor— Professor  James  Geikik,    D.C.L., 
LL.D.,  F.R.S. 


l^onorarg    ILibrarian— J. 
F.R.S.E. 


Burgess,     CLE.,     LL.D., 


l^onorarg  iWap=Cutator— Colonel  James  Sconce. 

auSitorg— Macandrew  and  Blaie,  C.A. 

Secrctarg  anS  STreaaurer— Major  W.  Lachlan  Fobbbb 
Gate  R.F.). 

ffilJitor— Marion  I.  Newbigin,  D.Sc. 

ffijjuf  CUrft— George  Walker. 


SOCIETY'S  HALL :  NATIONAL  PORTRAIT  GALLERY,  EDINBURGH. 

TELEPHONE:  1989  CENTRAL.  TELEGRAMS:   GEOGRAPHY,   EDINBURGH. 


ROYAL  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  SOCIETY. 


CONDITIONS  AND  PRIVILEGES  OF  MEMBERSHIP. 

It  is  provided  by  Chapter  i.  §  iv.  of  the  Constitution  and  Laws 
of  the  Koyal  Scottish  Geographical  Society,  that — 

"  The  Ordinary  Members  shall  he  those  who  are  approved  by  the 
Council,  and  tvho  iiay  the  ordinary  annual  sitbscrijjtion,  or  a  com- 
position for  life-membership." 

The  Annual  Subscription  is  One  Guinea,  and  is  payable  in 
advance  at  the  commencement  of  each  Session.  A  Member  may 
compound  for  Life-Membership  by  payment  as  follows,  viz. : — 
When  under  ten  years'  standing,  £20 ;  when  over  ten  and  under 
twenty  years,  £15;  when  over  twenty  and  under  30  years,  £10; 
when  over  thirty  years'  standing,  £5, 

The  Official  Year,  or  Session,  of  the  Society  is  from  November  1st 
to  October  31st.  New  Members  are  required  to  pay  the  Subscrip- 
tion for  the  Session  in  which  they  join  the  Society,  at  whatever 
period,  and  they  are  entitled  to  receive  the  ordinary  publications 
of  that  Session.  Resignations,  to  take  effect,  must  be  lodged  with 
the  Secretary  before  the  commencement  of  a  new  Session. 

The  privileges  of  Membership  include  admission  (with  one  Guest) 
to  the  Ordinary  monthly  Meetings  of  the  Society,  and  the  use  of  the 
Library  and  ]\Iap-Koom.  Non-resident  Members  may  borrow  books 
from  the  Library,  but  they  must  defray  the  cost  of  transit  both  ways. 
Each  Member  is  entitled  to  receive,  free  by  post,  the  Scottish  Geo- 
graphical Magazine,  which  is  published  monthly  by  the  Society. 

Teacher  Associate  Membershii'. — The  Eoyal  Scottish  Geogra- 
phical Society,  at  a  Meeting  held  in  the  Society's  Rooms  on  the 
8th  November  1906,  resolved  that,  with  the  object  of  helping  to 
promote  the  teaching  of  Geography  in  Schools,  "  Teacher  Associates  " 
(including  Lady  Teachers)  be  admitted  to  certain  privileges  of  the 
Society  at  a  reduced  Subscription  of  Half-a-Guinea,  payable  in 
advance  at  the  commencement  of  each  Session, 

The  privileges  of  Associate  Membership  include  one  ticket  of 
admission  (not  transferable,  and  admitting  only  one)  to  the  Ordinary 
^Meetings  of  the  Society,  the  use  of  the  Society's  Kooms,  and  the 
right  to  borrow  one  volume  from  the  Library.  Non-resident  Associate 
Members  may  borrow  books  from  the  Library,  but  they  must  defray 
the  cost  of  transit  both  ways.  Each  Associate  Member  is  entitled 
to  receive,  free  by  post,  the  Scottish  Geographical  Magazine,  which  is 
published  monthly  by  the  Society. 

Branches  of  the  Society  have  been  established  in  Glasgow, 
Dundee,  and  Aberdeen,  where  periodical  Meetings  are  held. 


COl^TENTS. 


VOL.    XXIII:  1907. 


No.   I.— JANUARY. 


Ger graphical  Ideal?.     By  Sir  George  Taubman  Goldie,  F.E.S.,  D.C.L., 

LL.D.,  President  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society, 

Geographical  Photography.     By  John  Thomson,    . 

The  Dead  Heart  of  Australia  :  A  Review,  . 

The  Volcanoes  of  Mexico,    .... 

Western  Tibet  and  the  British  Borderland, 

The  Pagan  Races  of  the  Malay  Peninsula,  . 

Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society, 

Geographical  Notes,  ..... 

The  Mungo  Park  Centenary — Report  of  the  Malta  Fever  Commission — 
The  Stein  Expedition  to  Eastern  Turkestan — The  French  ArchEeological 
Expedition  to  Central  Asia — Journey  to  Western  Tibet— The  Result  of  the 
Foureau-Lamy  Mission — New  Turco-Egyptian  Frontier — The  San  Francisco 
Earthquake  and  the  Bogoslof  Islands — The  Geography  of  Alaska — The 
"World's  Production  of  Rubber— The  Industrial  Situation  in  the  Southern 
United  States. 

Educational, ......... 

New  Books,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . 

Books  received,  ........ 

{Portrait,  Map,  and  Illustrations.) 


1 

14 
19 
25 
28 
33 
39 
41 


49 
51 
55 


No.  II.— FEBRUARY. 

H.S.H.  The  Prince  of  Monaco,        ..... 

The  Niger  Basin  and  Mungo  Park.    By  Sir  Harry  H.  Johnston,  G.C.M.G. 

K.C.B., 

On  the  Frontier  of  the  Western  Shire,  British  Central  Africa.     By  H 

Cravpford  Angus,  ...... 

The  Upper  Ituri.     By  J.  Penman  Browne,  M.E.,  . 
Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society, 


57 

58 

72 
86 
95 


viii  CONTENTS. 

Geographical  Notes,  ........ 

Errata  —  Expedition  to  Bui niah— Ruwtnzoii  — Earthquake  in  Jamaica— 
^^eteorology  in  the  Antarctic— The  Peary  Arctic  Expedition— The  Amundsen 
Polar  Expedition— New  Arctic  Expedition— The  Duke  of  Orleans'  Green- 
land Expedition— Scottish  National  Antarctic  Expedition— Tlie  Italian 
Geographical  Congress  of  1907— The  Geographical  Association— Ninth 
International  Geographical  Congress. 

Educational, 

New  Books,    ......... 

Books  received,         ........ 

(Portrait,  Ma2)s,  and  Illustrations.) 


95 


101 
103 
112 


No.  III.— MARCH. 

Meteorological  Researches   in  the   High  Atmosphere.     By  H.S.H.  The 

Prince  of  Monaco,      .  .  .  .  .113 

The  Transition  of  British  Africa.     By  Major  A.  St.  H.  Gibbons,  F.R.G.S.,         122 

Prince  Charles  Foreland.     By  William  S.  Bruce,  F.R.S.E.,  .  .         141 

Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society,     .  .  156 

Geographical  Notes,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .157 

Professor  Sir  William  Ramsay,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  Litt.D.— The  Flora  of  an 
Island— The  Survey  of  Lake  Balaton— Dr.  Sven  Hedin's  Expedition — The 
Alexander-Gosling  Expedition — Scottish  National  Antarctic  Expedition — 
New  Antarctic  Expedition — The  Anglo-American  Polar  Expedition — 
Personal— Geographical  Congresses. 

Educational,  .........  161 

New  Maps,    .........  163 

Atlases  and  World  Maps,     .......  165 

Books  received,         ........  166 

{Portrait,  Map,  and  Illustrations.) 


No.  IV.— APRIL. 


By  Marion   I. 

169 

By   Lionel  W. 

192 

202 

205 

The   Swiss  Valais :  A   Study  in   Regional  Geography. 

Newbigin,  D.Sc.  (Lond.), 
The    Rivers    of    Scotland :    The    Beauly   and   Conon. 

Hinxman,  B.A.,  F.R.S.E., 
The  Black  Man's  Mind,         .... 
Geographical  Notes,  ..... 

Old  Italian  Charts— The  Lake  of  Pangong— A  New  Volcanic  Island— A  New 
Zealand  Geyser— The  Geological  Survey  of  New  Zealand— The  Structure 
and  Topography  of  Graham  Land — Meteorology  in  the  Antarctic — New 
Arctic  Expedition— The  Production  of  Cereals  in  France— The  Commercial 
and  Colonial  Expansion  of  Modern  States — Rubber  Cultivatiou  in  Ceylon — 
The  British  Association. 

Educational, ......... 


212 


CONTENTS. 

New  Books,  ......... 

Books  received,  ........ 

(Illustrations,  Maps,  and  Diagrams.) 

No.  V.  -MAY. 

The  Swiss  Valais  :  A  Study  in  Regional  Geography.  By  Marion  I.  New- 
bigin,  D.Sc.  (Lend.),  ...... 

Cossacks  and  Cossackdom.  By  V.  Dingelstedt,  Corr.  Member  of  the 
R.S.G.S., 

Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society,    . 

Geographical  Notes,  ........ 

The  Lagoons  of  Venice — Sven  Hedin's  Expedition — The  New  Volcanic  Island 
off  Burma — The  Wellman  Polar  Expedition — New  Belgian  Antarctic  Expedi- 
tion— The  Problem  of  the  Eeturn  Trade-winds— The  Royal  Geographical 
Society's  Annual  Awards — The  Scottish  Meteorological  Society — New  Rail- 
ways in  Switzerland. 

Educational, . 
New  Books,   . 
New  Maps,    . 
Atlases, 
Books  received, 


{Maps  and  Illustrations.) 


IX 

PAGE 

214 
223 


225 

239 
261 
261 


266 

268 

277 
279 
279 


No.  VI.— JUNE. 

Some  Old  Mexican  Volcanoes.     By  Henry  M.  Cadell,  B.Sc,  F.R.S.E.,     .         281 
Geographical  Notes,  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .312 

The  Sierra  Nevada  and  the  Alpujarra — Glaciation  and  Volcanic  Deposits  near 
Rome— The  History  of  the  Scandinavian  Flora — The  French  Census  of  1906 
— The  Colony  of  Erythrea — Welwitschia  and  Climatic  Change  in  Damara- 
land — Inter-Oceanic  Canals  in  Colombia — Rate  of  Recession  of  Niagara 
Falls — The  Anglo-American  Polar  Expedition — Prince  Charles  Foreland, 
Spitsbergen— The  Water  Supply  of  Egypt— Niger  Railway— Retirement  of 
Professor  Emile  A.  Goeldi. 

Educational,  .........  320 

New  Books,  ........  322 

Books  received,  ...  .....  335 

(Map  and  Illustrations.) 


No.  VII.— JULY. 

Address  to  the  Australasian  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science, 

Adelaide  Meeting,  1907.     By  T.  W.  Fowler,  .  .  .         337 

Bathymetrical  Survey  of  the  Fresh-Water  Lochs  of  Scotland.  Under  the 
Direction  of  Sir  John  Murray,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  D.Sc,  etc.,  and 
Laurence  Pullar,  F.R.S.E.,     ......         346 

The  Vagaries  of  the  Colorado  River.     By  J.  W.  Redway,  F.R.G.S.,  .         360 

The  Vegetation  of  Western  Australia  :  a  Review,  .  .  .  363 

'        b 


X  CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

The  Southern  Highlands  from  Glasgow.      By  John  Frew,  M.A.,  B.Sc, 

and  Frederick  Mort,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  F.G.S.,     .  .  .  .367 

The  British  Antarctic  Expedition,  1907.     By  E.  H.  Sbackleton,  .  .         372 

The  Future  of  Japan  :  A  Review,    ......         374 

Geographical  Notes,  ........         377 

The  Fauna  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland — The  Distribution  of  the  Population 
of  Lower  Languedoc— The  Origin  of  the  River  System  of  North  Belgium — 
The  British  Museum  Expedition  to  Central  Africa — The  Rainfall  of  German 
West  Africa — Glacial  Erosion  in  Alaska — Chamois  in  New  Zealand — Fauna 
and  Flora  of  Spitsbergen— The  Second  Belgian  Antarctic  Expedition — The 
Wellnian  Polar  Expedition^New  Antarctic  Expedition — Progress  of  Argen- 
tina— Minerals  in  Ireland — The  Harbour  of  Bruges — Railwaj*  Schemes  in 
Switzerland— Personal. 
Educational,  .........        385 

New  Books,  .........        388 

Books  received,         .  .  .  .  .  .391 

{Map  and  Figures.) 


No.  VIII.— AUGUST. 

Notes  and  Observations  on  an  Expedition  in  the  Western  Cape  Colony. 

By  Lieut.  J.  A.  G.  Elliot,      ......         393 

Athens.     Notes  on  a  Recent  Visit.     By  Ralph  Richardson,  Hon.  Sec. 

R.S.G.S., 422 

Obituary  :  Dr.  Alexander  Buchan.     By  Hugh  Robert  Mill,  D.Sc,  .         427 

Geographical  Notes,  .  .  .  .431 

The  Variations  of  Lake  Chad— The  Benguela-Katanga  Railway— Salton  Sea 

—North  Polar  Problems— The  Franklin  Search  Expedition— The  British 

Antarctic     Expedition,      1907  —  Personal  —  International     Congress     of 

Orientalists. 

Educational,  .........  436 

New  Books,  .........  437 

New  Maps,    .........  446 

New  Atlases,  ........  447 

(Map  and  Illustrations.) 


No.  IX.— SEPTEMBER. 

Old  Scottish  Volcanoes.  By  Professor  James  Geikie,  LL.D.,  D.C.L., 
F.R.S., 

The  Mergui  Archipelago  :  Its  People  and  Products.  By  R.  N.  Rudmose 
Brown,  B.Sc,  •••.... 

Irrigation  Projects  in  the  United  States,      ..... 

Geographical  Notes,  ........ 

The  Ben  Nevis  Observatory— Expedition  to  Central  Asia— The  Peopling  of 
Algeria— Expedition  to  South  America— The  Scottish  Arctic  Expedition— 
The  British  Antarctic  Expedition— Commander  Peary's  New  Expedition— 
The  French  Antarctic  Expedition— Railways  in  Nigeria— Personal. 


449 

463 

484 
488 


Educational,  . 
New  Books,  . 
Books  received, 


CONTENTS. 


(Illustrations.) 


XI 

PAGE 

492 
493 
504 


No.  X.— OCTOBER. 

Geography  and  Commerce.     By  George  G.  Chisholm,  M.A.,  B.Sc,  .         505 

The  Place  of  Origin  of  the  Moon — The  Volcanic  Problem.     By  Professor 

William  H.  Pickering,  Harvard  University,  .  .  .         523 

The    Jamaica    Earthquake.     By   Professor   Charles   W.  Brown,  Brown 

University     ........         535 

Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society,    .  .  .         543 

Geographical  Notes,  .......         545 

The  Geology  of  .Japan — The  Hydrography  of  the  Sangpo — The  Nyasaland 
Protectorate — Plant-zones  on  Mt.  Ruwenzori— French  Guiana — The  Sierra 
Maestra  of  Cuba — Population  of  Commonwealth  of  Australia — The  Anglo- 
American  Polar  Expedition — Mr.  Harrison's  Arctic  Expedition — The  Well- 
man  Polar  Expedition — The  Ninth  International  Geographical  Congress — 
The  Economic  Development  of  Japan. 
Educational, .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .551 

New  Books,  .........         552 

Books  received,  ........         559 

(Illustrations.) 


No.  XI.— NOVEMBER. 

The  New  Fields  of  Geography,  especially  Commercial  Geography.     By 

Prof.  Dr.  Max  Eckert  (Aachen),        .....         561 

Ancient  Khotan  :  A  Review,  ......         568 

Manuscript  Maps  by  Pont,  the  Gordons,  and  Adair,  in  the  Advocates' 

Library,  Edinburgh.     By  C.  G.  Cash,  F.R.S.G.S.,    .  .  .574 

The  Leicester  Meeting  of  the  British  Association,   ....         593 

Geographical  Notes,  ........         598 

The  Anglo-Russian  Agreement— Dr.  Stein's  Expedition — Dr.  Sven  Hedin's 
Expedition — Lake  Chad  and  the  Yo  River — The  Surveys  of  British  Africa 
— The  Frontier  of  Liberia — The  Scottish  Arctic  Expedition — The  Prince  of 
Monaco's  Spitsbergen  Expedition — Mr.  Harrison's  Expedition — Cruise  of 
the    Belgica,   July-September    1907 — Centenary    of    London    Geological 
Society — The    Nyasaland    Railway — Commercial    Possibilities    of    West 
Africa — Personal. 
Educational,  .........         606 

New  Books,  .........         608 

New  Maps,    .........         613 

Books  received,         .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .616 

(Map.) 


xil  CONTENTS. 

No.  XIL— DECEMBEE. 

PAGE 

Geography  and  Statecraft.     By  the  Right  Hon.  Viscount  Milner,  P.O., 
G.C.B.,  G.C.M.G.,  Gold  Medallist   of  the   Royal   Scottish   Geo- 
graphical Society,       .  .617 
The   Study  of  the  Weather  as  a   Branch   of  Nature  Knowledge.     By 

Marion  I.  Newbigin,  D.Sc,  .....  627 

Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society,     .  .  .         648 

Obituary,       .........         651 

Geographical  Notes,  ........         652 

Report  on  the  Progress  of  the  Ordnance  Survey — Bennett  Island — Upper 
Burma — The  Frontier  of  Liberia— Expedition  to  the  Arctic — The  Anglo- 
American  Polar  Expedition — The  Agricultural    Development    of   Mada- 
gascar. 
Educational,  .........         658 

New  Books,  .........         659 

Books  received,  ........         667 

Report  of  Council,     ........         669 

{Portrait,  Map  and  Illustrations.) 

Index    .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .        673 


THK  lili.HT  Hon.  81K  GEUKUE  TAL  IJ.MAN  GOLUIE,  I'.C,  K.C.M.G 
Gold  Medallist  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society. 


D.C.L.,  LL.D. 


THE    SCOTTISH 

GEOGRAPHICAL 

MAGAZINE. 


GEOGRAPHICAL  IDEALS.^ 

By  Sir  George  Taubm.a.n  Goldie,  F.R.S.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D., 
President  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society. 

GEOGRA.PHY  is  an  eminently  practical  branch  of  knowledge,  and  it  may, 
perhaps,  be  contended  that  it  has  no  place  for  ideals.  There  is,  indeed, 
a  general  aspect  of  the  subject  which  appeals  to  the  imagination  with 
almost  overwhelming  force.  To  explain  my  meaning,  let  me  first  ask 
and  answer  the  question,  What  is  the  hem  or  field  of  Geography  %  It  is 
the  surface  of  our  globe,  in  which  term  we  also  include  the  atmosphere 
and  such  depths  of  the  lithosphere  and  hydrosphere  as  are  or  have 
been  penetrated  or  examined  by  man  ;  so  that,  to  a  large  extent,  it 
coincides  with  the  locus  or  field  of  biology,  although  the  contents  of  the 
two  sciences  are,  of  course,  very  different.  The  exactness  of  my  defini- 
tion may  be  disputed,  but  it  is  sufficiently  accurate  for  my  purpose. 
The  entire  field  of  geography  is,  in  any  case,  only  a  thin  film  of  air, 
earth  and  water  rotating  and  advancing  amongst  the  immensities  of 
the  stellar  system.  But  this  exiguous  film,  insignificant  in  dimensions 
as  compared  even  with  the  volume  of  our  small  planet,  contains  all 
that  we  know  of  thought  and  sensation  existing  in  the  universe. 
Speculate  as  we  may,  hope  as  we  may,  believe  as  we  may,  this  minute 
and  whirling  field  of  geography  is  to  us  the  only  place  in  which,  so 
far  as  our  present  knowledge  goes,  those  phenomena  exist  which 
differentiate  life  from  inert  matter,  the  only  field  where  the  mysteries 
of  reproduction,  volition,  reason,  and  imagination  have  their  home. 

But  apart  from  this  general   aspect    of  an   awe-inspiring  and   yet 

1  An   address  delivered  at   the   Opening   Meeting    of   the    Society   in  Edinburgh   on 
November  22. 

VOL.  XXIII.  A 


2  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

fantastic  i^osition,  the  science  of  geography  is  essentially  utilitarian. 
Why  then  should  it  need  ideals  ?  The  answer,  to  my  mind,  is  that 
in  order  to  produce  the  most  effective  practical  work  in  any  depart- 
ment of  life,  it  is  necessary  to  have  ideals ;  even  though  we  can  no 
more  hope  to  attain  them  absolutely  than  the  asymptote  can  actually 
reach  the  curve  which  it  is  ever  approaching.  Counsels  of  perfection 
are,  indeed,  so  often  employed  as  a  reason  for  ill-considered  action,  or  as 
an  excuse  for  inaction,  that  it  is  easy  to  understand  the  impatience 
with  which  they  are  generally  brushed  aside  by  the  practical  but  not 
highly  imaginative  Englishman ;  but  when  they  are  set  up  only  as 
goals  towards  which  we  should  struggle,  by  paths  however  devious,  by 
successions  of  compromises,  with  well-timed  haste  and  with  well-timed 
rest,  their  value  cannot  be  overestimated.  I  can  think  of  no  finer 
example  of  this  truth  than  is  to  be  found  in  the  life  of  David  Living- 
stone, who  was  at  once  an  idealist  and  a  practical  woiker  in  the  highest 
degree,  and  who  may  also  be  held  to  have  approached  as  nearly  as  human 
nature  permits  to  our  conception  of  an  ideal  explorer.  > 

Exploration. — I  propose  to  deal,  in  the  first  place,  with  the  ideal 
explorer,  partly  because  of  the  occasion  which  brings  me  here  to-night, 
the  award  of  the  Livingstone  medal,  but  mainly  because  exploration 
in  the  present  or  in  the  past  is  the  very  foundation  on  which  all 
geography  rests.  Whether  the  term  exploration  be  applied  to  travel 
amongst  barbarous  tribes  in  the  heart  of  an  unknown  continent,  or  to 
the  peripatetic  examination  of  some  geographical  problem  in  one's  own 
country,  the  category  of  the  most  efifective  qualities  of  character  and 
method  remains  much  the  same,  however  different  may  be  the  degree  in 
which  those  qualities  are  called  upon  to  be  displayed. 

With  an  almost  unprecedented  store  of  the  more  passive  qualities  of 
physical  courage,  tact,  patience  and  endurance,  which  a  long  life  of 
dangers,  obstacles,  privations  and  sickness  could  not  exhaust,  Livingstone 
possessed  an  equally  remarkable  store  of  those  more  active  qualities, 
which  many  men  have  shown  for  shorter  periods,  but  which  few  have 
been  able  to  maintain  as  he  did,  during  decade  after  decade,  the  power 
of  initiative,  the  almost  unerring  perception  of  the  most  effective  ways 
of  attaining  his  objects  with  the  very  limited  resources  at  his  disposal, 
the  unwearying  persistence  in  pursuing  those  objects,  and  perhaps,  above 
all,  the  moral  courage  with  which  he  continually  risked  one  of  the  most 
depressing  of  human  calamities,  failure.  With  the  exception  of  physical 
courage  and  endurance,  the  need  for  which  in  geographical  exploration 
is  rapidly  disappearing,  these  passive  and  active  qualities  of  character 
will  always  remain  essential,  though  in  a  lesser  degree,  to  the  investi- 
gator of  nature  abroad  or  at  home. 

As  regards  Livingstone's  qualities  of  method  I  would  specially  deal 
with  his  adaptation  and  cultivation  of  his  mental  acquirements  for 
service  in  eveiy  branch  of  the  work  which  he  set  himself  to  perform. 
Geographers  are,  perhaps,  apt  to  forget,  and  missionary  societies,  at  one 
period  of  his  life,  certainly  forgot  that  although  Livingstone  ranks  as  the 
most  notable  explorer  of  modern  days,  taking  into  account  the  great 
number  of  years  over  which  his  services  extended,  he  was  (one  may  say) 


GEOGRAPHICAL   IDEALS.  6 

born  a  missionary,  he  lived  a  missionary,  he  died  a  nii&sionary.  He 
foresaw,  wlien  still  a  youth,  that  for  this  work  a  medical  education 
would  be  invaluable,  a  truth  which  was  not  so  widely  appreciated  in 
those  days  as  it  is  now.  The  story  of  his  extreme  privations  and 
difficulties  in  obtaining  the  desired  education  in  surgery  and  medicine, 
while  barely  earning  his  living  in  a  factory,  is  at  once  pathetic  and 
bracing,  but  my  business  is  only  to  note  that  if  he  had  not  acquired  that 
knowledge  it  would  not  have  been  a  question  of  his  succeeding  less 
completely  as  an  explorer ;  it  would  have  meant  his  entire  failure  at  an 
early  stage  of  his  exploration?.  Of  similar  character  was  his  thorough 
acquaintance  with  the  use  of  tools  which  he  foresaw  would  be  of  some 
value  when  he  became  a  missionary,  and  which  proved  of  incalculable 
value  when  he,  at  a  later  period,  superimposed  on  that  calling  the  career 
of  an  explorer.  Fortunately  also,  for  general  science,  Livingstone  had, 
as  a  boy,  taken  great  interest  in  botany,  geology  and  zoology,  and  had 
devoted  his  leisure  to  searches  for  specimens  in  the  country  surrounding 
his  home.  At  a  later  period,  he  cultivated  to  his  utmost  power  his 
acquaintance  with  these  branches  of  knowledge,  with  the  result  that  the 
great  value  of  his  contributions  from  Africa  was  recognised  by  the  most 
competent  authorities.  I  need  only  refer  to  the  testimony  of  no  less  a 
person  than  Professor  Owen  as  regards  Livingstone's  contributions  to 
zoology  and  paleontology,  to  the  repeated  tribute  which  Sir  Eoderick 
Murchison  paid  to  his  services  to  geology  and  physical  geography,  and 
to  the  following  remark  made  by  the  then  astronomer-royal  at  the  Cape. 
"  I  never  knew  a  man,"  said  Sir  Thomas  Maclear,  "  who,  knowing 
scarcely  anything  of  the  method  of  making  geographical  observations  or 
laying  down  positions,  became  so  soon  an  adept,  that  he  could  take  the 
complete  lunar  observation  and  altitudes  for  time  within  fifteen  minutes." 
I  quote  this  verbatim  because  it  shows  the  intensity  and  whole-hearted- 
ness  with  which  Livingstone  threw  himself  into  any  new  study  which 
his  new  career  demanded,  but  the  need  of  which  he  could  not  foresee 
until  he  determined  to  abandon  his  South  African  mission  station  for 
exploration  in  unknown  lands. 

The  special  branches  of  knowledge  in  which  Livingstone  trained  and 
perfected  himself  are  not,  of  course,  all  needed  for  explorers  in  every 
part  of  the  world,  or  in  every  branch  of  exploration  in  its  widest  and 
truest  sense.  The  explorer  who  travels  round  the  shores  of  Britain  to 
examine  the  conditions  of  coast  erosion  will  not  need  for  this  purpose 
the  particular  mental  equipment  with  which  Livingstone  armed  himself, 
such  as  medical  knowledge,  skill  in  the  use  of  tools,  acquaintance  with 
botany  and  zoology,  ability  to  take  accurate  astronomical  observations  ; 
but  he  will  need,  as  fully  as  Livingstone  needed,  whatever  special 
acquirements  his  object  demands,  and  he  will  approach  the  ideal  explorer 
in  exact  proportion  to  his  previous  cultivation  of  the  necessary  technical 
knowledge  and  powers  of  scientific  observation,  and  to  the  character 
which  he  displays  in  the  pursuit  of  his  labours.  Tact,  persistence  and 
moral  courage  are  hardly  less  essential  to  genuine  success  in  civilised 
lands  than  they  are  in  barbarous  regions,  and  it  is  indeed  an  open  ques- 
tion whether  African  chiefs,  in  the  days  of  their  independence,  were  not. 


4  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

as  a  rule,  less  unsatisfactory  to  deal  with  than  the  governments  of  our 
own  and  neighbouring  countries, 

Cartor/rophij. — Upon  the  foundation  of  exploration,  in  its  wider 
meaning,  geography  constructs  its  basement  of  cartography  on  which 
must  rest  the  entire  superstructure  of  the  science,  so  that  our  next 
question  concerns  the  ideals  towards  which  cartographers  should  ad- 
vance. Many  years  ago  the  late  Elisee  Eeclus,  perhaps  the  greatest 
geographer  of  the  generation  now  passing  away,  strongly  advocated 
before  the  Royal  Geographical  Society  a  method  which  must,  I  fear, 
long  remain  only  an  ideal,  namely  the  use  of  relief  globes,  or  sections  of 
globes,  of  such  dimensions — say  on  the  scale  of  I  to  100,000 — that  even 
heights  of  150  feet  would  be  distinctly  shown,  without  adopting  the  usual 
method  in  relief  maps  of  exaggerating  the  proportional  height  of  hills 
and  mountains.  On  globes  of  such  dimensions  the  geological  and 
ecological  features  of  the  surface  could  also  be  displayed  in  considerable 
detail.  After  quoting  the  view  urged  many  years  ago  by  a  scientist, 
whom  he  justly  termed  "  one  of  our  eminent  geographers,  Dr.  H.  R, 
Mill,"  that  "  accurate  cartographic  representation  is  the  very  essence  of 
geography,"  Elisee  Reclus  proceeded  to  point  out  that  "  there  is  only  one 
way  to  represent  truly  the  surface  of  the  earth.  Curves  are  to  be 
translated  in  carves.  ,  .  .  Therefore  are  we  really  astonished  that  public 
attention  and  the  special  care  of  geographers  are  so  little  attracted 
towards  this  logical  mode  of  geographical  work."  He  noted  that  globes 
of  considerable  dimensions — up  to  the  scale  of  one  millionth — had 
indeed  been  made  for  exhibition  purposes,  but  that  these  had  *'  made  no 
pretence  to  accuracy  in  geography  proper."  He  might  have  added  that, 
on  so  small  a  scale,  such  globes  would  have  been  useless  for  effective 
hypsometrical  representation  as  regards  regions  where  the  elevations 
were  generally  less  than  3000  feet,  so  that  while  Scotland  would  display 
some  of  her  beautiful  hypsometrical  features,  England  would  show  a 
somewhat  plain  face.  It  will  not  be  denied  that  there  is  immense  force 
in  Elis6e  Reclus's  proposals.  Under  the  existing  system  of  education  boys 
are  taught  to  think  of  the  earth's  surface  only  in  terms  of  plane 
trigonometry  ;  and  although  this  method  is  approximately  accurate  over 
small  areas,  it  is  absolutely  misleading  when  the  areas  are  large,  the 
globes  in  ordinary  use  being  so  small  as  to  make  it  difficult  for  a  boy  to 
co-ordinate  them  in  thought  with  the  flat  maps  presented  to  him  of 
individual  countries.  Moreover,  it  is  one  of  the  important  advantages 
of  real  geographical  study,  as  it  is  of  the  study  of  astronomy,  that  the 
mind  is  trained  to  think  in  terms  of  both  spherical  and  plane  trigono- 
metry; and  this  double  standpoint  gives  the  student  that  stereoscopic 
view  of  nature  which  is  essential  in  every  department  of  thought,  if 
existence  is  to  be  appreciated  as  a  solid  reality  instead  of  as  a  flat  and 
unsubstantial  picture.  The  more  effective  qualities  of  the  average 
officer  of  the  navy  or  the  mercantile  marine  (as  compared  Avith  the 
average  landsman  of  equal  general  education)  are  everywhere  recognised, 
and  are,  doubtless,  due  to  several  concurrent  causes  ;  but  it  does  not 
seem  to  me  far-fetched  to  attribute  them  in  some  part  to  his  studies  in 
navigation  which  necessitate   his   acquisition  of  the   habit  of   viewing 


GEOGRAPHICAL   IDEALS.  O 

space  from  a  double  standpoint.  In  elucidation  of  my  meaning  I  would 
recall  a  remark  made  to  me  many  years  ago  by  a  great  pliilologist  that 
when  a  man  for  the  first  time  studies  another  language  than  his  own, 
he  acquires  ideas  on  language  generally  which  would  otherwise  have 
always  remained  unknown,  and  even  inconceivable  to  him.  One  of  our 
leading  statesmen  invented  the  hapj^y  phrase  "  Learn  to  think  imperially." 
I  would  say  to  the  young  geograi)her,  learn  to  think  spherically. 

Before  leaving  Elisee  Reclus's  proposals  for  exhibiting  the  earth's 
surface  on  curves  and  in  relief  with  the  same  scale  for  plan  and  eleva- 
tions, I  feel  compelled  to  protest,  of  course  with  the  greatest  deference, 
against  the  unmitigated  scorn  and  condemnation  which  he  and  some 
other  eminent  geographers  have  heaped  upon  the  usual  system  of  relief 
maps  or  globes  which  exaggerate  the  proportional  height  of  hills.  Until 
we  reach  Reclus's  ideal  of  globes  or  sections  of  sufficient  dimensions  to 
depict  the  true  hypsometrical  proportions,  and  until  such  globes  or 
sections  can  be  so  multiplied  as  to  be  within  reach  of  every  school 
throughout  the  civilised  world,  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  an  average  boy 
is  to  acquire,  without  the  aid  of  the  ordinary  relief  map,  an  initial  grasp 
of  the  morphology  of  an  extensive  region.  No  doubt  the  use  of  the 
ordinary  relief  map  must  be  accompanied  by  careful  explanation  of  the 
difference  of  the  vertical  and  horizontal  scales ;  but  it  does  not  require 
much  imagination  in  the  student  to  make  the  necessary  mental  adjust- 
ments. Those  of  you  who  have,  when  bicycling  or  motoring,  used  a 
guide-book  giving  profiles  of  the  roads  with  a  vertical  scale  several 
times  as  large  as  the  horizontal  scale,  will,  I  feel  sure,  confirm  this  view. 
My  protest  arises  from  personal  experience.  It  was  not  until  at  the  age 
of  nineteen  I  visited  Switzerland  and  Germany,  which,  even  at  that 
date,  possessed  excellent  relief  maps,  with  of  course  exaggerated  heights, 
that  morphology  became  a  reality  to  me ;  and  there  must  be  millions 
who,  like  myself,  have  not  been  gifted  with  an  innate  initial  power  of 
full  realisation  from  representation  by  projection,  where  perspective 
cannot  be  called  in  to  assist.  Once  the  sentiment  of  reality  is  fully 
established  by  the  aid  of  relief  representations  of  a  region  over  which 
one  moves,  flat  projections  become  for  ever  as  communicative  as  they 
are  to  those  more  fortunate  persons  who  are  born  cartographers. 

For  the  present,  Reclus's  gigantic  globes  or  sections  of  globes  are  not 
available  and  we  must  do  the  best  that  we  can  to  improve  our  flat  maps. 
The  ideal  flat  map  would  include  every  datum  with  which  the  science 
of  Geography  in  its  most  advanced  state  would  deal.  It  would  repre- 
sent all  the  great  physical  features  of  the  earth's  surface,  land  and  water 
in  all  their  various  forms,  mountains  and  hills,  valleys,  plains,  plateaus 
and  depressions,  oceans,  inland  seas,  lakes  and  rivers.  It  would  show 
both  the  hypsometrical  features  of  the  lithosphere  and  the  bathymetrical 
features  of  the  hydrosphere.  It  would  indicate  in  a  general  way  the 
surface  geology.  It  would  mark  the  average  rainfall  and  prevailing 
temperature.  It  would  show  the  main  economic  or  ecological  charac- 
teristics of  regions  represented  on  a  small  scale,  and  would  deal  in 
detail,  on  a  large  scale,  with  regions  calling  for  special  attention  ;  while 
in  wholly  undeveloped  parts  of  the  world,  the  characteristics  of   the 


6  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

surface  would  be  exhibited,  such  as  forest,  prairie  or  other  grass  lands, 
desert  and  swamp.  It  would  indicate  the  distribution  of  life  in  its 
various  forms,  showing  the  leading  features  of  vegetable  life,  and  the 
principal  types  of  wild  animals,  where  such  existed.  So  far,  however, 
the  ideal  map  would  exhibit  only  the  framework  in  which  humanity  is 
set,  the  theatre  on  which  man  has  to  play  his  part.  To  make  it 
complete,  it  must  show  the  distribution  of  various  types  of  mankind 
over  the  face  of  the  earth,  the  boundaries  of  states,  the  density  of  popu- 
lation, and  to  some  extent  the  general  results  of  man's  interference  with 
natural  conditions,  or  what  is  generally  regarded  as  political  and  economic 
geography.  I  do  not  pretend  to  have  exhausted  all  that  it  should 
exhibit.  I  have  only  pointed  out  leading  features  that  it  should  not 
omit ;  and  I  may  sum  up  by  saying  that  the  ideal  map  of  a  region  should 
contain  in  cartographical  symbols  all  the  information  which  would  be 
necessary  to  a  student  who  wished  to  write  a  complete  geographical 
memoir  of  the  region ;  for  cartography  is  the  basis  of  all  sound 
geography.  Such  a  map  is  at  present  only  an  ideal  which  should  be 
striven  after  by  all  conscientious  and  competent  cartographers,  as  far  as 
is  now  practicable.  The  question  of  the  best  methods  and  symbols  to 
be  employed  must  be  left  for  discussion  by  cartographical  experts,  who 
appear,  however,  to  have  widely  differing  views  on  the  subject;  but 
criticism  is  permissible  to  those  who  have  not  constructive  or  creative 
genius,  and  I  may  point  out  one  method  which  is  clearly  unscientific. 
One  has  seen  maps  issued  from  time  to  time  under  the  title  of  com- 
mercial maps,  and  professing  to  show  the  distribution  of  products  and 
industries,  in  which  the  names  of  these  seemed  as  if  they  had  been  dis- 
tributed over  the  sheet  by  means  of  a  pepper  box.  Horses,  silk,  cattle, 
iron,  sheep,  grass,  pigs,  wheat,  wine,  and  scores  of  other  names  were 
scattered  in  a  haphazard  fashion,  which  not  only  failed  to  inform,  but 
actually  misled  any  one  unacquainted  with  the  regions  represented. 

One  of  the  most  difficult  tasks  for  the  cartographer  seems  to  be  an 
adequate  representation  of  the  hypsometrical  features  of  the  earth's 
surface.  For  certain  purposes  the  contour  map  is  very  useful,  especially 
if,  as  in  the  Swedish  Official  Survey  map,  each  contour  is  shaded  with  a 
gradually  intensified  tint  of  brown  from  the  sea-level  upwards.  A  very 
effective  metliod  of  contouring  is  that  which  Japan  adopted  some 
twenty  years  ago,  and  which  is  now  used  in  the  United  States  Geolo- 
gical and  Geographical  Survey.  This  consists  of  lines  in  a  tint  of  brown 
so  arranged  that  at  a  slight  distance  it  produces  the  effect  of  excellent 
hill  shading  :  while,  on  close  inspection,  one  is  able  to  read  the  contours. 
Perhaps,  however,  the  best  result  is  produced  when  really  good  hill 
shading  is  used  in  combination  with  contours,  as  is  the  case  with  the 
Swiss  Survey  maps.  This  method  shows  very  clearly  the  lie  of  the 
land,  while  one  can  also  read  the  contours  from  the  lowest  level  to  the 
highest.  Another  very  good  example  of  this  method  is  the  map  of 
Tunis,  on  a  scale  of  1  to  50,000,  which  has  been  recently  published  by 
the  French  Intelligence  Department.  I  feel  that  it  might  be  invidious 
to  mention  by  name  any  particular  cartographical  establishment  in 
these    islands,  or  even  on  the  continent  of   Europe,  but  I  have  little 


GEOGRAPHICAL  IDEALS.  7 

doubt  that  most  of  you  have  already  made  up  your  minds  as  to  which, 
on  the  whole,  are  the  most  useful  as  well  as  the  most  artistic  Atlases 
available  in  the  United  Kingdom.  My  chief  fear  is  that  the  majority 
of  the  general  public  who  have  not  yet  been  reached  by  the  geographical 
training  so  rapidly  spreading  on  improved  lines  all  over  the  country, 
may  form  their  estimate  of  atlases  on  their  cheapness  or  on  their  quan- 
tity and  not  their  quality,  or  on  the  number  of  names  which  are  to  be 
found  in  their  indexes.  Other  things  being  equal  and  subject  to  there 
being  no  sacrifice  of  clearness,  a  large  number  of  names  is  an  advan- 
tage, but  if  they  are  divorced  from  their  natural  physical  and  economic 
setting  they  convey  very  little  real  information.  I  hope  that  the  time 
has  passed  when  it  was  thought  that  any  production  was  good  enough 
for  a  school  map  or  a  school  atlas,  and  that  we  are  alive  to  the  obvious 
fact  that  the  maps  on  which  children  are  trained  have  no  less  importance 
than  those  which  are  for  the  use  of  adults.  It  may  not  perhaps  be  prac- 
ticable to  produce  an  atlas  in  which  all  the  maps  are  on  the  same  scale, 
but  some  confusion  in  juvenile  minds  might  perhaps  be  avoided  if  the 
maps  were  all  on  a  multiple  or  a  measure  of  a  standard  scale.  It  will,  I 
think,  be  generally  agreed  that  thex'e  is  room  to-day  for  even  a  better 
atlas  than  any  now  existing,  and  we  can  only  hope  that  with  the  spread 
of  geographical  education  the  necessary  encouragement  may  be  given  to 
publishers  to  expend  the  large  amounts  which  the  production  of  a  first- 
class  atlas  would  undoubtedly  require. 

Geogmpluj  in  War  and  Peace. — To  whatever  point  of  excellence  carto- 
graphy may  be  brought,  however,  it  can  never  be  more  than  a  means  to 
an  end,  excepting  to  a  small  number  of  artistic  minds  to  whom  a  really 
fine  map  is  a  thing  of  beauty  and  a  joy  for  ever.  The  same  principle 
applies  to  geographical  knowledge  generally,  which  may  be  its  own 
reward  to  a  few  detached  minds,  but  which  will  be  estimated  by  most 
men  at  its  practical  value  to  mankind.  A  few  words  must  therefore  be 
said  as  to  their  most  important  uses  in  war  and  peace,  and  we  may 
possibly  find  some  ideals  at  which  we  should  aim  in  these  directions.  I 
put  war  first  as  the  primitive  state  of  mankind  and  not  yet  entirely  out 
of  date.  It  is  a  moot  question  whether  war  is  more  useful  to  geography 
or  geography  to  war.  The  proposition  that  war  has  been  one  of  the 
greatest  geographers  has  been  so  frequently  expounded  at  length  and  is 
so  obvious  to  the  student  of  history  that  I  need  not  dwell  upon  it  in  this 
brief  address,  only  remarking  that  it  is  interesting  to  find  the  conviction 
of  its  truth  existing  even  in  the  United  States  where,  more  than  in  any 
other  great  country,  the  development  of  geographical  knowledge  and 
peaceful  expansion  have  gone  hand  in  hand. 

During  the  Spanish-American  War  a  well-known  scientific  authority, 
Professor  Chamberlin  of  Chicago,  pointed  out  that  the  war  might  be 
expected  to  produce  a  great  revival  of  interest  in  geography  throughout 
the  United  States.  He  concluded :  "  It  was  observed  at  the  close  of  the 
Civil  War  that  those  who  returned  from  its  campaigns  possessed  an 
appreciation  of  the  elements  of  position  and  physical  relationship  quite 
beyond  that  realised  by  the  preceding  generation  educated  under  the 
benign  influences  of  peace." 


8  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

We  now  know  that  Professor  Chamberlin's  forecast  was  correct,  the' 
Spanish-American  War  having  given  an  undoubted  acceleration  to  the 
progress  of  the  geographical  spirit  in  the  United  States  similar  to  that 
which  he  tells  us  was  observed  after  the  Civil  War. 

The  value  of  geography  in  Avar,  on  the  other  hand,  may  perhaps  be 
best  brought  home  to  our  own  countrymen  by  recalling  the  enormous 
expenditure  in  which  the  want  both  of  maps  and  of  geographical 
training  of  our  oiRcers  indirectly  involved  us  during  the  Boer  War.  I 
can  speak  confidently  on  these  points  from  having  served  (for  nearly  a 
year)  on  the  Royal  Commission  on  the  South  African  War.  It  is  a 
matter  of  deep  regret  that,  during  the  many  years  of  peace  and  colonial 
expansion  at  the  close  of  the  last  century,  Great  Britain  did  not  expend 
a  moderate  sum  annually  in  mapping  the  unsurveyed  portions  of  the 
Empire.  We  should  not  then  have  found  ourselves  attempting  to 
relieve  Ladysmith  or  advancing  to  the  Modder  Eiver  without  maps  of 
the  country.  It  is  only  fair  to  add  that  the  lesson  of  the  war,  in  this 
respect,  has  not  been  altogether  forgotten.  During  the  last  four  years 
a  certain  amount  of  money  has  been  expended  in  imperial  mapping  of 
hitherto  unsurveyed  regions ;  and  if  this  process  is  not  altogether 
arrested  by  a  spirit  of  false  economy,  we  may  possibly  at  some  distant 
date  possess  fairly  adequate  maps  of  all  British  possessions.  That  is  at 
any  rate  an  ideal  which  we  should  strive  to  attain.  As  regards  the 
want  of  geographical  training  of  our  officers,  I  have  not  time  to  cite  the 
mass  of  evidence  given  before  our  Commission  by  the  most  competent 
authorities  as  to  the  general  deficiency  in  knowledge  of  ground,  than 
which,  as  Lord  Roberts  and  others  pointed  out,  nothing  could  be  more 
important  in  war.  Even  as  regards  staff  officers,  who  have  considerably 
more  training  in  this  subject  than  the  ordinary  regimental  officers,  Lord 
Roberts  was  often  struck  with  their  inability  to  read  maps  well  or  to 
explain  quickly  and  intelligently  about  the  contours  and  elevations.  In 
this  respect  our  ideal  should  be  to  reach  the  level  attained  by  Japanese 
and  German  officers. 

Geographical  ignorance  is  a  costly  luxury  in  times  of  war,  but  it  is 
perhaps  still  more  costly  in  times  of  peace.  No  estimate,  even  of  the 
roughest  kind,  can  be  formed  of  the  vast  sums  that  have  been  wasted  in 
modern  days  through  States  collectively,  on  the  one  hand,  and  individual 
settlers,  on  the  other  hand,  attempting  to  produce  grapes  from  thorns 
and  figs  from  thistles. 

This  subject  of  the  practical  uses  of  ecology,  or  economic  geography, 
is  far  too  large  to  be  treated  here  incidentally  ;  it  would  require  an 
address  or  rather  a  series  of  addresses  to  itself.  A  mass  of  literature 
on  the  subject  already  exists;  but  this  will  probably  be  read  only  by 
specialists,  or  by  those  who  can  give  a  good  deal  of  their  time  to  scien- 
tific geography.  For  others,  the  best  short  manual  on  the  general 
question  is  still,  to  my  mind,  that  entitled  Applied  Gecgraphy,  by  Dr. 
Scott  Keltic,  who  is  recognised,  both  at  home  and  abroad,  as  one  of 
the  most  capable  and  best  informed  geographers  of  this  or  any  other 
countiy.  I  understand  that  he  is  a  Scotsman  ;  and  as  I  am  speaking 
to  a  Scottish  audience,  I  may  briefly  refer  to  the  splendid  ecological 


GEOGKAPHICAL   IDEALS.  9 

work  that  Scotland  has  done  in  the  exploration,  settling  and  devek  p- 
ment  of  those  vast  regions  known  as  the  Dominion  of  Canada,  which 
have  before  them  so  assured  and  so  great  a  future.  The  part  that 
Scotland  has  played  in  that  work  up  to  1882  is,  I  think,  best  told  in 
Mr.  Rattray's  The  Scot  in  Brituh  North  America,  which  many  of  you  will 
have  read.  I  may  say  that  it  was  lent  to  me  by  a  very  distinguished 
Scot,  whom  the  rising  generation  probably  know  chiefly  as  the  Lord 
Strathcona,  who  raised  and  equipped  Strathcona's  horse  during  the 
Boer  War,  but  whom  older  geographers  remember  as  the  Donald  Smith 
who  played  so  important  a  part  in  the  development  of  the  North-West 
regions.  I  need  hardly  remind  you  that  from  Canada  comes  another 
Scot — Sir  John  Murray — who  is,  admittedly,  the  greatest  oceano- 
grapher  and  limnologist  that  the  world  has  produced ;  that  the  most 
successful  settlement  in  South  Africa  was  the  Scotch  settlement  in 
Cape  Colony;  that  Natal  is  a  second  Scotland;  that  the  acquisition  of 
British  rights  in  East  Africa,  which  promises  to  show  important 
ecological  results,  was  due  to  the  efforts  of  the  late  Sir  William 
Mackinnon,  and  was  largely  the  result  of  the  explorations  of  Joseph 
Thomson;  that  the  province  known  by  the  misleading  name  of  British 
Central  Africa  was  opened  up  to  commerce  by  the  Scottish  African 
Lakes  Company,  and  was  made  into  a  peaceful  British  possession  by 
the  first  recipient  of  your  Livingstone  Medal,  Sir  Harry  Johnston;  or 
that,  a  century  ago,  the  marvellous  travels  of  Mungo  Park  were  the 
genesis  of  the  entire  movement  which  has  opened  up  Africa  to  civi- 
lisation. It  must,  I  think,  be  admitted  that  Scotland  was  in  the  fore- 
front of  the  great  geographical  and  imperial  movement  of  the  nine- 
teenth century.  Nor  has  she  neglected  the  more  purely  scientific  sides 
of  geography,  as  Avas  evidenced  by  the  recent  successful  national  expedi- 
tion to  the  Antarctic  regions ;  while  her  cartography,  as  represented  by 
Keith  Johnston  and  Bartholomew,  has  undoubtedly  led  the  way  in  these 
islands.  I  trust  that  this  vigorous  and  practical  geographical  spirit 
may  long  endure  and,  if  possible,  increase.  Although  the  era  of  ex- 
ploration, in  the  conventional  sense,  is  drawing  to  a  close,  there  is  an 
unlimited  field  open  for  scientific  exploration  and  economic  treatment. 
Mankind  has  hitherto  dealt  with  the  surface  of  Mother  earth  in  a  hap- 
hazard, a  hand-to-mouth  fashion,  without  much  scientific  study  of  the 
varying  ecological  conditions  in  different  localities,  due  to  the  various 
combinations  of  slightly  differing  climates,  soils  and  other  geographical 
data.  Is  it  an  unattainable  ideal  that  scientific  changes  in  the  distribu- 
tion and  methods  of  production  may  some  day  raise  humanity,  so  far  as 
material  comfort  is  concerned,  as  much  above  its  existing  standard  as 
this  is  above  the  material  condition  of  the  ill-clothed,  ill-sheltered,  ill- 
fed  denizens  of  these  islands  at  the  commencement  of  our  present  era'? 

Education. — Whatever  may  be  the  proper  aims  of  geography  as  a 
science  of  the  utmost  value,  both  in  war  and  in  peace,  sound  and  exten- 
sive geographical  education  is  an  essential  condition  of  advance  towards 
those  aims,  and  the  question  at  once  confronts  us  as  to  what  should 
be  our  educational  ideals.  You  will  remember  that,  after  the  House- 
hold Suffrage  Act,  Robert  Lowe  gave  the  celebrated  advice,  often  attri- 


10  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

buted  to  Lord  Beaconsfield,  "  Let  us  educate  our  masters."  By  our 
masters  Mr,  Lowe  meant  of  course  the  masses,  and  the  nation  have  had 
the  question  of  the  education  of  the  masses  with  them  for  a  whole 
generation  ;  while — at  any  rate  south  of  the  Tweed — they  seem  likely 
to  have  it  with  them  for  some  generations  to  come  ;  but  I  venture  to 
repeat  here,  what  1  have  often  urged  elsewhere,  that  on  many  subjects, 
of  which  geography  is  one,  we  need  in  the  first  place  to  educate  the 
classes.  This  may  not  be  an  unattainable  ideal,  though  it  is  still 
distant. 

In  an  address  which  I  delivered  at  York  last  August  before  the 
British  Association  I  j)  tinted  out  the  advance  during  the  last  quarter  of 
a  century  in  the  interest  in  and  appreciation  of  geography  displayed  by 
the  governing  classes.  A  case  of  atavism,  recently  brought  to  my  notice, 
makes  me  fear  that  I  was  too  sanguine  as  to  the  permanence  of  that 
advance,  at  any  rate  in  one  important  quarter. 

In  November  1899,  regulations  were  laid  down  for  the  examinations 
for  the  Foreign  Office  and  Diplomatic  Service,  which  naturally  (and  I 
bdlieve  merely  in  repetition  of  earlier  regulations)  made  geography  an 
obligatory  subject.  A  notice  has  lately  been  issued,  to  come  into  effect 
after  the  1st  July  next,  under  which  geography  will  not  only  not  be 
obligatory,  but  will  altogetlier  cease  to  be  one  of  the  subjects  of  exami- 
nation. I  have  not  time  to  give  you  a  list  of  the  many  other  subjects 
for  which  marks  will  be  given  to  candidates,  and  which  do  not  seem  to 
be  as  important  as  geograpli}^  to  a  Foreign  Office  clerk  or  to  a  Secretary 
of  an  Embassy.  I  will  only  select  six  rather  striking  examples  :  Animal 
Physiology,  Physics,  Chemistry,  Moral  atid  Metaphysical  Piiilosophy, 
Sanskrit  Language  and  Literature,  and  Zoology,  which,  of  course,  may 
be  useful  if  the  official  spends  his  leave  in  a  country  where  big  game  is 
plentiful.  In  these  six  subjects  the  candidate  might  make  3600  marks 
out  of  the  maximum  of  6000,  which  he  is  not  allowed  to  exceed;  while 
not  a  single  mark  is  given  for  Geography.  One  is  reminded  of  Mr. 
W.  S.  Gilbert's  "Pattern  of  a  modern  Major-General, "  in  "The  Pirates 
of  Penzance,"  who  was  an  adept  ia  every  branch  of  human  knowledge, 
excepting  tactics  and  strategy. 

The  urgency  of  the  case  impels  me  to  narrate  an  interesting  incident 
not  yet  published,  especially  as  the  principal  actors  in  the  scene  are 
dead,  so  that  no  one's  feelings  will  be  hurt  by  the  narration.  A  good 
many  years  ago  a  territorial  arrangement  with  France  was  in  discussion, 
and  I  was  invited  to  consider  it.  The  French  proposals  appeared  to 
the  Foreign  Office  satisfactory  ;  but  I  found  that  they  were  expressed, 
as  might  have  been  expected,  in  longitudes  reckoned  from  the  meridian 
of  Paris,  while  the  map  with  which  our  Foreign  Office  had  considered 
these  proposals  was  made  in  Germany  and  reckoned  its  longitudes 
from  the  meridian  of  Greenwich.  The  arrangement  in  question  was 
never  completed. 

Tliis  was  an  instance  which  came  under  my  personal  observation, 
but  it  is  a  matter  of  notoriety  that  some  of  our  most  serious  inter- 
national disputes  of  recent  years  have  arisen  from  the  faulty  geographical 
knowledge  of  the  negotiators  of  treaties  in  the  darker  ages.     I  believe 


GEOGRAPHICAL  IDEALS.  11 

that  our  Foreign  Office  and  Diplomatic  Service  for  years  past  have  been 
filled  with  men  of  considerable  geographical  knowledge;  but  this  im- 
proved condition  will  not  last  if  geography  is  to  be  eliminated  from 
their  examinations,  and  Great  Britain  will  see  its  future  dii^lomatists 
contending  with  bows  and  arrows  against  foreign  diplomatists  armed 
Avith  the  best  weapons  of  the  twentieth  century.  The  most  serious 
feature  of  the  case,  however,  is  that  such  an  official  denial  of  the  national 
importance  of  geographical  education  is  to-day  possible.  It  shows  the 
immense  obstacles  that  still  confront  our  Geographical  Societies  before 
they  can  make  great  and  lasting  advance  in  what  seems  to  me  one  of 
their  most  urgent  duties,  that  of  educating  the  classes  of  Britain. 

Turning  from  this  fundamental  postulate  to  the  general  principles 
underlying  a  sound  geographical  education,  I  should  like  to  put  before 
you  the  substance  of  a  most  interesting  letter  on  the  subject  which  I 
have  recently  received  from  Mr.  H.  J.  Mackinder,  Director  of  the 
London  School  of  Economics,  and  whom  you  know  to  be  one  of  the 
highest  authorities  in  Britain  on  Geographical  Education.  I  have  only 
time  to  read  extracts ;  so  that  you  Avill  not  hold  the  writer  too  closely 
to  passages  given  without  their  context.  He  says,  "  Geography  must  not 
be  thought  of  as  a  mass  of  information  merely,  or  indeed  chiefly.  Its 
distinguishing  characteristic,  giving  it  peculiar  value  as  a  discipline,  is 
that  it  has  its  own  special  point  of  view  and  mode  of  thought  and  of 
memory.  The  geographer  thinks  in  spaces  and  shapes.  So  far  from 
names  being  material  to  the  subject,  even  words  are  not  essential  to 
geographical  thought.  ...  In  the  elementary  stage  the  teaching  of 
geography  should  not  adhere  pedantically  to  any  method.  The  main 
point  is  that  a  few  things  should  be  vividly  and  rationally  taught. 
Such  precision  as  is  involved  in  the  use  of  latitudes  and  longitudes 
should  be  eschewed,  unless  in  the  highest  standards.  No  doubt  nature- 
study  should  come  first,  but  it  must  not  be  substituted  for  geography, 
for  which  it  only  prepares.  ...  In  secondary  education  the  teaching  of 
geography  should,  I  think,  be  more  methodical  and  precise,  but  what  is 
chiefly  important  is  that  it  should  be  progressive  in  method.  Geography 
may  well  serve  in  this  stage  for  the  purpose  of  correlating  subjects,  both 
scientific  and  historical,  but  the  more  that  such  a  function  is  assigned 
to  it  the  more  necessary  does  it  become  to  have  a  clearly  defined  and 
strictly  geographical  argument  running  through  the  whole  of  the  teach- 
ing. In  other  words,  the  geographical  point  of  view  must  be  dominant, 
and  not  the  view  points  of  this  or  tliat  auxiliary  science.  ...  In  the 
University  stage,  geography  should  be  studied  both  from  a  specialist 
and  from  a  general  standpoint ;  that  is  to  say,  that  while  it  is  a  con- 
dition of  progress  in  our  knowledge  that  we  forsake  the  whole  field  and 
c  )ncentrate  on  some  part  of  it,  yet  it  is  only  in  the  university  stage  that 
what  I  may  describe  as  the  philosophy  of  the  subject  can  be  fully  appre- 
ciated. It  is  essential,  however,  that  the  specialist  should  already  have 
firmly  acquired  the  geographical  method  and  the  geographical  point 
of  view.  Until  secondary  education  in  geography  is  more  generally 
thorough,  I  fear  that  the  University  teacher  of  the  subject  will  have  to 
teach  much  which  in  a  future  generation  will  have  been  learned  by  his 


12  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICi\L   MAGAZINE. 

pupils  before  they  come  to  him.  To  my  mind,  by  far  the  most  impor- 
tant function  of  the  University  teacher  of  geography  in  the  present  and 
immediate  future  must  be  to  produce  a  considerable  number  of  good 
secondary  teachers  of  the  subject,  and  to  establish  a  tradition  of 
geographical  school  teaching.  The  danger  of  the  moment  is  that  in 
view  of  the  sudden  demand  for  school  teachers  of  geography  which 
has  recently  sprung  up,  we  shall  be  tempted  to  equip  and  employ 
persons  of  inferior  general  education  and  mental  power.  Geography 
requires  in  the  teacher  both  a  firm  grasp  of  principle  and  a  broad  out- 
look. With  these  qualities,  I  believe  that  it  can  be  made  a  discipline 
of  the  highest  order,  but  no  subject  is  so  easily  reduced  by  an  inferior 
teacher  to  a  low  pedagogic  value,  worthy  of  all  tlie  contempt  that  has 
been  poured  upon  it." 

Although  Mr.  Mackinder's  remarks  in  this  letter  proceed  from 
elementary  teaching  upward  to  the  University,  we  know  that  he  is  in 
full  accord  with  the  policy  followed  by  the  Royal  Geographical  Society 
during  the  last  twenty  years,  of  regarding  recognition  of  geography  at 
our  great  Universities  as  the  first  and  most  important  step  in  impreg- 
nating the  country  with  a  geographical  spirit,  and  of  working  downward 
from  there  into  the  masses  of  the  nation.  As  I  dwelt  on  this  question 
at  length  in  my  York  address,  I  will  only  add  that  it  now  seems  certain 
that  the  Welsh  University  will  shortly  have  a  Reader  in  Geography, 
and  that  1  cannot  doubt  that  Scotland  will  succeed  in  her  present  efforts 
to  endow  a  Chair  of  Geography  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  which 
has,  I  understand,  done  all  in  its  power  to  facilitate  such  a  measure. 
It  would,  indeed,  be  extraordinary  if  this  country,  which,  as  I  have 
just  shown,  has  been  in  the  forefront  of  the  great  geographical  move- 
ment of  the  last  century,  should  allow  herself  to  be  permanently 
distanced  in  this  one  direction — admittedly  of  the  highest  importance — 
not  only  by  Oxford,  Cambridge,  and  London,  but  also  by  Manchester, 
Birmingham,  and  gallant  little  Wales. 

Amongst  the  minor  methods  of  arousing  interest  and  imparting 
information  in  geographical  matters,  perhaps  the  most  effective  is  the 
comparatively  modern  use  of  photographic  lantern  slides.  For  either 
purpose  the  value  of  accurate  and  artistic  visual  representation  accom- 
panying aural  explanations  can  hardly  be  overestimated,  whether  the 
spectators  and  audience  are  trained  geographers  or  elementary  school 
children.  Even  so  lately  as  thirty  years  ago  geographical  lectures  were 
generally  dreary  affairs — excejit  for  the  enthusiastic  lew — unrelieved,  as 
they  were,  by  pictorial  representations.  I  feel  very  keenly  the  dis- 
advantage I  am  under,  or  rather  that  you  are  under  to-night,  through 
my  having  no  slides;  but  there  was  no  remedy;  for  although  photo- 
graphs have,  I  am  told,  been  taken  of  ghosts,  no  one  has  yet  attempted 
to  photograph  an  ideal.  When  we  consider  the  instruction  of  children 
the  necessity  becomes  still  more  evident  of  interesting  the  eye  as  well 
as  the  ear;  and  I  hope  that  this  principle  will  be  niore  and  more  under- 
stood in  our  board  schools,  in  most  of  which  the  study  of  geography  now 
consists  of  learning  strings  of  names.  The  method  of  visual  represen- 
tation has,  indeed,  spread  greatly  during  the  last  decade;  but  it  does  not 


GEOGRAPHICAL   IDEALS.  13 

yet  cover  a  tenth  of  the  field  that  it  might  usefully  occupy.  I  believe 
this  is  partly  due  to  the  cost  and  difficulty  of  getting  good  slides,  and 
I  may  be  doing  a  service  to  some  who  wish  to  interest  and  instruct 
their  fellow-parishioners  in  the  country  by  drawing  their  attention  to 
the  series  of  the  Diagram  Company,  whose  address  is  West  Barnes 
Lane,  New  Maiden,  Surrey.  I  could  not,  of  course,  mention  this 
Company  if  they  had  been  formed  for  purposes  of  profit.  I  am  told, 
however,  that  their  objects  were  scientific,  and  that  they  do  not  at 
present  cover  their  expenses.  Many  of  you,  doubtless,  know  their  excel- 
lent slides.  We  have  a  complete  series  in  Savile  Row,  and  I  under- 
stood that  one  was  also  kept  at  the  Outlook  Tower  in  this  city ;  but 
Professor  Geddes  tells  me  that  this  is  not  now  the  case. 

Another  minor  educational  ideal  is  that  all  books  involving  move- 
ment from  one  geographical  locality  to  another  should  have  sketch 
maps  attached  to  them.  This  principle  applies  especially  to  works  of 
fiction,  which  reach  a  far  wider  public  than  is  the  case  with  serious 
books.  When  we  re-read  the  Waverley  Novels  after  reaching  maturity, 
and  with  a  knowledge  of  the  positions  and  surroundings  of  the  localities 
dealt  with,  we  cannot  avoid  regret  that  our  childish  interest  in  each  of 
them  was  not  quickened  and  our  knowledge  insensibly  increased  by  a 
simple  sketch  map  on  the  frontispiece.  This  stimulating  power  of  pic- 
torial representation  is  perhaps  most  clearly  demonstrated  by  a  case  in 
which  the  map  was  as  imaginary  as  the  text.  How  much  of  the  interest 
of  Treasure  Island  would  have  been  lost  but  for  the  immortal  map  with 
which  Robert  Louis  Stevenson  enriched  it !  Stevenson,  indeed,  was 
deeply  imbued  with  the  geographical  spirit,  and  in  several  books — I 
can  particularly  recall  Kidnapped — produced  real  maps  which  greatly 
assist  the  young  reader.  Half  a  century  ago,  even  history — ancient, 
mediaeval  and  modern — was  read  in  the  best  schools  without  any 
reference  to  maps,  with  the  result  that  most  of  us  had  to  endure  the 
loss  of  time  in  re-reading,  when  grown  up,  a  mass  of  works  which  we 
had  literally,  but  not  geographically,  mastered  in  our  youth. 

I  have  reserved  to  the  last  the  ^q\v  words  I  need  say  on  the  most 
vital  and  far-reaching  of  all  instruments  of  geographical  education — I 
mean  societies  such  as  this.  They  have  afforded  means  of  higher  and 
ever-extending  knowledge  even  to  the  most  instructed  of  their  Fellows  ; 
they  have  encouraged  the  geographical  spirit  amongst  their  less  zealous 
members ;  they  have  been  the  chief  authors  or  supporters  of  all  other 
modern  means  of  improvement  in  geographical  education  ;  while  the 
role  that  lies  before  them  is  even  more  important  than  that  -which  they 
have  hitherto  filled.  That  is  why  I  am  here  to-night;  and  if  I  might 
add  one  more  ideal  to  my  list  of  geographical  ideals,  it  is  that  every 
educated  man  in  Scotland  should  join  your  Society,  and,  by  his  contri- 
butions to  your  funds,  enable  you  to  extend  and  intensify  your  worU  in 
promoting  a  branch  of  knowledge  which  is  one  of  the  most  important, 
if  not  the  most  important,  of  the  material  sciences  to  the  future  welfare 
and  progress  of  mankind. 


14  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

GEOGRAPHICAL  PHOTOGRAPHY.i 

{JFith  Illustrations.) 

By  John  Thomson. 

My  chief  object  in  coming  before  this  Section  is  to  show  on  the  screen 
a  selection  of  geographical  photographs  taken  by  myself  during  my 
travels,  which  extended  at  intervals  over  a  period  of  forty-five  years. 
The  major  part  of  the  work  was  done  in  Far  Eastern  Asia,  between 
1860  and  1872,  in  regions  in  which  the  camera  frequently  made  its 
first  appearance.  Some  plates  were  taken  later  to  illustrate  my  work 
on  the  island  of  Cyprus,  others  I  have  borrowed  of  recent  date 
produced  by  modern  methods. 

Before  using  the  lantern,  I  will  give  a  brief  summary  of  photographic 
progress,  mainly  in  its  bearing  upon  geographical  work.  In  the  early 
days,  about  half  a  century  ago,  the  enormous  weight  of  dark  tent, 
instruments,  and  chemicals,  combined  with  the  technical  difficulties  of 
primitive  processes,  rendered  a  photographic  equipment  a  very  doubtful 
addition  to  the  burden  of  the  explorer  bent  on  a  long  journey  into 
unknown  or  unphotographed  lands.  It  was  an  experiment  not  to  be 
lightly  undertaken,  and  in  my  experience  meant  the  addition  of  four 
or  five  carriers  for  safe  transit. 

But  happily  the  rapid  advance  in  photography  gradually  reduced 
the  bulk  of  impedimenta ;  apparatus  became  lighter,  and  manipulation 
simpler  and  more  certain  in  result,  until  an  outfit  w^as  deemed  indis- 
pensable to  all  properly  organised  expeditions. 

The  evolution  of  photographic  methods  kept  pace  with  the  progress 
in  discovery  in  almost  all  departments  of  Science,  and  contributed  its 
full  share  of  usefulness  in  extending  knowledge  and  solving  problems 
that  without  its  aid  would  have  remained  insoluble.  In  Physical 
Geography  it  has  proved  of  notable  service,  especially  in  helping  the 
work  of  the  cartographer.  It  has  made  us  familiar  with  the  topography 
of  remote  quarters  of  the  globe,  and  with  the  physical  characteristics  of 
their  people,  environment,  dwellings,  tillage,  arts,  industries,  etc. 

I  will  now  touch  upon  some  points  in  the  progress  of  the  art  which 
ultimately  fitted  photography  for  its  vocation  as  an  auxiliary  in  scientific 
research  and  artistic  pursuits. 

In  its  initial  stages  it  was  regarded  as  a  curious  and  fascinating 
revelation  of  the  action  of  light  on  certain  chemical  reagents,  that  is  up 
to  the  time  of  Daguerre  and  Fox  Talbot ;  the  former  caught  the  image  as 
in  a  mirror,  the  latter,  the  Caxton  of  Photography,  produced  the  first 
printing  process  by  his  introduction  of  Calotype  in  1839.  Later,  when 
pursuing  his  investigations  with  bitumen-coated  metal  plates,  he  suc- 
ceeded in  etching  the  first  photogravure,  and  printing  from  it  in  an 
ordinary  press.     He  was  also  first  to  foresee  the  potentialities  of  the 


1  Read  before  Section  G  (Geography)  at  the  York  Meeting  of  the  British  Association, 


16  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

new  art  in  relation  to  Geography.  I  have  a  map  etched  on  a  metal 
plate  about  this  time  by  Fox  Talbot,  aud  printed  in  Edinburgh,  first 
copying  the  original  in  the  camera.  After  the  lapse  of  some  years  full 
of  endeavour  on  the  part  of  photographic  votaries,  who  from  time  to 
time  scored  advances,  Scott  Archer  gave  us  his  wet  collodion  process, 
which  materially  shortened  the  duration  of  exposure  necessary  to  obtain 
an  impression  in  the  camera,  and  substituted  glass  plates  as  the  support 
for  the  sensitive  film.  The  detail  in  wet  collodion  negatives  was  of 
microscopic  minuteness  while  presenting  the  finest  gradation  and 
printing  quality,  which  had  never  indeed  been  surpassed  by  any  known 
method.  Improvements  in  cameras  and  lenses  had  been  going  on 
apace,  the  first  gaining  in  lightness  and  portability,  while  plano-convex 
and  miniscus  lenses  had  given  place  to  compound  objectives,  corrected 
for  spherical  and  chromatic  aberration,  and  thus  rendering  their  visual 
and  actenic  foci  coincident.  The  wet  collodion  process,  appropriately 
so  named,  could  not  shed  its  ponderosity,  and  was  hedged  round  with 
difficulties,  as  I  had  reason  to  know  and  appreciate,  and  ill  adapted 
for  long  journeys.  It  was  the  most  chemically  and  mechanically  exacting 
companion  to  be  carried  on  any  expedition,  and  its  shortcomings  Avere 
accentuated  when  my  wanderings  happened  to  be  through  forest  and 
tropical  jungle.  One  special  virtue  must  be  noted,  and  that  is  that  the 
plate  had  to  be  exposed,  developed  aud  finished  on  the  spot,  so  that  one 
was  enabled  to  judge  of  success  or  failure  before  striking  camp. 

You  will  be  able  to  form  your  estimate  of  the  work  done  under 
more  favourable  conditions  than  I  enjoyed  in  doing  it,  and  I  must 
request  you  to  bear  in  mind  difficulties  that  had  to  be  faced  day  by 
day,  in  repairing  apparatus,  concocting  and  doctoring  chemicals,  not  to 
mention  dangers  encountered  from  unsympathetic  natives,  who  regarded 
the  photographer  as  the  devil  incarnate,  and  allow  some  critical" discount 
in  my  favour. 

Dry  collodion  emulsion,  introduced  in  1864  by  Messrs  Sayce  and 
Bolton,  greatly  reduced  the  weight  of  essentials.  I  employed  plates 
coated  with  this  emulsion  later  in  Cyprus.  They  were  developed  with 
an  alkaline  solution,  and  were  in  no  wa}'  inferior  in  point  of  speed  or 
quality. 

Gelatine  emulsion,  made  by  Dr.  Naddox  in  1872,  was  the  crowning 
discovery  which  entirely  revolutionised  photography,  rendering  it 
possible  to  photograph  objects  in  motion  in  the  fraction  of  a  second.  I 
had  the  pleasure  of  making  the  acquaintance  of  the  inventor  a  year  or 
two  before  his  death — one  of  the  most  thorough,  simple  and  unaffected 
of  men.  The  cameras  in  use  for  dry  gelatine  plates  and  films  are  so 
multiform  that  they  may  not  even  be  catalogued.  For  our  purpose  it 
is  sufficient  to  say  that  an  outfit  for  a  long  journey  may  now  be  carried 
in  a  handbag. 

The  ever-widening  sphere  of  usefulness  of  the  camera  as  an  auxiliary 
in  scientific  investigation,  especially  in  relation  to  Geography,  is  so  well 
known  that  I  will  only  venture  to  note  some  recent  developments  which 
may  prove  useful  to  the  traveller. 

An  ordinary  well-made  camera  fitted  with  shutter  and  rapid  recti- 


GEOGRAPHICAL  PHOTOGRAPHY. 


17 


linear  lens  is  most  useful  in  securing  photographs  of  all  objects  which 
may  not  be  carried  away.  But  for  anthropological  work,  as,  for  example, 
in  taking  plates  of  characteristic  heads  of  alien  races  of  men  at  close 


quarters,  the  lens  should  be  longer  in  focus  than  that  used  for  land- 
scapes or  groups.  The  reason  of  this  is  that  with  a  lens  of  short  focus 
the  features  are  so  distorted  as  to  render  the  photograph  useless  as  a 
basis  of  measurement.  The  defects  could  only  be  partially  rectified  by 
VOL.  XXIIL  B 


18  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL    MAGAZINE. 

mathematical  calculation  on  tlie  basis  of  the  focus  of  the  lens  employed 
and  distance  from  the  object  photographed. 

In  dealing  with  objects  of  natural  history,  such  as  animals  at  a  great 
distance  in  their  native  haunts,  an  addition  to  the  same  camera  must 
be  made  in  the  shape  of  a  tele-photographic  set  of  lenses,  so  as  to  photo- 
graph objects  on  a  scale  large  enough  for  subsequent  use.  The  same 
tele-photographic  arrangement  may  be  used  for  a  variety  of  purposes, 
as  in  taking  contours  of  distant  mountain  ranges.  These  are  set  down 
simply  as  suggestive  notes  in  camera-work  which  the  traveller  who  is 
thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  use  and  limitations  of  the  instrument 
may  extend  at  will.  Many  failures  are  caused  bj'  neglect  on  the 
explorers'  part  to  get  fully  posted  up  in  the  mechanism  of  the  camera 
and  shutter,  the  use  of  the  lens,  and  the  chemicals  employed  in  fixing 
the  image,  and  in  development.  I  have  in  my  mind  the  poor  results 
of  some  long  and  arduous  journeys  brought  about  by  ignorance  of  the 
elementary  conditions  of  success — plates  decomposed,  stuck  together, 
damp,  frilled,  fogged,  over-exposed,  under-exposed,  developer  wrong ; 
result  no  image,  fixed  before  being  developed,  etc.,  etc.  But  by  a  little 
trouble  and  preliminary  training  all  such  pitfalls  might  have  been 
avoided  and  success  assured. 

The  seeming  simplicity  of  photographic  work  has  been  a  prolific 
cause  of  failure — the  notion  that  one  has  only  to  touch  a  button  to  obtain 
the  best  results  possible. 

A  word  on  photographic  surveying.  It  is  described  in  Hints  to 
Travellers,  published  by  the  Royal  Geographical  Society. 

The  apparatus  in  use  is  too  complicated,  and  I  believe  the  conditions 
required  could  be  attained  by  the  adjustment  of  an  ordinary  camera. 
It  should  be  framed  so  as  to  admit  of  the  optical  axis  being  perfectly 
horizontal  and  the  prepared  plate  at  right  angles  to  the  axis.  Two 
photographs  must  be  taken  at  points  of  view  some  distance  from  each 
other  to  give  a  base-line,  and  from  these  the  cartographer  can  set 
down  the  relative  positions  of  objects  shown  in  the  photographs  by 
triaiigulation. 

The  late  Dr.  Schlichter  in  1893  described  a  means  of  finding  the 
latitude  by  lunar  observations  taken  in  the  camera  when  a  star  appeared 
sufficiently  near  the  lunar  disc  as  to  come  about  the  centre  of  the  field. 
Several  exposures  were  made  on  the  same  plate  at  properly  measured 
intervals  of  time,  these  by  micrometric  measurement  forming  the  basis 
for  calculation.  The  result  was  an  extremely  accurate  determination  of 
longitude. 

I  have  been  frequently  asked  if  photography  in  colours  as  it  now 
stands  may  be  relied  upon  to  give  absolute  mimicry  of  natural  objects. 

There  is  no  process  by  which  a  photograph  in  the  colour  of  the 
object  photographed  may  be  directly  taken  in  the  camera.  There  are 
metliods  in  use  by  which  fascinating  results  are  obtained  hy  taking  a 
set  of  colour  registers  through  three  as  nearly  as  possible  monochrom- 
atic glass  screens  or  filters — red,  blue,  and  yellowish  green  ;  this  is 
termed  three-colour  photography.  The  negative  so  taken  may  be  used 
either  for  what  is  called  optical  synthesis  by  projection  through  three 


GEOGRAPHICAL  PHOTOGRAPHY.  19 

colour  filters  by  a  triuaal  lantern,  or  by  reflection  and  combination  in 
an  instrament  called  the  Kromoscope.  When  properly  registered  the 
result  is  an  image  in  all  the  colours  of  the  object  photographed.  Mr. 
Mackinder  was  the  first  English  traveller  to  test  this  process  in  his  visit 
to  Mount  Kenia.  The  negatives  again  may  be  printed  on  transparent 
gelatine  tissues  stained  and  superposed,  as  in  the  Sanger-Shepherd 
method,  or  used  to  make  half-tone  blocks  to  be  printed  in  three  colours 
in  the  printing  press. 


TtlE  DEAD  HEA.RT  OF  AUSTEALIA:    A  KEVIEW.i 

The  scientific  expedition  which  is  the  subject-matter  of  the  exceedingly 
interesting  work  now  before  us,  took  place  in  the  summer,  i.e.  the 
Australian  summer,  of  1901-2,  and  from  the  preface  we  learn  that  the 
narrative  has  for  the  most  part  already  appeared  in  a  Melbourne  news- 
paper. Dr.  Gregory,  the  head  of  the  expedition,  is  now  Professor  of 
Geology  in  the  University  of  Glasgow,  and  he  had  as  his  colleagues  a 
pirty  of  eight,  most  of  whom  were  undergraduates  of  the  University  of 
Melbourne.  It  appears  that  it  was  at  the  suggestion  of  Dr.  Howitt 
that  the  expedition  was  undertaken  with  the  view  of  studying  the 
geology  of  Lake  Eyre,  the  Dead  Heart  of  Australia,  and  of  making  a 
collection  of  its  fossil  bones.  Professor  Gregory,  the  geologist,  hoped  to 
help  Dr.  Howitt,  the  ethnologist  and  student  of  the  Australian  abori- 
gines, "  by  explaining  some  of  their  traditions,  by  thr()wing  light  on 
their  migrations,  and  by  showing  the  date  of  their  arrival  in  Australia." 
Bat  before  referring  to  the  route  and  progress  of  the  expp.dition,  it  is 
right  to  give  to  our  readers  some  information  about  Lake  Eyre  and  its 
vicinity.  The  tract  of  Australia,  which  bears  so  ominous  a  name,  is  one 
of  the  most  remarkable  among  the  many  remarkable  regions  in  the 
island  continent.  It  is  situated  to  the  north  of  Spencer  Gulf  and  has 
an  area  of  over  three  thousand  square  miles.  Its  surface  is  39  feet 
below  the  level  of  the  sea.  The  lake  is  fed  by  several  rivers  and  creeks 
on  all  sides,  but  its  principal  contributors  are  the  Diamantina  and 
Cooper  rivers,  which  flow  into  it  from  the  east  for  some  months  each 
year.  It  also  receives  the  drainage  water  of  half  a  million  square  miles 
and  absorbs  it  all.  The  lake  may  be  said  to  have  been  discovered  in 
the  year  1840  by  E.  J.  Eyre,  an  Australian  cattle-driver,  who,  however, 
was  also  an  explorer  in  the  true  sense  of  the  word.  The  story  of  the 
discovery  and  of  the  angry  controversies  of  the  time  is  succinctly  and 
graphically  told  by  Dr.  Gregory.  So  far  as  the  topography  of  Lake 
Eyre  is  concerned,  the  whole  locality  was  carefully  surveyed  some  thirty 
years  ago.  It  is  indeed  terribly  true  that  now  the  tract  fully  merits 
the  name  of  the  Dead  Heart  of  Australia,  but  once  on  a  time  the  name 

1  The  Dead  Heart  of  Australia  :  A  Juurney  round  Lake  Eyre  in  the  Summer  of  1901- 
19D2,  with  som?  account  of  the  Lake  Ei/re  Basin  and  the  Floioinq  Wells  of  Central  Australia. 
By  J.  W.  G^egorJ^,  F.R.S.,  D.Sc.      London  :  John  Murray,  1906. 


20  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

of  Living  Heart  would  have  been  much  more  appropriate;  and  this  for 
several  reasons.  "  It  gives  its  name  to  the  largest  of  the  three  provinces 
into  which  Australia  has  been  divided  on  biological  evidei.ce:  for  it  is 
the  typical  district  of  the  'Eremian'  region  proposed  by  the  late 
Professor  Tate,  from  the  evidence  of  plant  distribution  ;  and  it  suggested 
the  name  of  the  '  Eyrean  Province '  proposed  by  Professor  Spencer,  in 
considering  the  distribution  of  Australian  animals.  Anthropologi- 
cally Lake  Eyre  is  important,  as  it  was  the  headquarters  of  the  natives 
of  the  two-class  marriage  group,  who  advanced  thence  south-westward 
to  the  Eyre  Peninsula  and  spread  south-eastward  until  they  peopled 
Western  Victoria."  But  unhappily,  owing  to  a  deficient  rainfall,  the 
climatic  condition  of  Lake  Eyre  changed,  and  it  is  no  longer  an  active 
and  creative  centre.  "The  lake  has  no  outlet,  and  nor.e  of  the  water  it 
receives  is  passed  on  to  areas  that  would  make  better  use  of  it.  Animals 
and  plants  are  continually  emigrating  into  the  Lake  Eyre  basin  from 
the  surrounding  highlands;  but  these  reinforcements  are  insufficient  to 
make  good  the  internal  waste.  Great  hordes  of  rabbits  invade  it,  only 
to  perish  when  the  plains  are  stricken  Avith  drought.  Mobs  of  cattle 
are  driven  on  to  its  pastures,  too  often  to  die,  overwhelmed  by  dust- 
storms  or  miserably  bogged  in  the  mud  of  the  drying  waterholes.  The 
insatiable  desert  now  produces  little  new ;  its  plants  and  animals  are 
few  in  number  and  in  kind,  and  they  are  stunted  in  their  individual 
growth."  At  one  time,  according  to  Dr.  Gregory,  the  area  of  the 
lake  was  three  times  as  large  as  it  is  now ;  great  kangaroos  and 
wombats  as  Avell  as  wallabies,  bandicoots,  and  marsupial  rats  inhabited 
its  shores,  and  crocodiles  and  huge  mudfish  its  waters.  "  But 
the  rainfall  dwindled,  the  water-level  sank,  and  the  lake  decreased  in 
size.  The  discharge  from  the  lake  was  no  longer  sufficient  to  keep 
open  its  channel,  which  the  warping  of  the  surface  and  the  accumulation 
of  debris  continually  tended  to  close.  Accordingly  Lake  Eyre  lost  its 
outlet;  its  waters  were  henceforth  removed  only  by  evaporation;  the 
salts,  carried  into  the  lake  by  the  rivers,  Avere  concentrated,  until  the 
waters  became  salt  and  the  fish  and  the  crocodiles  were  all  destroyed. 
As  the  lake  shrank  in  area,  less  and  less  rain  fell  upon  its  shores;  the 
vegetation  withered  ;  the  once  green,  succulent  herbage  was  replaced  by 
dry,  spiny  plants;  the  giant  marsupials  died  of  hunger  and  thirst;  hot 
winds  swept  across  the  dusty  plains,  and  the  once  fertile  basin  of  Lake 
Eyre  was  blasted  into  desert."  When  did  this  drying  up  take  place  1 
Dr.  Gregory  replies  that  it  began  early  in  the  Pleistocene  age.  But  the 
detailed  evidence  in  support  of  this  theory  was  too  technical  for  the 
present  work,  and  will  doubtless  be  set  forth  in  a  future  volume,  where 
it  will  receive  the  attention  to  which  it  is  unquestionably  entitled. 

It  was  no  holiday  task  then  which  Dr.  Gregory  and  his  associates 
had  undertaken.  The  traditions  of  the  Lake  Eyre  district  are  evil,  and 
there  was  no  doubt  about  the  fact  that  the  expedition  had  chosen  a  time 
of  the  year  when  the  heat  was  at  its  worst.  One  old  explorer  wrote  to 
the  papers  stating  that  to  go  to  Lake  Eyre  at  that  time  of  the  year  was 
little  short  of  madness.  Meteorological  statistics  showed  that  the  tempera- 
ture of  the  previous  year  had  at  one  place  varied  between  118"   and 


THE   DEAD   HEART   OF   AUSTRALIA:    A   REVIEW.  21 

125°  ia  the  shade,  Uudeterred,  however,  by  considerations  of  personal 
danger,  the  members  of  the  expedition  left  Adelaide  on  the  13th 
December  1901,  and  after  a  two  days'  journey  by  rail  they  reached 
Hergott,  some  440  miles  from  Adelaide,  where  they  met  their  camels 
and  their  camp  equipage,  and  where  they  got  the  first  taste  of  the  heat 
they  were  to  endure.  They  had  reached  Hergott  at  the  end  of  a  heat 
wave  and  found  the  heat  intense.  It,  however,  seems  to  have  no 
deleterious  effects  on  the  white  population,  the  men  of  which  were 
found,  bronzed  and  tanned,  in  the  best  of  health,  "  working  in  the  open 
air  at  severe  manual  labour  without  adopting  any  precautions  or  special 
clothes."  Oa  this  subject  Dr.  Gregory  has  some  interesting  remarks, 
viz. :  "  The  tolerance  of  heat  shown  in  this  part  of  Australia  certainly 
supports  Sambon's  theory  with  regard  to  acclimatisation.  Sarabon 
holds  that  there  is  nothing  to  prevent  Europeans  living  and  working, 
as  well  as  any  black  race,  in  the  hottest  of  tropical  localities.  He 
maintains  that  the  supposed  unsuitability  of  the  tropics  for  European 
settlement  is  due  to  disease  and  not  to  climate,  and  that  as  the  special 
tropical  diseases  are  due  to  germs,  they  may  be  cured  or  prevented  when 
the  life-histories  of  the  germs  are  known.  The  sight  of  white  men 
engaged  in  severe  manual  labour,  under  the  midday  sun  in  the  hot 
climate  of  the  Lake  Eyre  depression,  certainly  suggested  that  a  '  White 
Australia  '  is  no  impossible  ideal  for  even  the  hottest  regions  of  the 
centre." 

Notwithstanding  his  having  received  much  advice  to  the  contrary, 
Dr,  Gregory  had  decided  that  the  means  of  transport  for  the  expedition 
should  be  camels,  and  on  the  whole  he  had  no  reason  to  regret  his 
decision.  He  found  that  "  they  carried  their  6-cwt.  loads  with  ease, 
except  occasionally  over  bad  sand-rises;  they  ate  any  food  that  came  in 
their  way,  or  fasted  like  philosophers  when  there  was  none.  .  .  ,  They 
soon  went  for  a  couple  of  days  without  water,  and,  later  on,  would 
abstain  for  several  days  without  suffering."  From  Hergott  Springs 
the  expedition  proceeded  north-eastwards  to  the  missionary  station  of 
Kilalpanina,  where  they  arrived  in  time  for  the  Christmas  festivities, 
celebrated  by  the  Lutheran  fathers  in  the  German  fashion  so  far  as  was 
practicable,  and  varied  by  corroborees  performed  by  the  junior  members 
of  the  expedition  to  the  undisguised  amusement  of  the  aborigines  whom 
they  found  there.  From  Kilalpanina  Dr.  Gregory  made  a  short  expedi- 
tion to  another  mission  station,  Kopperamanna,  in  order  to  examine  the 
country  by  which  the  Coaper  river  passes  through  the  Desert  Sandstone 
hills.  He  found  that  within  a  few  miles  of  Kilalpanina  the  Cooper  had 
no  definite  bed,  but  was  a  flood  plain  some  eight  to  twelve  miles  in  width 
with  sharply  defined  flood-lines  contracting  to  the  east.  Continuing 
his  investigation  east  of  the  mission  station,  Dr.  Gregory  went  as  far 
as  a  knoll,  from  which  he  could  see  the  main  channel  of  the  Cooper 
pass  north  of  a  ridge  bearing  an  ominous  name  in  the  vernacular,  signi- 
fying "  the  place  of  death  and  destruction."  From  what  he  saw  where 
he  stood  on  the  knoll  he  was  able  to  form  an  opinion  as  to  the  origin  of 
the  famous  Stony  Djsert,  which  Sturt  had  described  as  an  ancient  sea- 
bed     Contravening  this,  Dr.  Gregory  tells  us  that  the  pebbles  of  the 


22  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL    MAGAZINE. 

stony  plains  show  no  signs  of  the  action  of  water.  "  The  Stony- 
Desert,  in  fact,  is  due  to  the  absence  of  water.  The  country  where  it 
occurs  Avas  once  covered  by  a  sheet  of  the  rock  known  as  Desert  Sand- 
stone, in  which  there  are  abundant  pebbles  of  quartz,  sandstone,  and 
other  hard  materials.  The  Desert  Sandstone  has  slowly  decayed  under 
the  action  of  the  weather ;  the  loose  sand  has  been  blown  away  by  the 
wind,  and  the  hard  fragments  remain  scattered  over  the  ground.  The 
Desert  Sandstone  once  spread  in  a  continuous  sheet  all  across  the  Lake 
Eyre  plains ;  and  wherever  the  waste  from  the  Desert  Sandstone  has 
not  been  covered  by  later  deposits,  it  litters  the  ground  as  the  barren 
Stony  Desert."  Having  satisfied  himself  on  these  points,  Dr.  Gregory 
returned  to  Kilalpanina,  rejoined  his  companions  and  started  westwards 
down  the  Cooper  for  Lake  Eyre.  In  a  few  days  they  found  quantities 
of  stone  flakes,  which  had  been  used  by  the  aborigines  as  knives  and 
scrapers,  and  in  the  bed  of  the  Cooper  they  found  fossil  bones  of 
kangaroo,  bandicoot,  crocodile,  mudfish,  and  birds.  On  reaching  the 
shores  of  the  lake  it  was  found  to  be  practically  dry,  and  as  no  fossils 
could  be  obtained,  the  party  returned  up  the  Cooper  to  the  base  camp 
at  the  waterhole  at  Markoni.  Anticipating  favourable  weather,  Dr. 
Gregory  decided  to  march  northwards  across  the  fifty  miles  of  Tirari 
desert  to  the  Diamantina  river,  where  he  expected  to  find  a  sufl&cient 
supply  of  water.  On  the  11th  January  1902,  having  given  the  camels 
a  good  drink  and  carefully  filled  the  water-casks  and  bags,  the  party 
made  a  start  on  a  most  dreary  expanse  of  sand-dunes,  i.e.  ridges  of  loam 
with  a  thin  crust  of  white  sand  on  each  slope.  Recalling  one  part  of 
this  journey,  Dr.  Gregory  says,  "  I  often  loitered  behind  the  caravans  to 
get  a  wider  view  across  the  country.  The  soil  was  bare,  the  grass-tufts 
withered,  and  the  scenery  seen  from  the  dune-crest  was  undeniably 
depressing,  and  the  whole  land  looked  dead.  The  few  black  stunted 
trees,  with  their  gnarled  trunks  and  leafless  or  needle-leafed  boughs,  had 
an  appropriate  resemblance  to  dead  funereal  cypress.  The  sides  of  the 
dune  were  covered  by  long  wavy  sand-ripples,  where  the  wind  had 
driven  the  grains  up  the  western  slope ;  but  at  the  same  time  not  a 
sand  grain  was  moving,  and  the  ripples  locked  as  motionless  as  the 
fossil  ripple-marks  that  may  be  seen  on  some  London  paving-stones. 
The  air  was  still  and  heavy — there  was  not  a  sound ;  and  the  only 
visible  sign  of  life  and  motion  was  the  steady  drift  of  the  useless 
clouds  across  the  leaden  sky.  Earth  and  sky  seemed  to  be  outvying 
each  other  in  repellent  monotony.  The  earth  was  repulsive  in  its  arid, 
forlorn  barrenness,  and  the  sky  was  still  more  repulsive  in  its  sunless 
pall  of  cloud." 

On  reaching  the  station  of  Kalamurina  the  expedition  were  dis- 
appointed to  find  it  had  been  deserted,  but  a  good  supply  of  fresh  wat«r 
was  found  in  a  pool  of  the  bed  of  the  Diamantina,  and  the  general  appear- 
ance of  the  country  indicated  that  there  need  be  no  fear  of  a  failure  of 
water.  A  second  disappointment  at  Kalamurina  was  that  no  fosnl 
remains  could  be  found  there  owing  to  a  flood  up  the  river,  which  some 
months  before  had  covered  them  with  silt.  As  a  recompense,  however, 
Dr  Gregory  found  it  "the  best  zoological  and  botanical  collecting  ground' 


I' 


THE   DEAD   HEART   OF   AUSTRALIA  :    A    REVIEW.  23 

we  had  yet  visited,"  and  accordingly  a  halt  was  made  there  for  some 
days,  which  Dr.  Gregory  utilised  in  making  an  expedition  up  the  valley 
of  the  Diamantina  to  the  east  for  the  purpose  of  studying  the  geology 
of  the  tract.  He  Avas  fortunate  also  in  finding  some  interesting  fossils. 
Had  there  been  abundance  of  time  a  much  longer  period  could  have  been 
spent  very  profitably  at  Kalamurina  and  its  vicinity,  but  the  train  to 
Hergott,  which  it  was  imperative  the  expedition  should  catch,  ran  only 
07ice  a  fortnight,  and  so  it  was  necessary  to  proceed  onwards  without 
further  delay.  They  followed  the  course  of  the  Diamantina  westwards 
for  fifty  miles,  of  which  Dr.  Gregory  writes :  "  The  scenery  was  full  of 
variety  and  often  beautiful.  The  river  passed  below  cliffs  of  marl, 
crowded  with  large  gypsum  crystals,  whose  faces  flashed  in  the  sunlight 
like  plates  of  silver.  Elsewhere  the  river  channel  was  bounded  by  high 
bluffs  of  bedded  loam ;  and  from  their  summits  we  enjoyed  fine  views  of 
long  serpentine  reaches  of  salt  water,  entrenched  in  the  broad  river-bed. 
Additional  interest  was  given  to  these  salt-pools  by  the  swarms  of  birds 
that  frequented  them — swans,  shags,  pelicans,  goliah-parrots,  and  sea- 
gulls." At  the  end  of  the  fifty  miles  they  reached  Poonaranni,  the  last 
outpost  of  the  stations  along  the  Queensland  Road  on  the  eastern  side  of 
Lake  Eyre ;  and  from  there  they  had  to  make  their  way  along  the 
northern  side  of  the  lake  through  country  of  which  very  little  was 
known,  till  they  reached  the  stations  along  the  Overland  Route  on  the 
west  of  the  lake.  In  the  course  of  this  march  they  had  to  cross  the 
Kallakoopah  and  Makumba  rivers.  Had  they  been  able  to  procure 
local  guides  from  among  the  few  aborigines  whom  they  met,  their 
difficulties  would  have  been  much  lessened,  but  unfortunately,  on  the 
one  occasion  when  they  found  some  of  the  natives,  the  blacks  fled  away 
in  dismay  when  the  white  men  appeared.  The  difficulties,  however,  of 
the  region  which  had  to  be  travelled  over,  turned  out  to  be  not  so  for- 
midable as  was  anticipated  ;  and  when,  about  half-way  across,  the  party 
had  the  good  fortune  to  pick  up  a  native  who  was  a  friend  of  one  of 
their  guides,  they  soon  reached  Peak  station  on  the  west  of  the  lake, 
where  they  arrived  just  in  time  to  witness  part  of  a  corroboree,  a  very 
interesting  description  of  which  is  given  in  another  part  of  the  book. 
From  Peak  station  a  night  march  took  them  to  Warrina,  where  they 
caught  the  fortnightly  train  to  Adelaide  and  brought  to  a  conclusion  a 
very  arduous  and  successful  expedition.  The  publication  in  detail  of 
the  scientific  results  will  be  awaited  with  much  interest. 

In  this  volume  Dr.  Gregory  discusses  with  much  acumen  and  con- 
spicuous impartiality  several  questions,  the  interest  and  importaiice 
of  which  are  not  confined  to  Australia.  For  example,  in  the  course  of 
his  travels  he  came  across  a  good  number  of  aborigines  of  various  tribes, 
and  evidently  spared  no  trouble  in  studying  and  investigating  their 
origin,  condition,  and  capacities.  He  formed  on  the  whole  a  kindly 
and  favourable  opinion  of  them,  a  ^qw  words  of  which  may  be  quoted. 
"Instead  of  finding  them  degraded,  lazy,  selfish,  savage,  they  were 
courteous  and  intelligent,  generous  even  to  the  point  of  imprudence,  and 
phenomenally  honest;  while  in  the  field  they  proved  to  be  burn 
naturalists  and  superb   bushmen.  .  .  .  Before  our  stay  at  Kilalpanina 


24  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

had  come  to  an  end,  we  all  shared  the  feeling,  that  of  all  the  quaint 
delusions  concerning  Australia,  the  quaintest  is  that  which  represents  its 
aborigines  as  the  most  useless  and  untrainable  of  savages."  In  another 
passage  he  refers  to  their  affection  for  their  children  and  care  for  the 
aged  and  infirm  members  of  the  tribe,  and  to  their  unusual  receptivity 
of  education.  With  regard  to  the  vexed  question  of  their  antiquity, 
he  impugns  the  theories  of  Barton  and  Dr.  Lang,  and  on  a  careful  con- 
sideration of  their  skulls  and  physical  features,  and  still  more  of  their 
type  of  mind,  he  has  come  to  the  conclusion  that  the  aborigines  of 
Australia  belong  to  the  Caucasian  section  of  the  human  race. 

It  was  inevitable  that  in  a  work  on  the  "Dead  Heart  of  Australia" 
Dr.  Gregory  should  have  much  to  say  about  its  climatic  conditions  and 
water-supply  ;  and  indeed  the  last  quarter  of  this  book  is  devoted  to  this 
subject,  the  interest  and  importance  of  which  to  Australia  are  very 
obvious.  It  was  only  in  the  year  1880  that  the  existence  of  an  Artesian 
supply  of  water  was  discovered  and  realised,  and  now  Artesian  wells  are 
fairly  numerous,  especially  in  Queensland,  but  they  have  not  been  nearly 
so  successful  or  profitable  as  was  anticipated.  For  this  there  are  two 
causes  :  the  one,  the  excessive  soakage  and  evaporation,  which  account 
for  a  very  large  proportion  of  the  water  which  reaches  the  surface;  the 
other,  the  highly  saline  quality  of  the  water  in  many  places,  which  tends 
in  a  comparatively  short  time  to  destroy  the  fertility  of  the  soil.  Thus 
it  comes  about  that  the  principal  use  of  the  Artesian  wells  is  merely  to 
provide  water  for  cattle  on  the  stock  routes  through  deserts.  But  of 
late  years  the  Artesian  theory  has  been  much  discredited  and  is  now 
fast  giving  way  to  the  Plutonic  theory,  which  is  based  on  the  distribu- 
tion of  the  water,  the  variations  and  pulsations  of  its  pressure,  and  its 
chemical  qualities.  We  must  refer  our  readers  who  are  interested  in  this 
subject  to  the  lucid  and  thoughtful  exposition  of  it  which  they  will  find 
in  this  book.  Dr.  Gregory  gives  good  reasons  for  believing  that  the 
supply  of  subterranean  water  is  limited,  and  that  the  unnecessary  waste 
of  it  which  is  now  going  on  is  in  the  last  degree  impolitic  and  should 
be  prohibited  by  legislation.  In  his  last  chapter  he  discusses  the  pro- 
posal to  flood  Lake  Eyre  from  the  sea,  a  fascinating  but  impracticable 
idea  which  took  shape  in  1883,  some  six  years  after  the  fantastic  pro- 
posal to  Hood  the  Sahara  of  Africa  from  the  ^Mediterranean.  The  idea  to 
flood  Lake  Eyre  was  revived  about  a  dozen  years  ago,  and  rough  estimates 
of  its  initial  cost  were  prepared.  The}-  amounted  to  the  prohibitive  sum  of 
£740,000,000,  to  which  had  to  be  added  an  enormous  sum  for  cost  of 
maintenance.  It  was  also  calculated  that  in  thirty  years,  owing  to 
evaporation,  which  goes  on  at  the  rate  of  100  inches  per  annum, 
the  whole  bed  of  the  lake  would  be  filled  with  salt.  The  project  was 
accordingly  abandoned,  probably  for  ever. 

But  it  is  impossible,  within  the  limits  of  our  space,  to  give  even  a 
summary  of  the  information  Dr.  Gregory  has  collected  and  laid  before 
his  readers  on  these  and  other  highly  important  topics,  or  the  reasoning 
for  the  conclusions  at  which  he  has  arrived.  We  have,  however,  said 
enough  to  recommend  this  very  interesting  work  to  our  readers.  We 
must  add  that  the  author's  style,  even  when  dealing  with  scientific  matters, 


THE  DEAD  HEART  OF  AUSTRALIA  :  A  REVIEW.  2o 

is  crisp  and  lucid,  bright  and  often  humorous — the  style  of  a  master  of 
his  subject,  who  writes  with  all  the  confidence  and  clearness  gained  by 
experience  and  conscientious  study,  and  thus  commands  and  receives 
the  sustained  and  interested  attention  of  his  readers.  The  photographs 
which  illustrate  the  work  are  good,  and  there  are  also  a  couple  of  maps 
which  contribute  materially  to  the  convenience  of  the  reader. 


THE  VOLCANOES  OF  MEXICO. 

1.  Amonw  the  papers  of  which  advance  copies  were  distributed  to  the 
members  of  the  International  Geological  Congress  in  Mexico  is  one  by 
Mr.  J.  G.  Aguilera  (Director  of  the  Mexican  Geological  Institute),  entitled 
"  Les  Volcans  du  Mexique  dans  leurs  relations  avec  le  relief  et  la 
tectonique  g^n^rale  du  pays."  It  is  accompanied  by  a  map,  on  the  scale 
of  -,,,55^  or  78"9  miles  to  1  inch,  on  which  all  the  volcanoes  known 
to  him  are  shown  (so  far  as  the  scale  permits).  There  is  a  curious 
omission  on  the  map,  viz.  the  volcano  of  Tuxtla,  SE.  of  Vera  Cruz, 
although  it  is  thrice  mentioned  in  the  text.  The  map  also  shows  the 
chief  faults,  lines  of  fracture,  and  lines  of  plication  of  the  strata,  and  is 
accompanied  by  a  corresponding  map  on  tracing  paper  showing  the 
position  and  direction  of  the  mountain  chains  and  the  distribution  of 
earthquakes. 

The  author  points  out  that  the  volcanic  rocks  occur  chiefly  in  the 
western  half  of  the  country,  and  are  only  sporadic  in  the  east,  except  in 
the  region  where  the  states  of  Vera  Cruz,  Puebla,  and  Hidalgo  meet. 
Tne  volcanic  rocks  belong  principally  to  three  types — andesites,  rhyo- 
lites,  and  basalts.  Generally  speaking,  the  andesites  were  extruded 
first,  then  the  rhyolites,  and  lastly  the  basalts,  though  there  are  excep- 
tions to  this  order.  The  andesites  were  usually  erupted  through  vents 
("  cheminees  "),  hence  by  crater  eruptions,  although  fissure  eruptions  are 
not  rare.  The  rhyolites,  on  the  contrary,  were  the  result  of  fissure 
eruptions,  with  the  exception  of  the  Pico  do  Bernal,  NE.  of  Qaeretaro, 
and  one  or  two  others  in  the  state  of  Queretaro.  The  basalts  were 
almost  exclusively  the  product  of  crater  eruptions. 

Vulcanism,  which  probably  began  to  manifest  itself  in  the  Eocene, 
has  continued  to  the  present  day  with  generally  decreasing  energy. 
Contrary  to  the  common  idea  that  the  Mexican  volcanoes  are  near  the 
se  I,  almost  all  of  them  are  in  reality  very  far  from  it.  The  coastal 
volcanoes  are  few,  namely,  those  of  Mexican  Lower  California,  of  Tepic 
territory,  Ouietepec  in  the  state  of  Guerrero,  Tuxtla  in  the  state  of  Vera 
Cruz,  and  one  or  two  others. 

The  Mexican  volcanic  arc  is  parallel  to  the  Western  Sierra  Madre, 
anil  the  volcanoes  are  more  numerous  on  the  eastern  side  of  that  range, 
that  is,  towards  the  Central  Plateau  ;  they  are  also  irregularly  distributed 
over  the  plateau,  and  are  few  in  number  in  the  Eastern  Sierra  Madre, 
su;h  as  occur  there  being  almost  all  on  its  side  turned  towards  the 
plateau  (except  Tuxtla). 

There  are  two  predominant  directions  of  faults,  fractures,  and  folds  in 


26  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

Mexico;  firstly,  from  NW.  to  SE.,  and  secondly,  from  XE.  to  SAV. :  the 
latter  is  less  constant  than  the  former.  A  third  less  frequent  direction 
is  east  and  west.  The  volcanic  manifestations  have  taken  place  in  lines 
parallel  to  the  mountain  folds.  The  mineral  vein.';,  which  owe  their 
origin  to  the  volcanic  rocks,  exhibit  very  constantly  a  parallelism  to  the 
lines  of  relief. 

Mr.  Aguilera  claims  to  have  demonstrated  ^  that  the  volcanic  fissure 
of  Humboldt,-  which  Felix  and  Lenk  also  suppose  to  be  a  transverse 
fracture  situated  on  the  southern  margin  of  the  Central  Plateau  (Mesa 
Central),  the  border  itself  being  a  manifestation  of  the  fissure,  does  not 
really  exist,  and  that  the  valley  of  the  Rio  de  las  Balsas  is  a  valley  of 
erosion  posterior  in  date  of  formation  to  the  volcanoes  of  the  Cential 
Plateau. 

The  seismic  zones  of  Mexico  are  not  situated  in  the  volcanic  zones, 
but  on  the  contrary  they  occur  in  regions  where  there  are  no  volcanoes. 
The  seismic  area  is  situated  in  the  most  ancient  part  of  the  country 
where  one  might  have  expected  great  stability  ;  it  is  in  the  region  of 
Archaean  rocks. 

2.  The  Volcano  of  Nauhcampatepetl  or  Cofre  de  Piwte. — In  the  Bole  fin 
de  la  Sociedad  Geohkjica  Mexicana,  tomo  i.  (1904),  pp.  151  to  168,  is  a 
paper  in  Spanish,  by  Mr.  Ezequiel  Ordonez,  entitled  "  El  Nauhcampatepetl 
6  Cofre  de  Perote,"  in  which  the  extinct  volcano  situated  N.  lat.  19°  29' 
and  W.  long.  97°  12'  is  described,  with  four  views.  It  owes  its  names, 
Cofre  de  Perote  and  Nauhcampatepetl  (from  Mexican  Nauhcampa,  four- 
sided  ;  tepetl,  mountain)  to  the  coff'er-like  vestige  of  a  lava  bed,  in  the  foim 
of  a  flattened  rectangular  prism,  with  an  estimated  length  of  300  meties, 
a  height  of  25  metres  at  its  eastern,  and  40  metres  at  its  western  end, 
which  forms  its  summit.  Its  altitude  is  4282  metres  (14,048  ft),  though 
the  Mesa  Central  at  its  western  foot  reaches  2400  metres  (7874  ft.). 
The  summit  does  not  reach  the  snowline,  but  the  limit  of  arborescent 
vegetation  on  the  western  side  is  at  385  0  metres  (12,628  ft.).  The 
mountain  consists  of  numerous  superposed  massive  beds  of  lava,  inclined 
in  the  same  direction  as  the  slope  of  the  mountain  sides  and  separated 
by  beds  of  agglomerate,  or  by  brecciform  rocks,  indicating  that  the 
heated  overlying  lava-stream  produced  a  re-fusion  in  the  underlying 
already  cold  bed  ;  in  other  cases  the  lava  beds  appear  to  be  fused  ^ith 
one  another.     Some  half-melted  lava  masses  were,  however,  ejected  by 

^  Aguilera,  "Sobre  las  condkiones  tecnicas  de  la  RepuWica  Mexicana,"  in  the  Anvario 
de  la  Acad.  Mex.  de  Ciencias  Exactas,  Fisuo.sy  Naturales,  vol.  iv.  pp.  103-104  (19C0).  I 
have  not  seen  this  paper.  Dr.  Eniilio  Bo.se,  chief  geologist  of  the  Mexican  Geological 
In.stitute,  maintains  the  same  view  in  the  chapter  "On  the  Origin  of  the  Mexican  Mesa 
Central,"  in  Bulletin  No.  13  of  that  Institute,  entitled  Geulogio.  de  los  Al rededores  de  Orizaba 
(1899).  He  says  (translation),  p.  49,  "The  Mesa  Central  of  Mexico  is  a  completely 
secondary  phenomenon  and  is  not  to  be  attributed  to  great  lateral  fractures  (it  is  not  a 
'  Horst '  [area  left  above  its  surroundings  by  circumjacent  depression]),  but  was  formed  by 
the  filling  up  of  the  mo-st  [elevated  valleys  of  the  ancient  mountain  mass  by  masses  of 
eruptive. rocks,  volcanic  sands  and  modeni  alluvia." 

2  See  Cosmos,  Bohn's  edition,  1849,  vol.  i.  p.  238,  where  Humboldt  states  that  Orizaba, 
Popocatepetl,  Jornllo,  and  C'olima  "are  situated  in  a  transverse  fissure  running  from  sea 
to  sea." 


THE   VOLCANOES   OF   MEXICO.  27 

small  apertures  on  the  flanks  of  the  great  cone  foiming  small  conical 
domes  near  the  "llano  de  los  Pozitos "  at  3000  metres.  The  lava 
streams  succeeded  one  another  with  such  rapidity  that  it  would  be  im- 
possible to  establish  any  chronological  distinction  between  them.  They 
appear  to  belong  to  a  single  period  of  eruption.  One's  chief  preoccupation 
on  arriving  at  the  summit  of  Nauhcampatepetl  is  to  discover  the  vent 
from  which  so  enormous  a  mass  of  lavas  has  been  extruded,  since  no 
complete  crater  exists,  and  in  this  respect,  and  in  the  mode  of  occurrence 
of  the  lavas,  the  mountain  greatly  resembles  Ixtaccihuatl.  Between  the 
summit  proper  and  a  peak  which  Ordonez  terms  Pico  de  Mitancingo, 
hardly  500  metres  distant  and  of  almost  the  same  height,  is  a  deep 
cavity  open  to  the  east  in  the  form  of  an  inverted  half-cone,  called  the 
Potrero  de  las  Viboras.  While  the  lavas  of  the  summit  are  slightly 
inclined  to  the  west,  those  surrounding  the  Potrero  have  a  contrary 
inclination.  Hence  Ordonez  is  inclined  to  regard  the  Potrero  as  the 
place  of  exit  of  the  lavas,  although  for  such  a  vent  it  is  very  narrow. 
The  general  impression  that  one  obtains  on  visiting  the  volcano  is  that 
of  a  mountain  in  ruins.  The  lavas  are  hypersthene  andesites,^  the 
porphyritic  constituents  being  labradorite,  andesine,  hypersthene,  and 
augite,  and  the  ground-mass  consisting  of  more  or  less  devitrified  glass 
with  microlites  of  oligoclase,  augite  and  black  iron  ore. 

After  a  long  period  of  repose  volcanic  activity  was  resumed,  not  by 
the  ancient  vent,  probably  closed  for  ever,  but  at  numerous  points  on 
the  eastern  side  of  the  mountain,  and  more  basic  basaltic  lavas  were 
poured  out  from  numerous  well-formed  scoria  cones. 

Ord6iiez  holds  that  the  great  volcanoes  of  Mexico,  in  spite  of  their 
size  and  altitude,  are  the  results  of  the  localisation  and  subdivision 
(owing  to  the  consumption  of  material  and  energy)  of  a  great  internal 
reservoir  of  magma,  which  began  to  reach  the  surface  at  the  beginning 
of  the  Miocene.  As  a  proof  of  this,  he  mentions  that  certain  Mexican 
volcanic  sierras  are  formed  in  great  part  of  one  single  type  of  eruptive 
material  without  sudden  changes  of  composition.  These  homogeneous 
sierras  do  not  exhibit  a  structure  indicating  a  formation  or  growth  due  to 
successive  accumulations  of  lava,  but  were  formed  at  one  eruption  ;  they 
are  elongated  as  if  they  had  been  formed  along  fissures.  On  the  flanks 
and  extremities  of  these  masses  we  meet  with  monogenic  volcanoes,  com- 
posed of  successive  beds  of  lava,  volcanoes  of  suddenly  arrested  activity, 
to  which  type  he  refers  Cofre  de  Perote.  Lastly,  we  have  the  great  cones, 
also  built  up  of  beds  of  lava,  but  in  which  the  diminished  volcanic 
activity  manifested  itself  for  a  long  time  intermittently  and  with  a  great 
number  of  explosive  eruptions,  during  which  the  old  lava  fields  and  the 
extensive  lakes  of  the  neighbouring  valleys  were  covered  with  thick  beds 
of  volcanic  dust  and  pumice.  The  volcanoes  of  the  second  type  exhibit 
summits  of  crestlike  form,  as  two  examples  of  Avhich  we  have  Nauhcam- 
patepetl and  Ixtaccihuatl,  each  of  them  contiguous  to  a  magnificent 
cone  of  the  third  type,  namely  the  Peak  of  Orizaba  (Citlaltepetl)  and 
Popocatepetl.  Bernard  Hobson. 

1  In  Professor  J.  C.  Russell's  Volcanoes  of  North  America  (1897),  p.  186,  they  are  called 
dioritic  trachytes. 


28  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


WESTERN  TIBET  AND  THE  BRITISH  BORDERLAND.^ 

Thk  title  of  this  book  inverts  the  order  of  the  contents.  Wliat  is  called 
"  The  British  Borderland "  naturally  comes  first,  and  Tibet  across  its 
border  follows.  The  author  is  the  Deputy  Commissioner,  or  chief  civil 
officer,  of  the  British  Hill  District  of  Kumaon,  and  the  book  is  the 
result  of  a  journey  made  by  him  and  Dr.  Longstaff  from  Almora,  the 
district  capital,  along  the  eastern  frontier  of  the  district  by  the  Kali 
Valley  and  over  the  Lipu  Lekh  Pass  into  the  adjacent  parts  of  Tibet. 
The  return  into  Kumaon  was  made  over  the  passes  on  the  western 
frontier  of  the  district  which  lead  into  the  Milam  Valley. 

Kumaon,  with  the  contiguous  district  of  British  Garhwal  on  the 
west,  was  ceded  to  the  British  in  1816  after  the  Gurkha  War.  It  has 
thus  been  under  British  administration  for  ninety  years,  and  is  a  district 
well  known  to  and  much  visited  by  British  residents  in  Northern 
India.  It  has  also  been  the  subject  of  many  official  reports.  To  this 
day  the  most  notable  of  these  are  the  reports  of  its  first  British  adminis- 
trator, Mr.  G.  W.  Traill,  of  the  Bengal  Civil  Service.  They  were 
written  in  1823  and  1825,  and  were  republished  with  Government 
sanction  by  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal  in  volumes  xvi.  and  xvii.  of 
The  Asiatic  Researches.  They  are  the  basis  or  contain  the  gist  of  most 
of  what  has  since  been  recorded  officially  or  otherwise  regarding 
Kumaon.  But  it  has  remained  to  the  author  of  the  book  before  us  to 
describe  parts  of  the  district  in  a  popular  way,  filling  in  many  interest- 
ing details,  and  above  all  to  put  his  contribution  into  a  pleasing  (if 
tviighti/)  form  by  means  of  an  almost  innumerable  collection  of  beautiful 
photographs. 

The  orographical  features  of  Kumaon  and  Garhwal,  as  of  other  parts 
of  the  Himala3'an  region,  are  striking.  The  districts  in  rough  outline 
make  up  a  parallelogram  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles  in  length 
and  one  hundred  in  depth,  abutting  on  the  east  upon  Nepal,  and 
facing  to  the  south-west  the  alluvial  plains  of  the  Gangetic  valley, 
which  at  the  base  of  the  mountains  may  be  said  to  have  an  average 
elevation  of  about  twelve  hundred  feet  above  the  sea-level,  and  to 
the  north-east  the  plains  of  south-western  Tibet,  the  average  eleva- 
tion of  which  may  be  put  at  14,000  feet.  The  ranges  by  which  the 
districts  are  traversed  trend  mainly  from  north-west  to  south-east,  as 
do  the  ranges  that  run  through  the  Tibetan  plateau.  The  main  axis 
or  watershed  lies  to  the  north  close  to  the  southern  border  of  the 
Tibetan  plateau.  Along  the  watershed,  and  connected  with  it  by  spurs 
projecting  mostly  to  the  south,  are  the  snowy  ranges  ("The  Snows") 
of  this  part   of   the   Himalayas,  knotted   here   and   there   into    groups 

1  Westei')i  Tib'A  a>id  the  British  Borderland,  the  Sacred  Country  of  Hindus  and 
BuMhists,  with  an  Axount  of  the  Oovernmtnt,  Religion,  and  Customs  of  its  Peoples. 
By  Charles  A.  Sherring,  M.A.,  F.R.G.S.  With  a  chapter  by  T.  G.  Longstaff,  M.B., 
F.R.G.S.,  describing  an  attempt  to  climb  Gurla  Mandhata.  With  Illustrations  and  Maps. 
London  :  Edward  Arnold,  1906.     Price  21s.  7iet. 


WESTERN    TIBET   AND   THE   BKITISH   BORDERLAND.  29 

of  peaks,  over  20,000  feet,  some  of  which  are  among  the  highest, 
and  present  scenery  of  snow-field  and  precipice  as  giand  as  any 
in  the  world.  It  is  this  lofty  region,  with  the  valleys,  having  an 
elevation  ranging  from  10,000  to  14,000  feet,  that  are  enfolded  in 
it,  that  is  "  The  Borderland "  of  this  book.  It  is  called  Bhote  by 
the  people  of  Kiimaon,  and  its  inhabitants  are  Bhotias.  The  ranges 
which  traverse  the  middle  and  southern  parts  of  Kumaon  are  much 
lower,  averaging  in  height  from  5000  to  9000  feet;  and  they  are, 
except  during  short  periods  in  the  winter,  snowless. 

The  streams  which  pass  down  the  larger  valleys  between  the  ranges 
throughout  Kumaon-Garhwal  mostly  issue  from  glaciers  in  the  snowy 
ranges.  A  number  of  these  glaciers  are  of  great  size,  and  they  descend 
to  12,000  or  13,000  feet  above  the  sea-level  and  about  3000  feet 
below  the  permanent  snow-line.  The  streams  are  shed  off'  in  channels 
of  steep  gradient,  at  first  mostly  towards  the  south-east  or  south-west, 
till  they  turn  the  flanks  of  the  ranges  through  deep  and  precipitous 
gorges,  the  first  excavation  of  Avhich  is  possibly  as  old  or  older  than  the 
beginning  of  the  elevation  of  the  folds  of  slowly  rising  land  out  of  which 
the  ridges  themselves  took  form.  Their  rapidly  flowing  waters  then  find 
their  way  southward  into  the  Indian  plains.  None  of  these  streams,  not 
even  the  headwaters  of  the  great  Ganges  itself,  have  their  sources  to  the 
north  of  the  Kumaon-Garhwal  watershed.  In  this  respect  they  difl^er 
from  the  Indus  and  Sutlej  to  the  west,  and  the  Kurnjili  and  a  few  other 
of  the  great  eastern  affluents  of  the  Ganges,  as  v/ell  as  the  great 
Brahmaputra,  to  the  east.  The  Kumaon  valleys  lying  south  of  the 
snowy  ranges  are  for  the  most  part  narrow  and  deep,  with  precipitous 
forest-clad  sides  rising  abruptly  from  the  level  of  the  river-bed,  especi- 
ally on  the  northern  sides  which  face  southwards.  Those  within  the 
snowy  ranges,  after  being  entered  from  the  southward  through  steep  and 
difficult  passes,  are  found  sometimes  to  open  out  into  wide  treeless 
stretches  of  pasture  land  with  comparatively  easy  gradients  overtopped 
by  bare  scree  and  crag ;  while  the  slopes  on  the  northern  side  of  the 
watershed  gradually  fall  away  in  expanding  and  comparatively  short 
valleys  into  the  Tibetan  plateau.  The  region  south  of  the  snowy  ranges 
is  one  drenched  by  the  periodical  rains  of  India,  and  cut  back  by  the 
channels  of -violently  rushing  rivers  and  streams  of  high  incline.  That 
within  and  beyond  them  is  sheltered  from  violent  and  excessive  rain- 
fall, and  no  part  of  it  lies  at  an  altitude  very  much  below  the  sources  of 
its  streams.  Therein  lie  the  chief  immediate  factors  in  the  evolution  of 
their  present  physiographical  condition. 

The  part  of  Tibet's  vast  area  which  lies  to  the  north  of  the  Kumaon 
mountains  is  its  south-western  corner,  called  by  the  inhabitants  Nari 
Khorsum,  and  known  to  the  people  on  the  British  side  of  the  frontier 
as  Hundes.  Its  extent  may  be  put  at  from  20,000  to  25,000  Kjuaie 
miles.  It  has  been  re  ore  or  less  visited  by  Europeans  since  early  in 
last  century  ;  and  a  good  deal  of  information  about  its  physiography 
and  people  has  been  collected  by  various  travellers,  and  gathered  from 
British  Hill  subjects  trading  with  its  inhabitants.  An  account  of  the 
adventurous  journey  of  Moorcroft  and  Hearsey  in  1812  (before  Kumaon 


30  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

or  any  other  Hill  district  had  come  into  British  hands)  was  published 
in  1816;  aad  an  account,  well  worthy  of  being  put  on  record,  more 
especially  for  its  scientific  value.of  a  journey  made  in  1848  by  Sir  Richard 
Strajhey  and  Air.  J.  E.  Wiaterbottom,  has  in  recent  years  been  printed 
in  volume  xv.  of  the  Geographical  Journal  of  London.  The  journey  was 
one  of  three  journeys  into  Tibet  during  1846-19,  in  which  Sir  R.  Strachey 
or  his  brother,  Henry  Strachey,  took  part.  And  in  1866-68  extensive 
explorations  were  made  by  Pandit  Nain  Singh  of  the  Indian  Survey, 
w!io  penetrated  to  the  gold  diggings  of  Thok  Jalung  on  the  north-west 
confines  of  Nari.  But  it  has  to  be  noted  that,  with  the  exception 
of  that  of  Moorcroft  and  Hearsay,  the  visits  of  travellers  and 
sportsmen  to  Xari  were  made  by  stealth,  or  in  defiance  of  the  local 
Tibetan  officials;  and  therefore  at  some  disadvantage  for  purposes 
of  inquiry  and  observation.  The  outstanding  feature  of  the  Tibetan 
journey  described  in  this  book  is  that  it  was  made  openly,  presumably 
with  the  sanction  and  support  of  the  Indian  Government,  and*  with 
the  consent  of  the  Tibetan  officials,  lay  and  ecclesiastical.  The  author 
visited  the  headquarters  of  the  Tibetan  officials,  which  are  also  the  trading 
marts,  from  Taklakote  below  the  Lipu  L3kh  Pass  to  Gartok  in  the  west, 
and  was  permitted  to  enter  and  inspect  the  monasteries  and  temples  on 
the  route.  The  latter,  no  European,  as  far  as  is  known,  had  ever  before 
entered  or  even  approached.  If  therefore  the  author  has  not  as  an 
original  explorer  added  to  our  knowledge  of  the  general  geography  of 
Nari,  he  has  been  able  to  verify  and  fill  in  much  detail,  and  to  illustrate  his 
narrative  and  observations  with  a  great  wealth  of  admirable  and  apposite 
pictures.  After  all,  the  main  objects  of  his  journey  were  not  so  much 
geographical,  as  the  initiation  of  friendly  and  confidential  relations  with 
the  Tibetans  and  of  commercial  and  other  communications  between 
India  and  Nari.  In  this  object,  by  his  tact  and  kindly  bearing,  he 
seems  to  have  been  very  successful. 

The  physical  features  of  Nari  are  as  uniform  as  those  of  Kumaon  are 
varied.  It  is  as  a  whole  a  stone-covered,  wind-swept,  nearly  rainless 
plateau,  lying  about  14,000  feet  above  the  sea-level.  Along  the  rivers 
whence  irrigation  is  possible  the  soil  is  under  cultivation ;  elsewhere  the 
land  is  only  capable  of  supporting  the  flocks  and  herds  of  the  scanty 
nomads.  Mineral  wealth,  including  gold,  it  possesses.  But  borax  and 
salt  are  the  only  such  products  which  have  in  the  recent  past  been  to 
any  extent  material  of  foreign  commerce.  The  gold  has  always  gone 
to  Lhasa  and  Pekin. 

Nari  is  intersected  from  north-west  to  south-east  by  hill-ranges  at  an 
elevation  of  2000  or  3000  feet  above  the  plain.  In,  or  as  off-sets,  of  these 
ranges  there  arise  in  some  places  groups  of  massive  peaks  reaching  3000  or 
4000  feet  more.  Such  are  Kailas  and  Gurla  Mandhata,an  account  of  Dr. 
Longstaff's  plucky  attempt  to  scale  the  latter  of  which  forms  one  of  the 
chapters  of  this  book.  They  are  situated  on  the  eastern  limit  of  Nari,  and 
are  part  of  tlie  watershed  on  the  eastern  side  of  which  rise  the  headwaters 
of  the  Brdhmaputra,  and  on  the  southern  and  western  those  of  the 
Kurndii,  the  Sutlej,  and  the  southern  branch  of  the  upper  Indus.  In 
themselves,  as  compared  with  the  Himalayan  snowy  groups,  Kailas  and 


WESTERN   TIBET   AND   THE    BRITISH   BORDERLAND.  31 

Gurla,  with  the  liakshas  and  Mansarovar  Lakes  at  their  foot,  seem  to 
present  no  very  special  features  of  mysterious  grandeur  or  beauty. 
Tiieir  place  in  Hindu  and  Buddhist  mytli  and  theogony  is  jiossibly  due 
to  their  position,  hid  away  from  the  known  world  of  Hindustan  and  the 
Panjab,  behind  the  all  but  impenetrable  barrier  of  the  Himalayas,  on 
the  confines  of  an  unknown  and  ghostly  country.  It  may  be  doubted 
whether  to  the  Hindu  of  to-day  they,  as  places  of  pilgrimage,  very 
strongly  appeal.  For  they  have  no  Hindu  shrines,  and  passing  beyond 
Ke  larnath  and  Badrinath  in  the  Garliwal  mountains,  shrines  at  which 
priests  summoned  from  Southern  India  minister,  the  pilgrim  enters  a 
foreign  and  inhospitable  land  which  now  knows  not  (if  it  ever  did) 
Shiva  and  Vishnu,  and  where  none  of  their  votaries  are  present  to 
receive  and  apply  votive  offerings  and  call  forth  the  rapture  of  the 
worshipper.  Comparatively  few,  therefore,  of  the  hill-going  pilgrims 
pass  into  these  higher  regions,  and  it  is  questionable  whether,  even 
with  an  open  and  safe  Tibet,  the  throng  will  ever  be  great.  In  its 
religious  aspect  as  affecting  India  the  author  seems,  in  a  Avord,  to  over- 
estimate the  importance  of  Nari. 

^yho  were  the  earliest  human  occupants  of  the  Kumaon  Hills  has 
not  been  proved.  Possibly  survivals  of  them  may  be  seen  in  the 
Rajis  or  Eawuts  (the  Forest-men)  living  near  Askot,  and  in  the  servile 
Doms  or  Dumras  to  be  found  throughout  Kumaon  south  of  the  water- 
shed. These  are  not  Aryan  by  race ;  nor,  apparently,  are  they 
mongoloid,  of  the  type  found  in  Bhote.  Their  affinities  may  possibly 
be  found  to  be  with  some  of  the  so-called  aboriginal  tribes  of  north- 
eastern India,  whence,  in  that  case,  they  entered  the  hills.  Super- 
imposed upon  this  lower  stratum  of  i^oiJulation,  except  in  Bhote,  is 
the  great  body  of  Hindus  known  in  Kumaon  as  Khasias.  They 
are  divided  into  various  castes  and  have  various  traditions  as  to  the 
places  of  their  origin.  They  speak  and  write  a  dialect  of  the  Hindi 
language,  and  their  general  social  economy  is  that  of  the  Aryan  peoples 
of  the  plains  of  north-western  India.  Their  ostensible  religion  also  is 
the  ordinary  Brahminical  cult  of  the  Indian  continent,  inwoven  here  as 
there  into  a  texture  of  local  spirit  and  ancestor-worship,  which  in 
reality  dominates  their  lives  far  more  than  the  priestly  cult  does. 
Among  them  are  scattered  families  of  bluer  blood,  the  descendants  or 
survivals  of  high-caste  families  who,  probably  more  recently  than  the 
Khasias,  came  from  the  Indian  plains  and  gained  predominance,  general 
or  local,  over  the  hill-dwellers.  For  instance,  a  dynasty  of  Surajbans 
(solar)  Rajputs  known  as  the  Katur,  is  said  to  have  once  ruled  Kumaon  ; 
and  within  recent  historic  times  the  Raja  of  Kumaon  was  a  Chandarbans 
(lunar)  Rajput,  whose  remote  ancestors  were  said  to  have  lived  in  the 
Gangetic  Doab.  The  Rajbar  of  Askot  spoken  of  in  this  book  is  also  a 
Surajbans,  and  socially  superior  to  the  surrounding  Khasian  Hindus. 

It  is  wholly  different  with  the  upper  stratum  of  population  in  Bhote. 
That  seems  to  be  mongoloid  and  to  have  entered  its  present  seats  from 
the  north.  As  a  fact  Bhote  was  formerly  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Tibet 
and  was  conquered  by  the  Rajas  of  Kumaon  and  Garhwal  well  within 
historic    times.      The    north-eastern    corner  was   perhaps   never   fully 


32  SCOTTISH   GKOGEAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

subject  to  the  Hindus  of  Kumaon,  and  was  only  incorporated  in  that 
principality  when  in  1791  A.d.  it  ^vas  overrun  by  the  Gurkhas,  by  whom 
it  was  ceded  to  the  British  twenty-five  years  later.  To  this  day  (or  at 
any  rate  till  quite  recently)  the  Bhotias,  although  British  subjects  dwell- 
ing in  British  territory,  continue  to  acknoAvledge  Tibetan  suzerainty  by 
the  payment  of  certain  taxes,  the  enforcement  of  Avhich  is  secured  by 
their  trading  interests  in  Tibet. 

How  closely  the  Bhotias  are  akin  by  descent  to  the  existing  tribes 
of  Nari  is  not  clear.  The  dialects  spoken  by  them  are  apparently  related 
to  those  used  there.  But  socially  and  religiously  the  Bhotias  are  far 
parted  from  the  Tibetans.  "While  the  latter  are  Lamaists  and  Shamanists, 
overridden  by  priests  and  wizards,  and  cursed  with  the  custom  of 
polyandry,  the  former  are  not.  Their  ancestral  customs  and  beliei's, 
some  of  which  are  minutely  described  in  this  book,  have  probably 
been  best  preserved  by  the  eastern  clans.  These  exhibit  a  social 
condition  which,  if  not  highly  moral,  is  yet  singularly  free  from 
the  demands  and  restrictions  that  burden  and  repress  the  Hindu, 
and  from  the  abject  submission  to  priestcraft  and  demonology  that 
prevails  in  Nari.  They  worship  they  know  not  what  at  little  rude 
shrines  adorned  with  prayer  flags;  and  the  essence  of  their  religion 
seems  to  be  the  fear  and  appeasement  of  countless  spirits  and  phantoms, 
including  the  spirits  of  their  ancestors.  But  between  the  worshipper  and 
the  Unseen  no  professional  human  intermediary  is  employed;  and  ghosts 
notwithstanding,  they  are  a  light-hearted  and  cheerful  people,  as  well 
as  industrious  and  energetic.  It  is  truly  remarkable  that  this  small 
body  of  eastern  Bhotias  should  have  preserved,  as  they  have  done, 
their  primitive  customs  and  traditional  beliefs  alike  against  Hindu  and 
Buddhist. 

The  case  of  the  western  Bhotias  is  otherwise.  They  afford  another 
instance  of  what  has  frequently  been  observed  in  India,  namely  the 
gradual  absorption  of  non-Aryan  tribes  into  the  ranks  of  Brahmanism 
(see  Sir  Alfred  Lyall's  Asiafic  Studies,  1st  series,  chapter  v.).  Why  the 
Bhotias  remained  outside  Buddhism  when  their  neighbours  and  rulers 
in  Nari  became  Buddhists,  and  the  influences  of  Brahmanism  have 
been  more  potent  in  western  than  in  eastern  Bhote,  is  not  fully 
apparent.  Doubtless  the  western  Bhotias  have  been  associated  with 
Hindus  during  the  last  two  hundred  years  or  longer,  more  closely 
than  their  eastern  brethren;  they  are  certainly  nearer  to  the  great 
places  and  routes  of  Hill  pilgrimage.  They  are  now,  in  fact,  a  more 
civilised  and  polished  community  than  the  eastern  Bhotias.  From 
among  them  have  sprung  two  at  least  of  the  best  of  the  Indian 
Government's  native  explorers  and  surveyors — Nain  Singh  ("  A  ")  and 
Kishna  Singh  ("A.  K."),  both  of  whom  are  natives  of  Milam.  The 
opportunities  of  these  men  have  been  exceptional.  But  they  are 
samples  of  the  mental  and  moral  capacity  to  be  found  in  the  remote 
Bhotia  glens. 

The  energy  of  the  Bhotias  find  their  exercise  in  trade.  The 
practical  monopoly  of  the  traffic  across  the  Kumaon  and  Garhwal 
passes  is  in  Bhotian  hands,  under  strictly  regulated  arrangements  among 


WESTERN   TIBET  AND   THE  BRITISH  BORDERLAND.  33 

themselves  and  their  Tibetan  correspondents.  It  is  carried  on  by  packs 
upon  the  backs  of  sheep,  goats,  and  cross  and  thoroughbred  yaks,  by 
which  are  transported  the  grain,  sugar,  cloths,  and  hardware  (exports  from 
India),  and  the  salt,  borax,  and  wool  (imports  into  India),  which  form  its 
staples.  The  value  of  the  exports  and  imports  is  comparatively  small, 
and  is  not  likely,  for  a  long  time  to  come,  to  become  very  great.  But 
the  trade  is  worthy  of  encouragement  as  giving  employment  to  the 
labour  and  capital  of  a  sturdy  and  enterprising,  as  Avell  as  loyal,  race  of 
traders  and  carriers,  who  are  capable  also  of  becoming  one  of  the  vehicles 
of  British  influence  in  Tibet. 

The  kinship  of  the  people  of  Nari  to  the  mongoloid  races  of  Central 
Asia  seems  to  lie  rather  in  the  direction  of  Burma  and  south-western 
China  than  on  the  other  hand  northwards  in  the  direction  of  Tartary 
and  Mongolia.  It  is  known,  too,  that  between  India  and  Tibet,  includ- 
ing Nari,  there  was  considerable  communication  in  past  ages ;  and 
whatever  may  have  been  the  case  with  Tantrism,  Buddhism  entered  Tibet 
from  India.  The  primitive  cult  of  the  country  was  no  doubt  demonology, 
in  contact  with  which  the  imported  Buddhism  probably  degenerated  more 
and  more  from  the  original  Indian  doctrine  and  practice.  It  seems 
unlikely  that  much  early  intercourse  between  India  and  Nari  took  place 
over  the  Kumaon  and  Garhwal  passes.  It  was  carried  on  chiefly  from 
the  west  along  the  valleys  of  the  Indus  and  the  Sutlej,  a  line  of 
access  which  the  Mongol  invasion  of  Mirza  Haidar  in  the  sixteenth 
century  and  the  Sikh  expedition  of  184-1  showed  to  be  practicable. 
But  for  a  long  period  under  the  Lhasa  Government  Nari  has  been  a 
closed  country  against  India.  That  the  people  themselves  have  no 
antagonism  or  aversion  to  the  foreigner  from  the  south  is  plainly  seen 
from  this  book ;  and  official  obstruction  having  been  removed,  develop- 
ment of  intercourse  with  India,  to  the  advantage  of  the  people  of  Nari 
as  well  as  of  our  own  traders,  becomes  possible  and  likely.  Eude  and 
barbarous  as  they  are,  the  people  seem  to  be  characterised  by  certain 
robust  and  improvable  qualities.  Their  country  is,  however,  limited  in 
resources  and  thinly  populated  ;  and  they  are  ruled  by  an  unenlightened 
and  greedy  hierocracy  and  ofiicialdom.  A  great  and  rapid  improvement 
in  the  condition  and  affairs,  commercial  or  other,  of  Nari  cannot  reason- 
ably be  looked  for.  Yet  such  expeditions  as  that  of  which  this  book 
contains  the  record  cannot  fail  to  accomplish  a  little  towards  the 
desirable  end. 


THE  PAGAN  RACES  OF  THE  MALAY  PENINSULA.^ 

(With  Map  and  Illustration.) 

Men  of  business  and  travellers,  whose  calling  takes  them  to  the  Straits 
Settlements  either  as  settlers  or  in  passing  through,  are  brought  into 
intimate  association  with  the  Malay.     It  is  true  that  the  bulk  of  the 

1  Pagan  Races  of  the  Malay  Peninsula,  by  W.  W.  Skeat  and  C.  0.  Blagden.     London  : 
Macmillan  and  Co.,  1906.     In  two  volumes.     With  numerous  illustrations.     Price  425.  net. 
VOL.  XXIII.  C 


34  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

commerce,  both  wholesale  and  retai),  not  in  the  hands  of  the  European, 
is  conducted  by  Chinese,  but  the  Malay  is  constantly  in  evidence.  He 
oftentimes  acts  as  your  servant,  he  is  messenger  from  office  to  office ; 
he  is  an  expert  fisher  and  boatman.  He  is  a  Mohamm.edan  by  religion, 
and  is,  as  a  rule,  very  much  a  gentleman.  We  have  nothing  to  do  with 
him  for  the  present ;  he  is  not  one  of  the  pagan  races.  But  the  European 
is  made  vaguely  aware  by  hearsay  of  the  existence  of  another  race  or 
races  of  people  who  inhabit  the  mainland  of  the  Peninsula,  and  the 
seacoast ;  an  inferior  type,  more  or  less  dwarfed  in  stature,  who  live  in 
the  depths  of  the  jungle,  feeding  on  roots  and  on  the  prey  of  their 
blow-pipes,  very  primitive  and  exceedingly  shy.  If  the  traveller  takes  a 
journey  into  the  interior,  the  chances  are  that  he  will  see  here  and  there 
a  dim  form  flitting  among  the  shadows  of  the  forest  trees,  an  indefinite 
something  which  whisks  away  into  nothing.  "  Orang  Jakun,  Tuan," 
("  Jakun,  Sir"),  his  guide  will  tell  him,  and  he  probably  dismisses  him 
from  his  mind  as  one  of  the  Aborigines,  and  if  he  is  a  collector,  he  may 
wonder  whether  he  can  effect  a  deal  for  the  aboriginal  weapons.  This 
practically  sums  up  the  knowledge  which  the  ordinary  European  has 
of  these  very  interesting  peoples  who  are  found  in  the  country  called 
the  Federated  Malay  States,  and  in  the  islands  around.  Rudyard 
Kipling,  in  Many  Inventions  and  under  the  title  of  "  The  Disturber  of 
the  Traffic,"  introduces  one  variety  of  the  Jakun,  the  Orang  Laut,  an 
astonishingly  primitive  variety  who  live  on  the  sea.  "  You  cannot  drown 
an  Orange-Lord,  not  even  in  Flores  Strait  on  flood  time."  Laut,  how- 
ever, is  pronounced  like  our  Lout. 

There  has  always  been,  since  the  commencement  of  our  domination, 
a  small  band  of  earnest  scientists  who  have  made  a  study  of  the  Malay 
and  of  these  primitive  peoples.  The  copious  bibliography  published  in 
the  volumes  under  revieAv  is  ample  evidence  of  this ;  the  names  of 
J.  R.  Logan,  Crawfurd,  and  Thomas  Braddell  are  intimately  associated 
with  that  mine  of  lore,  the  Journal  of  the  Indian  Archipelago,  and  indeed 
it  would  be  invidious  to  make  a  selection  from  the  roll  of  distinguished 
names.  Not  the  least  interesting  to  us  will  be  that  of  Nelson  Annandale, 
Research  Student  in  Anthropology  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  who, 
as  Mr.  Skeat  says,  first  broke  ground  in  the  Peninsula  as  a  member 
of  the  Cambridge  Expedition  of  1899,  and  has  from  time  to  time 
published  the  results  of  his  investigations  in  the  Fasciculi  Malayenses. 
And  now  Mr.  W.  W.  Skeat  and  Mr.  Blagden  have  given  us  the  outcome 
of  years  of  study,  of  arduous  journeys  and  intimate  personal  knowledge, 
in  this  monumental  work.  Mr.  Skeat  must  rank  among  the  foremost 
of  living  Malay  scholars  and  students  of  the  races  of  the  Peninsula,  and 
has  already  established  his  reputation  by  his  book  on  Malay  Magic ; 
while  Mr.  Blagden  is  responsible  for  the  chapter  on  the  Language 
question,  and  for  the  Comparative  Vocabulary — in  some  ways  the  most 
important  part  of  the  work. 

As  the  preface  indicates,  the  book  is  in  the  nature  of  a  compilation 
from  many  sources,  with  the  addition  of  much  original  matter ;  and  it  is 
obvious  that  not  only  the  various  chapters,  but  even  sections  of  chapters, 
have  been  written  independently  and  at  different  times,  the  result  being 


THE   PAGAN    RACES   OF   THE    MALAY    PENINSULA.  35 

occasional  "  overlapping  "  of  information  ;  but  this  is  not  a  disadvantage, 


Mixed  Jakuu  type,  Bukit  Prual,  Selaugor. 

for  one  must  look  on  the  book  rather  as  an  encyclopEedia  in  which  the 
reader  will  find  each  heading  complete  in  itself. 


36  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

Who,  then,  are  these  primitive  peoples'?  Whence  did  they  corned 
There  are  three  well-defined  groups  which  inhabit  the  central  backbone 
of  the  Peninsula,  the  most  northerly  being  the  Semang,  more  or  less 
inland  from  Penang ;  the  Sakai,  on  a  line  from  the  Perak  River ;  and 
the  Jakuns,  a  composite  race  dwelling  anywhere  between  Malacca  and 
Johore,  and  the  islands  beyond.  Let  us  begin  by  admitting  that  all  the 
theories  held  up  to  the  present  time  are  only  tentative,  and  that  there  is 
a  great  field  for  the  ethnologist ;  only,  as  Mr.  Skeat  urges,  let  him  be 
quick,  for  distinctive  features  are  fast  disappearing.  The  classification 
adopted  is  that  of  Professor  Eudolf  Martin  of  Zurich,  who  has  taken 
the  hair  as  a  standard.  The  only  modification  which  Skeat  has  made 
has  been  to  add  a  standard  for  the  Jakuns.     Thus : 

Group  1.  Ulotrichi,  or  woolly-haired  tribes.     Semang. 
Group  2.  Cymotrichi,  or  wavy-haired  tribes.     Sakai. 
Group  3.  Lissotrichi,   or  smooth-haired  tribes.     Jakun    and   Orang 
Laut. 

The  Semang  or  Negrito  is  brachycephalic,  and  in  his  characteristics 
is  allied  to  the  Philippine  negrito,  the  Andamanese,  and  the  African 
Pigmies.  It  has  been  fairly  well  established  that  he  is  in  no  way 
connected  either  with  the  Papuan  or  the  African  negro.  He  has  two 
other  characteristics ;  he  uses  the  bow  and  arrow  in  place  of  the  blow- 
pipe, and  he  builds  his  huts  or  shelters  on  the  ground,  and  not  in 
trees. 

The  Sahii,  on  the  other  hand,  is  dolichocephalic.  There  are  two 
theories  to  account  for  his  origin.  One  lately  advanced  by  Schmidt 
seeks  to  identify  him  with  the  Mon-Annam  group,  an  Indo-Chinese 
source  to  which  we  shall  refer  later.  The  other,  Avhich  has  the  authority 
of  Virchow,  suggests  that  the  Sakai  is  allied  to  the  Vedda,  Tamil, 
Korumba,  and  Australian  races,  and  may  be  styled  the  Dravido- 
Australian  theory.  He  uses  the  blow-pipe,  a  beautifully  made  instru- 
ment, and  he  builds  in  trees,  or,  at  any  rate,  at  a  height  from  the 
ground. 

The  Jakun,  again,  is  brachycephalic.  He  belongs  to  a  less  well-defined 
group,  consisting  of  tribes  partly  aboriginal  Malayan,  partly  Semang, 
and  partly  Sakai.     He  is  mongolian  or  mongoloid. 

In  discussing  the  origin  of  these  Pagan  Races,  it  will  perhaps  clear 
the  ground  if  we  trace  what  is  known  of  the  past  history  of  the  dominant 
Malay  race,  with  whom,  as  we  have  said,  this  work  does  not  concern 
itself.  Swettenham  says,  in  British  Malaya,  page  144,  "There  are  good 
reasons  for  believing  that  Malays  are  the  descendants  of  people  who 
crossed  from  the  south  of  India  to  Sumatra,  mixed  with  a  people 
already  inhabiting  that  island,  and  gradually  spread  themselves  over 
the  central  and  most  fertile  states.  .  .  .  From  Sumatra  they  gradually 
worked  their  way  to  Java,  to  Singapore,  and  the  Malay  Peninsula,"  and  so 
on.  Our  authors  also  say  of  these  people,  "  The  Malay  language  has  been 
introduced  into  the  Peninsula  from  Central  Sumatra,  where  the  Malay- 
speaking  tribes  were  trained  under  Indian  influences  into  a  more  or  less 
civilised  condition  before  they  sent  out  the  successive  swarms  of  colonists 


THE   PAGAN   RACES   OF   THE   MALAY    PENINSULA.  37 

who  made  new  homes  ...  in  the  Peninsula  "  {Pagan  Races,  vol.  ii.  page 


434).     It  may  be  noted  here  that  the  word  Malay  is  used  to  denote 


38  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

this  Mohammedan  importation  from  Sumatra,  while  the  term  Malayan 
signifies  the  aboriginal  inhabitants  of  the  Peninsula  and  the  Archipelago, 
When,  then,  these  Malays  arrived  on  the  coast,  they  found  the  country 
already  occupied  by  the  Pagan  Races,  whom  they  gradually  drove  into 
their  jungle  fastnesses. 

The  problem  which  has  concerned  the  ethnologist,  and  is  still 
vexing  him,  is  how  to  trace  the  origin  of  these  peoples.  If  we  examine 
the  map  of  Asia,  we  see  that,  in  the  tendency  of  nations  to  overflow 
towards  the  south,  the  Peninsula  is  a  natural  resting-place.  It  acted  as 
a  breakwater  against  which  the  fury  of  the  north-east  monsoon  expended 
itself,  so  that  even  the  most  primitive  praus  could  coast  down  from 
India  in  comparatively  calm  water.  Moreover,  the  monsoon,  after 
having  spent  its  force,  brought  down  vessels  of  all  sorts  from  the  China 
side.  In  the  Malay  annals  one  reads  of  legends  of  this  kind.  In 
endeavouring  to  tell  what  is  known  of  these  migrations,  we  find  our- 
selves in  some  difficulty,  because  the  subject  is  still  in  suspense.  There 
are  no  records  of  any  kind,  and  the  student  has  to  be  guided  by  race 
characteristics  and  by  language.  We  are  therefore  brought  face  to  face 
with  the  problem  of  the  Mon-Annam  languages,  a  study  which  is  yet  in 
its  infancy,  and  which  offers  a  very  attractive  field  for  research.  The 
Mon-Annam  or  Mon-Khmer-Annam  tribes  coincide  very  much  with  what 
is  now  called  Indo-China,  From  what  distance  north  they  originally 
came  is  not  known,  but  it  is  thought  that  they  spread  out  towards  the 
north  of  India,  Burma,  and  Indo- China  generally.  The  reader  is  directed 
to  the  excellent  sketch-map  which  we  are  permitted  to  reproduce  here, 
by  which  he  will  understand  far  better  than  by  any  description  how 
these  allied  tribes,  arising  in  the  north-east,  spread  towards  the  west  and 
south,  forming  a  rough  segment  of  an  arc,  and  established  a  linguistic 
and  racial  connection  between  the  extreme  west  of  the  north-west 
provinces  of  India  and  the  Malay  Peninsula.  Originally,  before  the 
Burmese  and  Siamese  came  from  the  north,  these  Mon-Annam  races 
lived,  the  Monspeaking  in  Pegu,  the  Khmer  in  Camboga,  and  the  Annam 
up  in  Tongking,  but  the  Annamese  came  gradually  down  the  east  coast 
to  where  they  are  now.  All  this  is  excellently  portrayed  in  the  map. 
It  is  thought  that  when  the  Sumatra  Malays  arrived  on  the  scene,  they 
found  that  the  Mon-Khmer  races  occupied  the  same  relation  to  the 
aborigines  as  to-day  the  Malays  do  to  the  primitive  tribes  :  they  occupied 
the  coast-line  and  generally  the  points  of  vantage  ;  they  were  slowly 
driven  south  by  races  coming  after  them  ;  and  they,  in  their  turn, 
partly  assimilated  and  partly  drove  before  them  into  the  jungle,  the 
races  who  are  now  there. 

And  now  the  question  arises.  Are  these  pagan  races  of  Mon-Annam 
origin  or  not?  That  is  the  problem.  We  are  dealing  as  before  with 
the  Semang,  Sakai,  and  Jakuns.  The  Semang  or  Negritoes  are  frankly 
uncertain.  They  are  allied,  as  we  have  seen,  to  isolated  tribes  far  away, 
as  the  Philippine  negritoes  and  the  Andamanese,  and  there  is  a  large 
number  of  words  in  their  language  obviously  not  Mon-Annam.  When 
we  come  to  the  Sakai,  we  notice  a  slight  shade  of  divergence  between 
the  views  of  the  authors,  for  while,  as  it  seems  to  us.  Mr.  Skeat  inclines 


THE   PAGAN    RACES   OF   THE   MALAY   PENINSULA.  39 

to  the  Dravido-Australian  theory  of  Viichow,  Mr.  Blagden  rather  holds 
with  the  doctrine  first  suggested  by  liOgan,  that  the  Sakai  were  at  any 
rate  in  touch  with  the  Mon-Annam  peoples.  Schmidt,  later,  has  followed 
in  Blagden's  steps  and  boldly  holds  the  theory  that  the  Sakai  are  of  Mon- 
Annam  origin.  Of  the  Jakuns,  less  is  known.  They  are  a  mixed  race, 
a  congeries  of  the  "  tailings  "  of  various  tribes  thrown  into  that  corner 
of  the  Peninsula  from  all  sides.  Their  language  is  as  much  Archipelago 
as  Peninsular  Malay.  It  has  been  thought,  in  order  to  account  for 
many  discrepancies,  that  there  were  two  Mon-Khmer  waves,  the  one 
preceding  the  other  by  many  ages. 

The  chapters  dealing  with  their  modes  of  living,  their  hunting  and 
generally  gaining  a  precarious  livelihood,  are  full  of  interest  and  will  amply 
repay  the  reader.  One  often  thinks  how  instructive  it  would  be  if  by 
some  magic  power  one  could  be  transported  back  to  prehistoric  times, 
and  see  for  oneself  the  process  by  which  primitive  man  hunted  the 
mammoth  and  other  big  game.  Well,  here  we  have  the  operation  going 
on  at  the  present  time,  if  Ave  substitute  the  elephant  for  the  more  ancient 
animal.  These  simple  people,  practically  naked,  armed  only  with  the 
blow-pipe  and  rude  implements  made  of  bamboo  and  hard  wood,  will 
with  the  greatest  ease  track  down  and  kill  not  only  elephants,  but 
rhinoceros  and  tigers.  The  means  used  are  astonishingly  simple,  but 
we  shall  not  spoil  the  description  by  any  paraphrase  of  our  own. 

Another  chapter  full  of  interest  is  that  which  deals  with  the  making 
of  the  blow-pipe,  and  the  manufacture  of  the  poison  used.  A  careful 
description  is  given  of  the  Ipoh  tree,  the  famed  Upas  tree  of  Java 
(Antiaris  toxicaria) ;  of  the  Ipoh  creeper,  a  Stryclinos,  and  very  deadly  ; 
besides  the  Tuba,  or  Denis  elliptica,  used  to  stupefy  the  fish. 

We  have  not  touched  upon  the  sections  dealing  with  religion  and 
many  other  points,  leaving  them  to  the  reader. 

One  word  we  must  add  in  commendation  of  the  illustrations.  We 
have  seldom  seen  photographs  which  were  so  good  in  themselves,  or  so 
well  chosen.     We  reproduce  a  striking  example  here. 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   ROYAL   SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL 

SOCIETY. 

Meeting  of  Council. 

At  a  Meeting  of  Council  held  on  the  4th  December,  the  undermentioned 
ladies  and  gentlemen  were  elected  Members  of  the  Society : — 

Miss  J.  Milne.  Miss  Marion  C.  Wilson.  Mrs.  J.  A.  Pitcairn. 

Adam  J.  Templeton.  R.  W.  Waddell.  Miss  E.  S.  Forsyth, 

John  Hosack.  Mrs.  Agnes  Pattullo.  WiUiam  Gow. 

James  Cowan.  Miss  Thomson.  Miss  Carmichael. 

Charles  E.  Wardlaw,  C.E.  Rev.  J.  M.  Dryerre.  Prof.  Alexander  Darroch. 

Mrs.  Finlay.  John  J.  Brown.  Alexander  Orr. 

William  Mackay,  M.A.  W.  S.  Bertram.  George  Carmichael. 


40  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

James  Hutcheon.  James  F.  Gemniill.  H.    F.    Morland   Simpson, 

G.  M'Kay  CaiDpbell.  Thomas  Jack.  M.A.,  F. S.A.Scot. 

JohnGraham,M.A.,Int.Sc.  William  Martin.  Miss     M'Nab     of     Black- 
John  A.  Todd,  B.L.              Frank  Chalmers.  ruthven. 

Miss  Magdeline  L.  Eussell.  Miss  Margaret  F.  Simpson.  Miss  L.  L.  Ward. 

David  Gloag,  F.E.I.S.  Thomas  Chalmers  Addis.  The  Et.   Hon.  the  Earl  of 

David  Ross.  James  M.  Burnet.  Mansfield. 

Miss  Margaret  L.  Russell.   Mrs.  E.  K.  Shepherd.  W.  J.  S.  Eastburn. 

R.  M.  M'Cheyne  Roddick,   J.  Barnes  Watson.  Mrs.  K.  C.  Hunter. 

M.A.,  F.F.A.  J.  Cromar  Watt.  William  Brown,M. A., M.B. 

Francis  More.  John  T.  Frew.  J.  Stewart  Clark. 

Chair  of  Geography. 

Mr.  Bartholomew,  as  Secretary  of  the  Committee  for  the  Promotion 
of  a  Chair  of  Geography  in  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  reported  that 
the  Committee,  in  view  of  the  immediate  requirements  of  Geographical 
Teaching  in  the  University,  had  decided  to  support  the  establishment  of 
a  Lectureship  until  such  time  as  the  Fund  permitted  of  the  endowment 
of  a  Chair.  The  Committee  accordingly  asked  the  Council  to  sanction 
that  the  interest  of  the  present  subscriptions  to  the  Fund,  amounting  to 
about  £2000,  should  be  given  as  an  annual  contributiom  to  the  Lecture- 
ship. On  the  motion  of  Mr.  Blaikie,  seconded  by  Mr.  Will  C.  Smith, 
K.C.,  this  was  unanimously  agreed  to.  It  was  also  agreed  that  the  Fund 
should  be  invested  in  the  name  of  the  Society's  Trustees. 

General  Meeting. 

The  following  alterations  and  additions  to  the  Constitution  and  Laios  of  the 
Society,  necessitated  by  the  Besolutimi  which  was  passed  at  the  Animal  General 
Meeting  of  the  Society  held  on  the  8th  November  1906;  to  admit  "Teacher 
Associates"  to  certain  privileges  of  the  Society  at  a  reduced  fee,  v:ere  considered 
at  a  General  Meeting  of  the  Society  held  within  the  United  Free  Assembly 
Hall,  Mound,  Edinburgh,  on  Wednesday,  12th  December  1906,  at  8  pjn., 
and  unanimously  adopted. 

Neio  Law  under  Chapter  I.,  and  Alterations  in  Laws  IL  and  VIII. 

Law  II.  to  read : — The  Society  shall  consist  of  Ordinary,  Teacher 
Associate,  Corresponding,  and  Honorary  Members. 

Niv:  Laiv  V. — Teacher  Associate  Members,  who  must  be  engaged  in 
the  work  of  teaching  and  be  approved  by  the  Council,  may  be  admitted 
to  certain  limited  privileges  of  the  Society  on  payment  of  a  reduced 
subscrijjtion. 

Lav:  VIII.  to  read  : — Each  Ordinary  or  Teacher  Associate  Member 
whose  subscription  is  not  in  arrear,  and  each  Corresponding  and 
Honorary  Member,  shall  be  entitled  to  receive  periodically  a  copy  of  the 
Society's  Magazine,  and  of  such  other  publications  of  the  Society  as  the 
Council  may  determine. 

Additions  to  Lav:  XVIII. — Every  Ordinary  Member  has  the  privilege 
of  introducing  one  visitor  to  each  Meeting.  Each  Teacher  Associate 
Member  shall  receive  one  ticket  of  admission  (non-transferable)  to  each 
Meeting. 


PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE   ROYAL   SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   SOCIETY.       41 

Addition  to  Law  XXVI. — The  Subscription  for  each  Teacher  Associate 
Member  shall  be  Half-a-Guinea,  payable  on  the  1st  of  November  each 
year. 

Diploma  of  Fellowship. 

The  Council  conferred  the  Honorary  Diploma  of  Fellowship  on  the 
Right  Hon.  Sir  George  D.  Taubman  Goldie,  P.C,  K.C.M.G.,  F.R.S., 
D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  President  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society. 

They  also  conferred  the  Ordinary  Diploma  of  Fellowship  on  Henry 
Martyn  Clark,  M.D.,  Thomas  Geddes,  and  Alexander  Mackay,  C.A., 
Members  of  the  Society,  who  had  complied  with  the  prescribed  conditions. 

Lectures  in  January. 

On  the  10th  January  in  Dundee,  and  the  11th  in  Aberdeen,  Miss 
Marion  Newbigin,  D.Sc,  will  deliver  a  lecture  entitled  "  The  Swiss 
Valais  :  a  Study  in  Regional  Geography." 

His  Serene  Highness  the  Prince  of  Monaco,  on  the  17th  January  in 
Edinburgh,  and  the  18th  January  in  Glasgow,  will  lecture  to  the  Society 
on  "  Meteorological  Exploration  of  the  High  Atmosphere  Phenomena." 

Mr.  Charles  J.  Wilson,  F.R.S.G.S.,  will  deliver  a  lecture  on  "  Japan  " 
before  the  Dundee  and  Aberdeen  Centres  on  the  29th  and  30th  January. 

On  the  31st  January,  Professor  Sir  W.  M.  Ramsay  Avill  address  the 
Society  in  Edinburgh  on  the  "  Roads  and  Railways  on  the  Plateau  of 
Asia  Minor." 


GEOGRAPHICAL     NOTES. 

Europe. 

The  Mungo  Park  Centenary. — On  the  afternoon  of  December  10, 
Sir  Harry  Johnston  unveiled  the  panels  which  have  been  placed  in  the 
Mungo  Park  statue  at  Selkirk  to  celebrate  the  Mungo  Park  Centenary. 
In  the  evening  Sir  Harry  Johnston  delivered  a  lecture  on  Mungo  Park 
and  his  work. 

Report  of  the  Malta  Fever  Commission. — In  connection  with 
the  paper  on  Malta  which  was  published  here  last  July,  it  is  of  interest 
to  notice  that,  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London 
held  on  30th  November  last,  an  announcement  was  made  by  the  Council 
concerning  the  work  of  the  Malta  Fever  Commission.  It  will  be 
remembered  that  some  time  ago  Colonel  D.  Bruce  discovered  that  the 
cause  of  the  disease  was  a  germ,  and  the  Commission  have  now 
ascertained  that  the  main  source  of  propagation  of  the  fever  appears 
to  be  the  milk  of  infected  goats.  It  is,  of  course,  possible  that  there 
may  be  other  contributory  causes,  such  as  mosquitoes  and  house  flies ; 


42  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINK. 

but  it  is  certainly  a  remarkable  fact  that  since  the  Commission 
in  Malta  discovered  the  presence  of  the  germ  in  the  blood  and  milk 
of  a  large  proportion  of  the  goats  in  Malta,  and  warned  the  authorities 
to  take  the  necessary  precautions  in  the  use  of  goats'  milk,  the  number 
of  cases  of  fever  has  rapidly  diminished.  In  support  of  this  statement 
it  can  be  mentioned  that,  while  during  the  months  of  July,  August  and 
September  of  last  year,  258  men  of  the  Navy  and  Army  suffering  from 
the  fever  were  admitted  to  hospital,  during  the  same  period  this  year 
the  number  sank  to  twenty-six.  Those  best  qualified  to  form  an 
opinion  believe  that  if  the  whole  of  the  infected  goats  could  be  removed 
from  the  island,  Mediterranean  fever  in  Malta  would  be  reduced  to 
insignificant  proportions,  even  if  it  would  not  entirely  disappear. 

Asia. 

The  Stein  Expedition  to  Eastern  Turkestan. — Dr.  Stein,  of 
whose  plans  we  gave  some  account  in  vol.  xxii.,  p.  379,  is  making  good 
progress  with  his  work.  From  letters  published  in  the  daily  press  at 
the  end  of  November  it  appears  that  he  reached  Kashgar  in  June  last, 
and  was  able  to  quit  that  city  with  his  caravan  at  the  end  of  that 
month.  As  about  two  months  were  then  available  before  exploration  in 
the  desert  could  begin,  Dr.  Stein  and  the  surveyor  Rai  Ram  Singh 
devoted  a  considerable  amount  of  time  to  geographical  surveying.  Dr. 
Stein  finally  arrived  in  Khotan  early  in  August,  and,  after  some  further 
geographical  work,  began  his  archaeological  labours  there.  Here  some 
interesting  finds  were  made,  and  the  explorer  then  went  to  Keriya, 
whence  the  letters  were  written.  The  point  of  most  geographical 
interest  so  far  is  that  he  emphasises  the  fact  of  the  spread  of  cultivation 
in  the  Khotan  neighbourhood.  Large  areas  which  were  waste  or 
covered  by  desert  sand  some  years  ago  on  his  previous  visit  have  now 
been  reclaimed,  and  water  in  the  Khotan  oasis  is  abundant.  The  fact 
is  especially  interesting  as  it  suggests  the  danger  of  overestimating  the 
evidence  of  gradual  desiccation  in  this  region.  It  may  be,  as  has  been 
suggested  by  others,  that  there  is  an  ebb  and  flow  in  the  relation  of 
desert  and  cultivated  land.  Dr.  Stein  thinks  that  there  is  evidence  that 
irrigation  on  a  large  scale  could  be  successfully  carried  out. 

Further  letters  from  Keriya,  under  date  October  10,  give  some 
additional  details  as  to  the  extensive  survey  work  carried  out  by  Ram 
Singh,  especially  in  the  region  between  the  Kara-kash  and  Yurang-kash 
rivers.  At  the  time  of  writing  Dr.  Stein  was  about  to  continue  his 
journey  eastwards. 

The  French  Archaeological  Expedition  to  Central  Asia.— In 
vol.  xxi.  p.  GGO,  a  brief  note  was  given  here  in  regard  to  an  expedition 
to  be  undertaken  to  Central  Asia  under  the  leadership  of  .M.  Pelliot.  It 
is  now  reported  that  the  mission  arrived  at  Kashgar  in  Chinese 
Turkestan  at  the  end  of  August  last.  At  the  date  of  the  latest  advices 
the  explorers  intended  to  proceed  from  Kashgar  to  Kucha,  in  the  north 
of  the  Tarim  basin,  thence  to  the  famous  Lop  Nor,  and  from  there  by 
way  of  Sa-chu  into  the  valley  of  the  Hoang-ho.     After  striking  across 


GEOGRAPHICAL   NOTES. 


43 


the  great  bend  of  the  river  from  Lan-chau  to  Siugan,  they  propose  to 
turn  north  again,  and  make  their  way  vld  Tai-yuan  and  Tai-tung  to 
Pekin. 

Journey  to  Western  Tibet.— Mr.  H.  Calvert,  of  the  Indian  Civil 
Service,  has  recently  undertaken  a  journey  in  Western  Tibet,  and  some 
particulars  of  this  are  given  in  The  Civil  and  Military  Gazette  of  Lahore, 
quoted  in  the  Aihenmim  of  November  10.  Mr.  Calvert,  who  was 
entirely  dependent  on  his  Tibetan  guides,  took  the  summer  route 
towards  Gartok,  which  he  reached  on  August  4. 

By  this  route  Gartok  is  122  miles  from  Shipki,  and  344  from  Simla. 
Mr.  Calvert  penetrated  to  Chukang  on  the  Indus  by  an  unknown  route. 
He  found  the  Indus  here  to  be  "  a  small  stream  easily  fordable,  flowing 
in  a  narrow  steep  valley  barely  half  a  mile  wide."  Kudok,  which  for 
some  inscrutable  reason  the  Tibetans  have  most  jealously  guarded — 
turning  back,  for  instance,  Captain  Ravvling,  on  his  first  tour  when  he 
was  close  to  it — is  described  as  "  a  picturesque  village  on  a  rocky 
eminence  in  a  wide  grassy  plain.  The  eminence  is  crowned  by  a  fine 
dzone,  and  there  are  ruined  battlements  and  bastions  below.  The 
village  is  largely  in  ruins,  the  population  having  decreased  considerably 
of  late." 

Mr,  Calvert  sums  up  the  results  of  his  journey  in  the  following 
words:  "The  entire  journey  extended  over  1080  miles,  of  which  620 
were  in  Tibet  proper.  The  highest  camp  was  pitched  at  17,050  feet, 
and  for  weeks  we  never  got  below  15,000  feet.  The  Tibetans  were 
generally  friendly  or  indifferent,  and  little  difficulty  was  experienced  in 
obtaining  yaks  for  transport.  In  the  course  of  the  tour  every  district  in 
Western  Tibet  was  visited  except  those  in  the  south-east  corner  visited 
by  Mr.  Sherring  last  year.  Several  previously  unknown  and  unmapped 
routes  were  followed,  and  though  no  important  geographical  discoveries 
were  made,  much  useful  and  interesting  information  was  obtained.  The 
weather  conditions  were  at  times  very  trying,  much  rain,  hail,  and  snow 
being  encountered." 

Africa. 

The  Results  of  the  Foureau-Lamy  Mission.— In  this  Magazine 
(xvii.  p.  416  et  seq.)  some  account  was  given  of  the  Saharan  Mission 
undertaken  by  M.  Foureau,  in  company  with  Commandant  Lamy,  in 
1898-1900.  The  full  report  of  this  great  undertaking  has  now  appeared 
in  four  quarto  volumes  as  Documents  Scientifiqiies  de  la  Mission  Saharienne, 
par  F.  Foureau  (Paris,  Masson  et  Cie.,  1903-5).  The  volumes  constitute 
a  work  of  the  highest  scientific  importance,  invaluable  to  all  those 
interested  in  the  regions  traversed  by  the  Mission.  They  include  a 
volume  of  maps,  and  volumes  devoted  to  astronomical  and  meteorological 
observations,  to  orography,  hydrography,  topography  and  botany,  and 
to  geology,  ethnography,  the  prehistoric  fauna,  and  the  commercial 
possibilities  of  the  region.  The  account  already  given  here  makes  it, 
however,  impossible  to  give  space  for  a  detailed  survey  of  their  contents. 


44  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINK. 

and  we  can  do  little  more  than  call  attention  to  the  value  of  the  whole, 
and  to  the  fine  illustrations  which,  in  combination  with  the  maps,  give 
so  admirable  a  picture  of  the  great  desert.  A  few  words  must,  however, 
be  devoted  to  the  chapter  on  Conclusions  Economiques  with  which  the  last 
volume  closes.  In  effect  M.  Foureau  states  that  while  the  experiences 
of  the  Mission  have  dispelled  some  old  fears  as  to  the  impossibility  of 
crossing  the  desert,  they  but  confirm  the  old  accounts  of  the  poverty  of 
the  region.  It  may  be  that  beneath  its  surface  great  mineral  wealth  lies 
hidden,  and  M.  Foureau  is  of  opinion  that  careful  and  detailed  investiga- 
tion should  be  devoted  to  this  point,  but  from  the  surface,  throughout 
by  far  the  greater  part  of  the  area,  little  is  to  be  hoped.  By  a  rational 
organisation  and  administration  of  the  country  the  number  of  inhabitants 
can  be  increased,  as  also  the  productivity  of  certain  small  tracts,  but 
beyond  this  the  chief  hope  lies  in  the  possible  mineral  wealth.  As 
regards  the  French  Sudan,  a  wise  administration  is  required  with  the 
avoidance  of  the  use  of  Senegalese  troops,  for  these,  though  excellent 
fighters,  are  very  undesirable  as  regular  police.  Security  should  be 
assured  and  cultivation  encouraged  by  every  means  in  the  power  of 
the  Government,  while  money  and  cloth  should  be  made  the  sole  legal 
media  of  exchange.  In  the  Shari  and  Congo  region  the  desiderata  are 
an  improved  jiostal  and  telegraphic  service,  a  complete  utilisation  of  the 
existing  means  of  water-transport,  and  the  complete  abolition  of  human 
porterage  with  the  introduction  of  other  methods  of  transport  where 
possible.  Here  also  cloth  and  money  should  be  the  only  media  of 
exchange.  M.  Foureau  concludes  by  bluntly  demanding  the  removal 
of  all  missionaries,  of  whatever  church,  it  being  his  opinion  that  they 
stir  up  an  amount  of  strife  which  more  than  counterbalances  any  good 
they  may  do. 

New  Turco-Egyptian  Frontier. — We  publish  here  a  map  to 
show  the  course  of  this  boundary  as  determined  by  the  recent  agreement. 
The  task  of  the  Commissioners  who  represented  the  Egyptian  Govern- 
ment necessitated  an  amount  of  exploration  which  has  produced  results 
of  considerable  geographical  importance. 

For  the  first  20  miles  the  new  frontier  follows  the  line  of  the  water- 
shed between  the  Wadi  el  Araba  on  the  east,  and  the  feeders  of  the 
Wadi  el  Arish  on  the  west.  It  then  crosses  an  open  plateau,  drained — 
if  that  expression  may  be  used  of  a  sterile  upland  where  a  few  heavy 
showers  in  winter  and  two  or  three  poor  wells  alone  supply  water — by 
the  Wadi  el  Jerafa,  which  runs  into  the  northern  portion  of  the  Wadi  el 
Araba,  which  again  slopes  towards  the  Dead  Sea,  and  the  Wadi  el 
Qureiya,  which  runs  into  the  Wadi  el  Arish.  From  this  point  the 
frontier  follows  the  watershed  between  the  Wadi  el  Arish  and  the  wadis 
of  the  wilderness  of  Judtea  to  Birin,  beyond  which  point  the  dividing 
line  between  the  feeders  of  the  former  and  those  of  the  latter  lies  in 
Turkish  territory.  From  the  El  Auja  district  to  Rafah  the  country 
slopes  towards  the  Mediterranean,  and  the  "  hard  desert "  of  the  Sinai 
and  Arabia  Petraja  gradually  gives  way  to  sandy  dunes  and  steppe  till 
the  wells  of  Rafah  are  reached. 


GEOGRAPHICAL   NOTES. 


45 


While  the  southern  half  of  the  frontier  line  from  Aqaba  to  Mayein 
traverses  an  arid  and  difficult  mountainous  region,  inhabited  only  by  a 
few  Beduin,  and  very  poorly  supplied  with  water,  the  districts  on  each 
side  of  the  line  from  Mayein  to  Rafah,  especially  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Ain  Kadeis,  are  described  as  comparatively  well  watered  and  even 
capable  of  some  agricultural  development.  Barley  is  grown  as  a  rain 
crop  by  the  Beduin  of  the  ^Yadi  el  Jaifi  and  El  Kosseima  districts  ;  and 
the  springs  of  Ain  Kadeis,  Ain  el  Gedairat,  and,  above  all,  of  Ain  el 
Kosseima,  supply  their  flocks  with  abundance  of  water  throughout  the 

New  Turco-Egyptian  Frontier.  1906  


year.  El  Auja  lies  on  the  Turkish  side  of  the  fi'ontier,  and  is  also  well 
supplied  with  water.  In  fact,  it  would  be  no  exaggeration  to  say  that 
between  Ain  Kadeis  on  the  Egyptian  and  El  Auja  on  the  Turkish  side 
of  the  boundary — a  distance  of  at  most  25  miles — there  is  a  water  supply 
which,  by  the  construction  of  a  few  extemporised  cisterns,  could  be 
made  to  suffice  for  7000  men,  and  might  be  considerably  increased  by 
the  sinking  of  new  wells. 

While  the  territory  between  Wadi  el  Jaifi  and  the  JJediterranean  is 
never  likely  to  hold  a  large  settled  population,  there  is  no  doubt  that 
the  construction  of  dams  across  some  of  the  wadis  which  carry  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  storm  water  to  the  Wadi  el  Arish  durine:  the  winter 


46  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

would  enable  the  Beduin  to  cultivate  barley,  tobacco,  and  vegetables  to 
a  much  greater  extent  than  is  actually  the  case. 

America. 

The  San  Francisco  Earthquake  and  the  Bogoslof  Islands. — 

Papers  on  the  San  Francisco  earthquake  catastrophe  accumulate  rapidly, 
in  marked  contrast  to  the  Valparaiso  tremor,  information  in  regard 
to  which  is  slow  in  coming  to  hand.  In  the  Popular  Scientific  Monthly 
for  October,  Professor  David  Starr  Jordan  gives  an  interesting  account 
of  the  actual  rift,  the  article  being  copiously  illustrated  by  photographs, 
some  of  them  very  striking.  Professor  Jordan  also  points  out  that  in 
the  spring  of  1906  a  fresh  island  arose  in  the  St.  John  Bogoslof  group 
in  the  Behring  Sea.  The  two  previous  islands  arose  during  earthquake 
disturbances,  and  Professor  Jordan  suggests  that  the  birth  of  the  new 
island  is  connected  with  the  great  earthquake.  In  a  further  paper  in 
the  Popular  Science  Montlilij  for  December,  an  illustrated  account  is  given 
of  these  curious  islands,  and  of  the  origin  of  each. 

The  Geography  of  Alaska. — We  have  received  from  the  United 
States  Geological  Survey  an  elaborate  and  beautifully  illustrated  mono- 
graph on  the  Geography  and  Geology  of  Alaska,  which  forms  Professional 
Paperl^o.  45.  The  work  is  professedly  a  compilation,  intended  to  make 
the  large  amount  of  material  which  has  been  accumulated  of  late  years 
accessible  to  a  wider  public,  but  as  the  author,  Mr.  Alfred  Brooks,  has 
himself  spent  seven  consecutive  years  of  field  work  in  the  province,  he 
speaks  with  a  first-hand  knowledge  of  the  problems  involved.  Mr.  Brooks 
states  that  his  prime  purpose  has  been  to  disseminate  more  accurate 
notions  in  regard  to  the  geography  and  geology  of  the  region,  and  to 
serve  in  some  measure  to  dispel  the  popular  fallacies  in  regard  to  it,  and 
we  fancy  that  many  will  find  from  a  perusal  of  the  book  that  their 
previous  knowledge  of  the  region  was  largely  fallacious.  At  the  base 
of  much  popular  error,  of  course,  lies  the  fact  that  Alaska  on  an  ordinary 
map  of  North  America  is  much  distorted,  so  that  its  true  size  and 
position  are  difficult  to  realise.  A  striking  little  sketch  map  in  the 
volume  shows  the  province  superimposed  upon  an  ordinary  map  of  the 
States,  and  makes  it  clear  that  the  easternmost  and  Avesternmost  points 
are  separated  by  a  distance  equal  to  that  between  the  Pacific  and  Atlantic 
coasts  of  the  States  in  the  latitude  of  Los  Angelos,  while  the  distance 
between  the  northernmost  and  southernmost  points  is  nearly  equal  to  that 
between  the  Mexican  and  Canadian  boundaries  of  the  States.  With 
such  an  extension  it  is  not  surprising  that  there  should  be  great  variation 
in  climate,  a  variation  much  greater  than  popular  belief  allows  for. 
Some  of  the  figures  and  tables  in  the  section  on  climate  are  indeed  very 
striking,  especially  those  relating  to  rainfall.  South-eastern  Alaska  has 
a  temperate,  equable,  and  remarkably  humid  climate.  Sitka,  approxi- 
mately in  the  latitude  of  Aberdeen,  has  a  rainfall  of  88  inches  per 
annum,  and  in  the  south-eastern  region  generally  the  mean  annual  fall 
varies  from  80  to  1  ."^O  inche.=.     Two  years'  records  at  Fort  Tongass,  at 


GEOGRAPHICAL   NOTES.  '  47 

the  entrance  of  Dixon  Inlet,  give  indeed  an  average  fall  of  133  inches, 
with  a  mean  annual  temperature  of  48°.  Throughout  the  district  we 
liave  cool  summers  and  comparatively  Avarm  winters,  but  during  the 
winter  months,  which  have  three-fourths  of  the  precipitation,  there  is 
almost  incessant  rain.  On  an  average  there  are  only  about  one  hundred 
clear  days  in  the  year,  and  these  largely  in  the  spring.  In  marked  con- 
trast Avith  this  region  is  the  Alaskan  interior,  where  the  climate  is 
continental  in  character,  semi-arid,  with  an  average  rainfall  of  only  11 
inches  at  Eagle,  and  with  great  extremes  of  heat  and  cold.  Space  does 
not  permit  of  a  fuller  consideration  of  this  or  the  other  interesting  topics 
discussed  in  the  monograph,  but  those  interested  in  a  remarkable  region 
may  be  confidently  referred  to  Mr.  Brooks's  work.  The  section  on 
climate,  from  which  the  above  observations  are  quoted,  is  written  by 
Mr.  Cleveland  Abbe.      • 

Commercial  Geography. 

The  World's  Production  of  Rubber. — According  to  a  Eeport 
presented  by  M.  Ch.  Dutfart  to  the  recent  Colonial  Congress  at 
Marseilles,  the  actual  production  of  rubber  at  the  present  moment 
amounts  to  about  56,000  tons,  of  which  36,800  tons  come  from  America, 
about  17,500  tons  from  Africa,  and  1700  tons  from  Asia  and  Oceania. 
The  French  Colonies  produce  6600  tons  and  stand  second  in  the  list  of 
productive  countries,  the  amount  surpassing  that  produced  by  the  British 
territories.  The  French  territories  in  AVest  Africa  constitute  the  first 
source  of  supply,  and  after  them  come  in  order  the  French  Congo, 
Indo-China,  and  New  Caledonia.  At  one  time  the  French  colonial 
production  went  chiefly  to  England,  and  in  part  to  Germany,  but  more 
and  more  it  is  coming  direct  to  France.  In  1896  the  importation  from 
the  Colonies  into  France  was  only  317  tons,  while  in  1904  it  was  2378 
tons.  In  1896,  again,  the  French  colonies  sent  1258  tons  direct  to 
England,  and  in  1904,  2165  tons,  the  increase  in  the  latter  case  being 
proportionately  much  less  than  in  the  former. 

The  Industrial  Situation  in  the  Southern  United  States. — We 
have  more  than  once  alluded  here  to  the  economic  changes  which  are  goinw 
on  in  the  Southern  States  of  North  America  as  a  result  of  the  altered 
conditions  brought  about  by  the  war.  A  very  interesting  summing  up 
of  the  present  situation  from  the  standpoint  of  economic  geography  is 
given  in  an  article  by  Professor  Surface  in  the  BuUet'm  of  the  Geographical 
Society  of  Philadelphia  (July  1906).  The  author  begins  by  pointing  out 
that  the  population  in  the  Southern  States  in  1900  was  twenty-four  and 
a  half  millions,  of  which  nearly  one-third  were  of  negro  descent  and 
about  2  per  cent,  foreign.  As  compared  with  the  census  of  the  previous 
decade,  the  tendency  for  the  population  to  accumulate  in  towns  is  marked 
as  is  to  be  expected  from  the  rapid  industrial  development  which  is 
taking  place,  and  there  is  also  a  large  migration  to  the  less  densely 
populated  regions  in  the  west  and  north-west.  Of  the  total  population 
1 8  per  cent,  are  engaged  in  agriculture,  which  is  still  the  most  important 


4S  SCOTTISH    GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

occupation.  Cotton  is  the  only  important  export  crop,  and  of  an  esti- 
mated 50,000,000  acres  capable  of  bearing  this  crop  in  the  cotton  belt, 
only  about  half  is  actually  in  bearing,  and  this  in  spite  of  the  heavy 
demand  for  the  product.  Even  for  the  present  acreage,  however,  the 
labour  supply  is  inadequate,  and  as  yet  the  negro  is  the  only  labourer 
who  shows  aptitude  for  the  climatic  conditions  which  exist.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  development  of  the  towns  and  the  increased  demand 
for  domestic  servants  is  more  and  more  attracting  the  negro  away  from 
the  cotton  belt,  and  the  demand  for  white  labourers  in  the  towns  is  also 
great.  The  diminution  of  labourers  is  having  the  interesting  effect  of 
causint^  the  large  plantations  to  be  more  and  more  divided  up  into  small 
farms,  which  can  be  worked  by  the  owners  for  the  most  part.  There 
is  no  doubt  also  that  the  abundant  supply  of  slave  labour  in  former 
days  has  had  its  usual  effect  in  checking  the  development  of  the  cotton 
industry,  for  an  efficient  cotton-picking  machine  would  do  much  to  solve 
the  labour  problem,  as  would  also  a  corn  harvester  adapted  to  the 
special  conditions  ki  the  uplands. 

As  regards  manufactures,  we  have  already  emphasised  here  the  rapid 
(^rowth  of  cotton  manufacture  in  the  south,  but  the  labour  problem  is 
here  almost  as  intense  as  in  the  fields.  Hitherto,  as  in  the  earlier 
development  of  the  cotton  industry  in  England,  the  demand  has  been 
largely  met  by  child  labour,  but  the  community  are  coming  to  a  percep- 
tion of  the  economic  waste  involved.  Professor  Surface  says  relatively 
little  of  this  question,  but  another  journal  (The  Annals  of  the  American 
Academy  of  Political  and  Social  Science,  March  1906)  gives  a  terrible  picture 
of  the  conditions  now  existing.  In  the  South  children  form  25  per 
cent,  of  the  wage-earners,  and  while  many  States  have  no  regulations  on 
the  subject  whatever,  Alabama  and  Arkansas,  which  are  among  those 
which  have  such  laws,  place  ten  years  as  the  limit  of  age,  the  statements 
made  as  to  age  by  parents  or  guardians  being  taken  without  inquiry. 
The  origin  of  child  labour  is  found  in  the  immigration  into  the 
towns  of  whole  families,  all  of  whose  members,  women  and  children 
alike,  had  been  accustomed  to  working  in  the  fields.  The  whole  family 
similarly  went  to  the  factory,  with  the  result  that  the  wages  of  the 
whole  drop  to  the  level  of  those  earned  elsewhere  by  the  adult  males. 
There  is  even  reason  to  believe  that  children  are  imported  from  the  Old 
World  and  exploited  by  persons  who  are  regarded  as  their  legal  guardians. 
The  child-labour  question  occurs  not  only  in  connection  with  cotton 
manufacture,  but  also  in  the  tobacco  industry,  where  in  North  Carolina 
children  form  23  per  cent,  of  the  workers,  and  in  mining,  where  in  many 
States  the  legal  limit  for  boys  is  only  twelve,  a  limit  to  which  there  is 
reason  to  believe  very  little  attention  is  paid.  The  student  of  sociology 
will  be  interested  to  perceive  how  all  the  vicious  conditions  which  accom- 
panied child  labour  in  Great  Britain  are  here  being  repeated,  including 
child  marriage,  with  all  its  evils. 

As  the  figures  given  above  indicate,  foreign  labour  as  yet  is  not  well 
represented,  and  hitherto  the  foreign  labourers  have  not  been  found  very 
satisfactory,  apparently  in  part  because  of  the  method  of  recruiting 
employed.    There  is  locally  some  demand  for  the  importation  of  Chinese, 


GEOGRAPHICAL   NOTES.  4  9 

Japanese,  and  Korean  labourers  for  the  plantations,  on  account  of  their 
supposed  cheapness.  Professor  Surface  expresses  the  opinion  that  it  is 
the  negro  who  holds  the  key  to  the  industrial  situation,  at  least  as 
regards  agriculture,  and  that  the  aim  of  the  employers  should  be  to 
endeavour  to  attract  him  back  to  the  soil,  as  he  is  apparently  unsuited 
for  the  conditions  of  town  life,  and  rapidly  degenerates  there. 


EDUCATIONAL. 

In  Sir  George  Goldie's  address  to  the  Society,  which  we  publish  this 
month,  reference  is  made  to  the  fact  that  after  July  next  Geography  is 
to  cease  to  be  a  subject  in  Diplomatic  and  Foreign  Office  entrance  ex- 
aminations. It  is  of  interest  to  note  that  the  night  after  this  address 
was  delivered  in  Edinburgh  a  question  was  asked  in  Parliament  on  the 
subject,  and  the  Secretary  of  State  (Sir  Edward  Grey)  replied  that 
"although  a  knowledge  of  geography  is  no  doubt  useful,  it  is  a  subject 
with  which  men  of  general  education  are  generally  acquainted,  and 
which  is  easily  acquired  after  entry  into  the  service."  Sir  George  G oldie 
has  written  to  the  Times  calling  attention  to  the  statements  contained  in 
his  address,  and  expressing  regret  that  he  finds  himself  unable  to  agree 
with  the  official  position.  Most  persons  will  probably  agree  that  the 
official  optimism  is  hardly  justified  by  experience,  so  far  as  the  first  part 
of  Sir  Edward's  statement  goes,  and  will  be  inclined  to  suf  pose  that 
although  doubtless  the  subject  is  sometimes  acquired  after  entrance  into 
the  service,  yet  the  knowledge  is  then  often  acquired  at  a  cost  to  the 
country  somewhat  out  of  jjroportion  to  its  worth. 

Following  upon  Sir  George  Goldie's  letter  some  other  correspondence 
has  appeared  in  the  Times.  From  a  letter  of  Major- General  Russell  we 
quote  the  following  instructive  paragraph  : — 

A  former  Governor  of  Mauritius  lias  told  me  that  when  he  applied  for  the 
services  of  a  medical  officer  for  the  Seychelles  Islands,  where  an  epidemic  had 
broken  out,  he  was  informed  by  the  Colonial  Office  that  his  own  medical  officer 
could  visit  these  islands  once  a  week,  and  hence  the  extia  cost  of  an  additional 
doctor  would  be  avoided.  He  replied  that  the  suggestion  was  excellent,  but  there 
were  difficulties  in  carrying  it  out,  as  the  Seychelles  Islands  were  over  900  miles 
distant  from  Mauritius.  After  this,  can  it  be  asserted  that  well-educated  men  in 
this  country  are  usually  versed  in  modern  geography  ? 

Mr.  H.  T.  Mackinder  also  writes  discussing  the  bearings  of  the 
proposed  changes.  No  apology  is  necessary  for  quoting  from  his  letter 
the  following  concise  account  of  the  present  position  of  affairs : — 

I  hope  that  Sir  Edward  Grey  will  forgive  me  when  I  say  that  his  description 
of  geography  is  twenty  years  out  of  date.  Twenty  years  ago  there  were  a  few  voices 
already  disturbing  the  wilderness,  but  for  the  most  part  geography  was  confined 
to  primary  education  and  to  the  lower  secondary  education  of  girls.  Persons  of 
superior  education  were  wont  as  a  rule  to  take  pride  in  their  geographical  ignor- 
ance. At  that  time  the  attitude  of  the  Civil  Service  Ccmmissicneis  was  fully 
VOL.  xxin.  D 


50  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   3IAGAZINE. 

justified.  But  I  submit  that  the  steps  recently  taken  by  nearly  all  the  Univer- 
sities betoken  a  change  with  which  even  the  Commissioners  must  reckon,  what- 
ever the  temporary  success  of  the  recent  strategical  move.  These  steps,  it  seems 
to  me,  constitute  a  general  admission  of  the  inaccuracy  of  the  two  assumptions 
made  in  Sir  Edward's  reply  in  Parliament. 

Mr.  Mackinder  then  goes  on  to  detail  the  position  now  taken  up  by- 
most  of  the  Universities  of  Britain  in  regard  to  the  subject. 

As,  however,  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  the  official  attitude  still 
represents  to  a  considerable  extent  that  of  the   ordinary  "  educated " 
person  even,  it  is  to  be  feared,  in  Scotland,  it  is  perhaps  worth  while  to 
call  attention  to  the  number  and  variety  of  the  geographical  courses 
available  to  the  student  in  the  German  universities.     These  courses  for 
the  present  session  are  detailed  in  the  German  geographical  journals,  and 
we  quote  from  Petermann's  Mitteilungen  some  facts  about  the  courses  in 
geography  and  the  allied  subjects  open  to  the  student  in  the  University 
of  Berlin.     We  notice  first  that  in  this  University  eir/Ideen  professors  and 
sixteen  Privat-docents  are  to  lecture  on  geography  and  the  related  subjects 
during  the  present  session.     Students  may  attend  courses   on   mathe- 
matical geography,  or  take  practical  classes,  elementary  and  advanced, 
including  general  geography,  cartography  and  oceanography,  lectures  on 
spherical  astronomy,  and  a  number  of  courses  or  lectures  on  the  taking 
of    astronomical    observations,    whether    for  nautical    or    geographical 
purposes.     They  may  study  anthropology  and  ethnology,  following  up 
the  general  courses  with  detailed  studies  of   the  folk-lore   of   special 
primitive  nations,  or,  on  the  other  hand,  correlating  their  studies  with 
the  study  of  the  history  of  the  great  civilised  nations,  ancient  or  modern. 
They  may  study  general  meteorology  and  climatology  with  the  prospect 
of  being  able  to  follow  these  up  along  special  lines.     If  their  interests 
lead  them  in  the  direction  of  plant-geography,  they  may  study  generally 
the  distribution  of  vegetation  over  the  globe,  or  the  plants  of  special 
areas,  regarded  from  their  economic  aspects.     Courses  on  statistics  and 
geology  are  also  open  to  them.    Again,  there  are  a  vast  number  of  lectures- 
or  courses  on  the  geography  of  special  regions,  often  studied  in  relation 
to  the  history  and  development  of  the  region,  and  so  on — we  might 
continue  the  list  considerably  further.     "While  of  course  no  one  would 
suggest  that  the  equipment  of  a  Civil  Service  candidate  should  include  a 
knowledge  of  all  these  varied  topics,  the  length  of  the  list  must  surely 
suggest  that  modern  geography  is  a  big  subject,  and  is  not  ail  comprised 
in  one  of  the  ordinary  school  text-books,  nor  yet  is  it  a  subject  which 
can  be  utterly  neglected  when  the  school  days  are  over.     If  Germany 
finds  it  worth  while  to  have  in  her  universities  lectures  on  her  colonies, 
on  their  natural  products,  on  their  development  and  resources,  and  so 
forth,  it  would  almost  seem  as  if  similar  courses  might  be  useful  in  this 
country.     The  list  just  given  at  least  affords  some  support  to  Sir  George 
Goldie's  view  that  in  the  battle  of  life  the  nations  who  take  geography 
seriously  are   better  armed   than   those  who  regard  it  as   child's-play, 
unworthy  of   the  attention  of  grown   men.     There  is  another    moral, 
which  it  is  perhaps  unnecessary  to  emphasise  here,  that  Edinburgh  might 


EDUCATIONAL.  51 

profitably    draw  from   the    list   of    professors   and    lecturers    in    the 
Berlin  University. 

An  article  by  Professor  Heilprin,  in  the  Bulletin  of  the  American 
Geographkal  Society  (Sept.  1906),  on  the  "Impressions  of  a  Naturalist  in 
British  Guiana,"  gives  an  interesting  account  of  the  vast  primaeval 
forest  which  stretches  from  the  Amazon  to  the  Orinoco,  and  may  be 
recommended  to  the  notice  of  teachers  whose  classes  are  studying  this 
part  of  South  America.  The  contrast  between  the  tropical  forest  and 
the  familiar  woodlands  of  the  temperate  zones  is  well  brought  out,  though 
it  is  interesting  to  note  that  Professor  Heilprin  contests  Mr.  Wallace's 
familiar  statements  in  regard  to  the  uniform  green  of  the  tropical  forest. 
On  the  water-front,  at  least,  he  thinks  the  display  of  bloom  is  not  less 
than  in  the  temperate  forest,  which  is,  after  all,  not  a  region  of  brilliant 
colour  like  the  open  fields  and  waste  lands.  The  paper  also  contains  an 
interesting  account  of  the  animal  life  of  the  South  American  forest,  and 
is  full  of  vivid  touches  of  observation. 

The  tradition  that  the  Grand  Caiion  of  the  Colorado  should  always 
be  chosen  as  a  typical  example  of  the  erosive  power  of  water  is  so  strong 
that  no  excuse  is  necessary  for  calling  the  attention  of  teachers  to  an 
article  on  the  Caiion  in  the  Popular  Science  Monthly  for  November  last. 
The  article  is  based  on  the  new  survey  of  the  region,  and  supplies  some 
figures  and  illustrations  which  will  be  found  useful  in  supplementing  and 
correcting  the  ordinary  text-book  accounts.  Interesting  is  the  stress 
laid  upon  the  burden  of  quartz  sand  carried  by  the  river  as  the  main 
erosive  agent,  while  a  clear  account  is  given  of  the  different  types  of  rock 
forming  the  caiion  w^alls. 


NEW  BOOKS. 

EUROPE. 

Cambridge :   A  Concise  Guide  to  the  Town  and  University.      By  John  Willis 
Clark,  M.A.,  Hon.  Litt.D.     Third  Edition.     Cambridge  :   Macmillan  and 
Bowes,  1906.     Price  Is.  net. 
The  visitor  to  Cambridge  could  wish  for  nothing  better  than  Dr.  Clark's  com- 
plete and  yet  compact  little  guide.     The  colleges  are  described  by  one  who  knowa 
them  well,  and  the  descriptions  are   enhanced   by  numerous   illustiations   and 
plans. 

ASIA. 

Ostasienfahrt.     Von  Dr.  Franz  Doflein.     Leipzig  :  B.  G.  Teubner,  1906. 
Pp.  511.     Price  13  marks. 

The  Assistant-Keeper  of  the  Royal  Bavarian  Zoological  Museum  here  gives  us 
his  experiences  and  observations  in  China,  Japan,  and  Ceylon  in  1904.  His  ship, 
the  Prinz  Heinrich,  was  overhauled  by  a  Russian  man-of-war  in  the  Red  Sea,  and 
was  injured  on  a  coral  reef  in  the  Indian  Ocean.  He  describes  with  the  amplitude 
and  accuracy  of  an  erudite  and  scientific  man  the  leading  features  of  the  countries 
through  which  he  travelled,  and  furnishes  beautiful  illustrations  of  the  scenery 
and  population,  and  carefully  executed  representations  of  the  more  novel  zoological 


52  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

forms  which  he  observed.  In  the  course  of  his  scientific  investigations  in  Ceylon 
he  says  he  came  to  a  district  where  there  was  only  one  white  man,  "an  irrigation 
engineer,  Mr.  Ferguson,  of  Scottish  extraction,  who,  like  so  many  colonial  English- 
men, united  a  deep  interest  in  natural  science  to  very  great  knowledge."  The 
author  devotes  a  chapter  to  "  the  Yellow  Peril,"  and  points  out  that  while  most 
merchants  have  formed  a  bad  opinion  of  the  Japanese  as  the  result  of  their  inter- 
course with  Japanese  merchants  and  sailors,  a  man  of  science  who  comes  in  con- 
tact only  with  the  best  classes  of  the  population  will  form  a  very  favourable  opinion 
of  them.  He  proceeds  to  examine  the  Japanese  people  from  a  scientific  point  of  view. 
They  regard  the  family  of  the  nation  as  supreme,  while  the  individual  is  only  a  pass- 
ing form,  thus  resembling  the  animal  creation,  where  individual  life  is  sacrificed 
in  order  to  maintain  the  species.  Socialistic  ideas  would  find  in  Japan  a  fruitful 
soil,  for  we  see  everywhere  there  traces  of  communistic  or  socialistic  institutions. 
The  pride,  ambition,  and  enthusiasm  of  the  people  place  immense  power  in  the 
hands  of  an  intelligent  government.  Above  all,  the  Spartan  upbringing  of  the 
Japanese  converts  them  into  a  dangerous  foe  for  any  European  nation.  Now,  how- 
ever, Japan  is  entering  on  a  great  crisis.  Her  social  life  has  not  been  much  altered 
by  her  new  conditions.  Although  adopting  modern  manners,  a  Japanese  man  still 
leads  the  old  life  in  the  midst  of  his  family.  But  changes  in  character  may  occur  as 
the  result  of  the  modern  education.  Already,  the  author  remarked  a  recrud- 
escence of  the  less  admirable  qualities  of  the  people.  Their  behaviour  when  peace 
with  Eussia  was  declared  showed  how  dangerous  for  the  state  they  might  beconie 
now  that  they  are  no  longer  trammelled  by  ancient  customs.  The  old  foundations 
of  their  education — Religion,  Ancestor-worship,  and  Respect  for  parents — begin 
to  disappear.  Europe  substitutes  nothing,  for  the  Japanese  regard  her  Christianity 
with  scepticism  and  dislike.  Looking  to  the  inflammable  character  of  the  Japanese 
and  to  the  freedom  from  ancient  ideas  of  the  masses  in  crowded  towns,  it  is  pro- 
bable that  demagogues  will  influence  them  ;  and  if  Western  culture  leads  to  the 
rule  of  Individualism  in  Japan,  then  the  chief  source  of  the  strength  and  might  of 
the  nation  will  be  destroyed. 

Dr.  Doflein  continues:  "In  all  probability  Japan  w411  be  a  much  more 
powerful  political  factor  than  she  is  at  present,  but  her  development  is 
much  more  diflicult  to  estimate  than  that  of  any  other  nation,  partly  owing  to 
the  character  of  the  Japanese,  partly  owing  to  the  destruction  of  their  ancient 
customs."  With  regard  to  their  commercial  competition  with  Europeans,  the 
author  U  of  opinion  that  the  awakening  of  the  East  Avill  do  good  to  German 
commerce,  but  that  in  China  British  merchants  will  sufl'er  far  more  than  German 
from  Japanese  rivals.  He  exclaims  energetically  :  "  I  see  no  '  yellow  peril '  in 
Japan.  On  the  contrary,  I  hope  and  believe  that  we  shall  derive  endless  blessing 
from  that  country.  Japan  presses  with  all  her  might  towards  the  first  rank  of 
rival  Powers,  and  wishes  to  stand  side  by  side  with  Britain,  the  United  States, 
and  Germany.  As  a  new  factor,  she  will  give  them  a  fresh  impetus.  We  shall 
have  a  hard  battle,  but  it  will  do  us  good.  Our  bureaucracy  and  littlenesses  in  life 
aad  trade  will  disappear  before  the  giant  task  we  shall  encounter  by  the  awakening 
of  non-European  nations." 

AFRICA. 

The  Making  of  Modern  Egypt.     By  Sir  Auckland  Colvin,  K.C.S.T.,  K.C.M.G., 
CLE.     London  :   Seeley  and  Co.,  1906.     Price  18s.  nd. 

During  the  Ivst  ten  or  twenty  years  we  have  had  many  books  and  reports 
devling,  directly  or  indirectly,  with  the  making  of  modern  Egypt.     It  is  a  tale 


NEW   BOOKS.  53 

that  bear3  repetition  ;  for  it  would  be  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  select  a  period 
of  twenty-two  years  in  the  hist)ry  of  the  colonies  or  dependencies  of  England  or 
of  any  other  country  which  would  more  suc.essfally  illustrate  the  saying  that 
truth  is  stranger  than  fiction,  or  would  compare  in  national,  general,  and  romantic 
interest  with  the  twenty-two  years  between  1882  and  1904,  i.e.  the  period  assigned 
to  "  the  making  of  Modern  Egypt "  by  the  writer  of  the  book.  In  perusiug  any 
book  on  this  subject  comparisons  with  the  brilliant  works  and  reports  of  Lord 
Oromer,  Milner,  D.iwkins,  Scott,  and  others  are  inevitable,  but  we  may  say  at 
once  that  the  author  of  this  work  has  nothing  to  fear  from  a  comparison  with  the 
works  of  his  predecessors.  Sir  Auckland  Colvin  has  special  qualifications  for  the 
task  he  undertook.  He  is  an  Indian  Civil  Servant,  who  has  risen  through  all  the 
grades  of  that  distinguished  service  to  being  Lieutenant-Governor  of  the  North- 
western Provinces  ani  Oudh,  and  for  some  years  he  was  British  Comptroller- 
General  of  Egypt  and  Financial  Adviser  to  the  Khedive.  He  has  thus  brought 
to  the  preparation  of  this  work  a  special  intimate  expei'ience  and  a  statesmanlike 
breadth  of  view,  the  advantiges  of  which  become  more  and  more  obvious  as  the 
work  proceeds.  The  story  is  the  record  of  the  triumph  of  Lord  Cromer,  of  whom 
Sir  Auckland  is  an  acknowledged  admirer.  "  The  central  figure,"  he  writes, 
*'has  been  the  British  Minister  and  Agent.  Cabinets  in  London,  in  Paris,  and  in 
Cairo  have  come  and  gone  ;  diplomatists  have  fretted  their  hour  on  the  stage,  and 
have  faded  into  obscurity.  Able  and  devoted  subordinates  have  in  turn  assisted 
the  British  Agent ;  and,  their  term  accomplished,  have  passed  on  to  other  labours. 
Lord  Cromer  alone  has  remained  throughout ;  in  him,  during  more  than  twenty 
years,  the  life  of  Egypt  has  centred,  and  from  him  all  energy  has  radiated.  The 
making  of  modern  Egypt  is  the  work  of  Lord  Cromer." 

Undoubtedly  the  figure  of  Lord  Cromer  stands  out  high  above  those  who  may 
claim  to  have  had  a  share  in  the  making  of  modern  Egypt,  but  lie  has  been  the 
first  to  acknowledge  that  he  has  had  mxny  able  and  strenuous  subordinates,  with- 
out whose  help  his  task  would  have  been  impossible.  Sir  Auckland  Colvin  does 
ample  justice  to  them  also,  and  it  is  pleasant  to  find  him  writing  in  most  cordial 
terms  of  his  French  colleagues,  of  whom  many  a  hard  thing  was  said  not  so  long 
ago.  In  his  estimate  of  them  Sir  Auckland's  exceptionally  wide  experience  of 
men  and  manners  has  stood  him  in  good  stead,  and  an  extract  of  his  appreciation 
of  their  character  and  services  is  worth  quoting,  especially  as  it  furnishes  a  good 
example  of  the  brilliant  style  in  which  this  book  is  written.  The  French  officials 
in  Egypt,  he  says,  "  were  for  the  most  part  men  of  marked  ability  and  untiring 
industry.  .  .  .  Keen  of  wit,  incisive  of  tongue,  choleric  of  disposition,  sensitive  as 
children,  kindly  as  women,  the  Frenchman  was  the  very  opposite  of  the  phleg- 
matic, imperturbable  Briton  whom  he  lugged  along  with  him  in  his  heated  course. 
Which  of  the  pair  did  the  most  useful  work  it  was  not  always  easy  to  say,  but  the 
paces  and  showy  movement  of  the  Frenchmen  were  effective.  They  were  never 
seen  in  the  tennis-court,  nor  in  the  saddle  ;  nor  did  field  sports  attract  them. 
Constant  and  often  heated  discussion  with  one  another  was  their  relaxation  ;  the 
black  official  portfolio  their  symbol ;  the  frock-coat  their  habitual  garb.  There 
must  have  been  something  abhorrent  to  their  passion  for  correctness  in  the  negli- 
gent costume,  the  slack  disregird  of  formality,  the  indifference  to  the  outward 
and  visible  signs  of  office,  which  in  Egypt,  as  elsewhere,  distinguish  Englishmen. 
But  difference  of  temperament  ani  of  training  seemed  to  draw  together,  rather 
than  to  repel.  To  their  honour  be  it  said,  the  French  sought  to  do  their  duty 
as  conscientiously  by  the  country  which  employed  them,  and  by  the  colleagues 
who  worked  with  them,  as  though  their  portion  had  been  in  France,  and  tlieir 
colleagues  of  their  own  nation.  .  .  ,  Whatever  the  verdict  of  their  countrymen 


54  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

may  have  been,  British  colleagues  recognised  that  their  French  associates  were 
good  men  and  true  ;  worthy  representatives  of  the  great  country  from  which  they 
came  ;  pleasant  in  their  private  lives,  as  in  public  life  they  were  above  reproach. 
De  Blignieres,  Bellaique  de  Bughas,  Bouterou,  are  gone  to  the  silent  land  (if  any 
land,  indeed,  be  silent  where  the  spirits  of  the  French  dead  do  congregate)  ;  Liron 
d'Airolles,  Gay  Lussac,  Barois,  and  others,  happily  remain  with  us." 

The  history  of  these  twenty-two  years  during  which  modern  Egypt  was  being 
made  is  a  tangled  skein,  of  which  it  is  impossible  in  the  space  at  our  disposal  to 
give  even  a  sketch.  But  we  refer  our  readers  to  Sir  Auckland  Colvin's  interesting, 
impartial,  and  graphic  history,  assured  that  the  perusal  of  it  will  satisfy  all  that 
the  work  accomplished  in  Egypt  is  one  of  which  the  English,  and,  we  must  add, 
the  French  nation,  may  well  be  proud.  And  yet  an  experienced  administrator 
and  competent  judge,  viz.  Sir  Auckland  himself,  likens  it  to  the  barrage,  which 
may  be  described  as  the  life-blood  of  Egypt.  "The  barrage,'"  he  says,  "is  a 
replica  of  the  British  position  in  Egypt.  It  initiated  in  French  action.  It  is 
built  upon  unstable  foundations  ;  yet,  with  constant  caution,  they  can  be  regarded 
as  secure.  It  is  essential,  in  the  interests  of  the  population,  that  the  barrage 
should  be  placed  under  the  care  of  Europeans.  It  is  patchwork,  but  brilliant 
patchwork.  It  holds  up  the  vitalising  forces  of  the  country,  and  distributes  them 
to  the  best  advantage."  Mutatis  mutandis  ;  the  same  may  be  said  of  the  British 
position  in  Egypt  to-day. 

The  last  chapters  of  the  work  are  devoted  to  a  description  of  the  present  con- 
dition and  prospects  of  the  Soudan,  now  an  integral  part  of  Egypt,  with  an  area 
of  over  a  million  square  miles,  and  a  population  of  under  two  millions  of  souls, 
and  presenting  difficulties  and  problems  which  demand  the  most  consummate 
statesmanship  and  patience.  The  contrast  between  Egypt  and  the  Soudan  is 
remarkable.  "  The  Egyptian  is  laborious  ;  the  Soudani,  if  he  is  an  Arab,  scorns 
labour  ;  if  he  is  a  black  man,  he  cannot  be  induced,  except  by  hunger  or  scourge, 
to  undergo  any  but  the  lightest  toil.  The  fertility  of  the  soil  of  Egypt  has  passed 
into  a  proverb  ;  in  the  Soudan  irrigation  is  in  its  infancy,  and  the  greater  part  of 
the  country  has  never  recei\  ed  a  drop  of  water  from  any  of  the  great  rivers  whic  1 
traverse  it.  In  Egypt  distances  are  inconsiderable,  and  means  of  transit  abound  ; 
the  distances  in  the  Soudan  are  immense,  and  transit  is  still  mainly  confined  to 
that  most  ancient  friend  of  man,  the  camel.  The  seaboard  is  easily  accessible  to 
all  Egypt ;  to  the  greater  part  of  the  Soudan  it  is  most  difficult  of  access,  and  to 
many  provinces  it  is  wholly  unknown.  The  climate  of  Egypt  is  far  from  un- 
healthy to  the  white  man  ;  the  Soudan  in  part  spells  death  to  him,,  and  almost 
everywhere,  for  many  months  in  the  year,  is  oppressive  and  enervating.  Finally, 
the  Egyptian  is  a  quiet  subject,  and  averse  from  arms  ;  the  Soudan  is  full  of  fierce 
fighting  men,  of  fearless  Arab  descent,  and  of  excitable  and  savage  black  races, 
both  Muhammedan  and  heathen,  but  alike  ignorant  and  impulsive,  whose 
fanaticism  may  be  fanned  into  flame  at  any  moment,  and  whose  loyalty  depends 
rather  on  personal  regard  for  individual  rulers  than  on  acquiescence  in  foreign 
rule,  or  on  acceptance  of  European  guidance.  .  .  .  Imagination  fails  to  picture 
those  illimitable  regions,  the  endless  swamps,  the  weary  waterless  distances,  the 
mighty  rivers,  the  interminable  deserts,  the  great  silence,  the  scattered,  sparse, 
and  diverse  people,  the  little  band  of  British  officers  working  out  their  lives  in 
solitude,  discomfort,  and  ill-health,  while  watching  over  the  painful  labours  which 
precede  the  coming  of  a  new  life." 

The  genius  of  the  British  race  for  colonisation  and  for  government  has  been 
tested  and  proved  in  many  ways,  on  many  a  shore  and  in  many  a  climate,  and  we 
know  that  often  the  task  of  colonisation  or  government  has  come  on  us  as  an  un- 


NEW   BOOKS.  55 

expected,  and  often  an  unwelcome,  task  or  duty.  But  this  cannot  be  said  of  the 
regeneration  and  civilisation  of  the  Soudan,  a  Herculean  task,  but  one  deliberately 
undertaken,  the  dangers  and  difficulties  of  which  are  only  now  being  appreciated ; 
and  it  will  tax  the  genius  and  statesmanship  of  England  to  an  extent  which, 
perhaps  fortunately,  we  are  slow  to  realise.  Sir  Auckland  says,  "  There  has  never, 
probably,  in  the  history  of  the  world  been  such  a  deliberate  experiment  in  the 
reclamation  of  mankind  over  so  large  an  area  ;  nor  perhaps  such  an  incongruous 
couple  engaged  in  it  as  the  blunt  Briton  from  the  Thames  and  his  slim  coadjutor 
from  the  Nile.  Which  will  prove  to  have  been  the  better  forecast,  the  pessimism 
of  General  Gordon,  or  the  optimism  of  Lord  Cromer,  it  is  not  for  the  present 
generation  to  divine.  Will  Great  Britain  echo  the  boast  of  another  imperial  race, 
and  be  rcAvarded  hereafter  by  the  love  of  those  quos  domuit,  nexaq^ie  piu  Jonginqiie 
revinxii  ?  Or  will  she  share  the  destiny  of  the  mythical  benefactors  of  whom  the 
Latin  poet  sang  1  of  the  disillusioned  demi-gods,  whose  labours,  identical  in 
character  with  her  own,  brought  them  no  adequate  meed  of  acknowledgment  ? " 
In  times  like  those  of  to-day,  when  the  political  arena  rings  with  the  scarcely 
intelligible  battle-cries  of  mere  sects  and  parties,  we  can  remember  with  relief  and 
pleasure  that  elsewhere  in  the  world,  and  certainly  in  Egypt  and  the  Soudan,  the 
political  constructive  genius,  which  made  England  what  it  is,  is  still  at  work  on  a 
task  worthy  of  its  great  traditions,  and  has  enough  material  on  which  to  exercise 
its  highest  powers  for  many  years  to  come.  It  will  be  a  happy  day  for  the  Soudan 
if,  some  twenty  or  twenty-five  years  hence,  a  Sir  Auckland  Colvin  of  these  days  is 
able  to  record  for  the  Soudan  as  brilliant  a  success  in  constructive  statesmanship 
as  this  thoughtful  and  instructive  work  now  records  for  the  land  of  the 
Pharaohs. 

GENERAL. 

Kinglalce's  Eothcn.     With  an  Introduction  and  Notes,  by  D.  S.  Hogarth. 
London  :  Henry  Frowde,  1906.     Price  2s.  6d. 

This  dainty  little  reprint  has  not  much  direct  geographical  interest,  either  as 
regards  text  or  notes,  but  is  of  interest  in  throwing  light  upon  the  conditions  of 
life  in  the  East  at  the  date  when  the  book  was  written. 

Brown's  Comjyrehensive  Nautical  Almanack  for  1907.     Glasgow  : 
Brown  and  Son,  1906.     Price  Is. 

We  have  received  the  new  issue  of  this  invaluable  publication,  revised  and 
corrected  to  date.  According  to  a  notice  sent  with  the  volume,  the  1907  edition 
is  published  in  two  forms,  the  ordinary  and  an  edition  on  thicker  and  better 
paper  containing  some  additional  information.  To  the  scientific  geographer,  no 
less  than  the  navigator,  the  information  contained  in  the  Almanack  is  indispens- 
able, and  we  extend  to  it  our  annual  welcome. 


BOOKS  RECEIVED. 


The  Passing  of  Korea.  By  Homer  B.  Hulbert,  A.M.,  F.E.G.S.  Illustrated 
from  Photographs.  Royal  8vo.  Pp.  xii  +  473.  Price  16s.  net.  London  :  William 
Heineuiann,  1906. 

Un  Crepuscule  d'Islam.  Maroc.  Par  Andre  Chevrillok,  Crown  8vo. 
Pp.  315.     3/r.  5.     Paris  :  Librairie  Hachette  et  Cie. 


56  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

The  World  of  To-Day .  Volume  vi.  A  Survey  of  the  Lands  and  Peoples  of 
the  Globe  as  seen  in  Travel  and  Commerce.  By  A.  E.  Hope  Moxckieff. 
Pp.  vi  +  380.     Price  8s.  net.     London  :  The  Gresham  Publishing  Co.,  1906. 

Sketches  from  Normandy.  By  Louis  Becke.  Crown  8vo.  Pp.  250.  Price 
6s.  net.     London  :  T.  Werner  Laurie,  1906. 

Edinburgh  under  Sir  Walter  Scott.  By  "VV.  T.  Fyfe.  With  an  Introduction 
by  R.  S.  Rait.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xxi  +  314.  PricelOs.6d.net.  London :  Archi- 
bald Constable  and  Co.,  1906. 

My  Pilgrimage  to  the  Wise  Men  of  the  East.  By  Moncure  Daniel  Co.nway- 
Royal  8 vo.     Pp.  viii  +  416.     Price  12s.  6d.     London:  Archibald    Constable  and 

Co.,  1906. 

Modern  Sjxiin,  1815-1898.  By  H.  Butler  Clarke,  M.A.  With  a  Memoir 
by  the  Rev.  W.  H.  Huttox,  B.D.  Crown  8vo,  Pp.  xxvi  +  510.  Price  7s.  6d, 
Cambridge  :  LTniversity  Press,  1906. 

La  Chine  novatrice  et  guerriere.  Par  le  Capitaine  D'Ollone.  Un  volume  in 
18.     Pp.  viii  +  319.     Price  3  fr.  50.     Paris  :  Armand  Colin  et  Cie.,  1906. 

The  Daicn  of  Modern  Geography.  Vol.  iii.  A  History  of  Exploration  and 
Geographical  Science  from  the  Middle  of  the  Thirteenth  to  the  Early  Years  of  the 
Fifteenth  Century.  By  C.  Ratmoxd  Beazlet,  M.A.,  F.R.G.S.  {c.  a.d.  1260- 
1420.)     8vo.     Pp.  xvi  +  638.     Price20s.net.     Oxford :  Clarendon  Press,  1906. 

Natives  of  Australia.  By  N.  W.  Thomas,  M.A.  (Native  Races  of  the 
British  Empire.)  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xii  +  256.  Price6s.net.  London  :  Archibald 
Constable  and  Co.,  1906. 

The  Romance  of  an  Eastern  Capitcd.  By  F.  B.  Bradley-Birt,  B.A., 
F.R.G.S.,  LC.S.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  x  +  349.  Pricel2s.6d.net.  London:  Smith, 
Elder  and  Co.,  1906. 

The  Loiver  Niger  and  its  Tribes.  By  Mnjor  Arthur  Glyx  Leonard. 
Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xxii  +  559.  Price  12s.  6d.  net.  London  :  Macmillan  and  Co., 
1906. 

Also  the  following  Reports,  etc. : — 

Centred  Provinces  District  Gaxetteer.  17  Parts.  Edited  by  E.  V.  Russell, 
LC.S.     Allahabad,  1904-1905. 

Punjab  District  Gazetteer.     Vol.  xiii-a.     With  Maps,  1904.     Lahore,  1906. 

A  Report  on  the  Work  of  the  Survey  Department  in  1905.  By  Captain  H.  G. 
Lyons,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.,  Director-General.     Pp.  76.     Cairo,  1906. 

Twenty-fourth  Annual  Report  of  the  Fishery  Board  for  Scotland  for  the  Year 
1905.     Part  iii.     Scientific  Investigations.     Glasgow,  1906. 

British  Guiana  Blue  Bool;  1905-1906.    Georgetown,  Demerara,  1906. 

Punjab  District  Gazetteers.     Delhi  District.     Lahore,  1904. 

Madras  District  Gazetteers.     Vol.  ii.     3  Parts.     Madias,  1906. 

Bengal  District  Gazetteers.     By  L.  S.  S.  O'Malley.     Vol.  i.     Calcutta,  1906. 

District  Gazetteers.     Statistics,  1901-1902.     38  Parts.     Calcutta,  1806. 

Western  A^istralian  Year-BooJc,  1902-4  (Thirteenth  Edition).  By  Malcolm 
A.  C.  Fraser,  F.R.G.S.,  F.S.S.,  F.R.C.Inst.     Pp.  x  +  1283.    Perth,  1906. 

Military  Report  on  Egypt,  1906.  Prepared  for  the  General  StaflF,  War  Office. 
Maps.     London,  1906. 

The  Science  Year  -  Book :  Diary,  Directory,  and  Scientific  Summary,  1907. 
Edited  by  Major  B.  F.  S.  Badex-Powell.  Pp.  362.  Price  5s.  Londcn  :  King, 
Sell  and  Olding,  1907. 

Piiblishers  forwarding  books  for  review  tvill  greatly  oblige  by  marking  the  price  in 
clear  figures,  especially  in  the  case  of  foreign  books. 


H.S.H.   THE  PRINCE  OF  MONACO 


THE    SCOTTISH 

GEOGRAPHICAL 

MAGAZINE. 


H.S.H.  THE  PRINCE  OF  MONACO. 

(inth  Portrait) 

H.S.H.  Albert  1st,  Prince  of  Monaco,  to  whom  the  Society's  Gold 
Medal  for  1906  was  presented  in  Edinburgh  on  January  17th  last,  is 
distinguished  for  the  important  services  which  he  has  rendered  to 
oceanography.  On  a  previous  visit  to  Edinburgh  on  July  15,  1891,  the 
Prince  read  a  paper  before  the  Royal  Society  on  "A  New  Ship  for 
Oceanographic  Work."  Before  that  time  he  had  been  devoting  his 
attention  to  oceanographical  research  in  a  small  vessel,  the  HirowleJle. 
In  this  ship,  in  the  years  from  1885  to  1891,  he  made  many  studies  in 
oceanographical  science,  especially  on  the  marine  fauna  of  great  depths, 
and  this  has  been  also  his  object  in  subsequent  voyages  for  a  period 
of  twenty-one  years.  The  Hirondelle  being  found  to  be  too  small  for 
the  requirements  of  the  work,  a  three-masted  schooner,  with  auxiliary 
engines,  was  built  in  1891.  This  schooner,  named  the  Princesse  Alice, 
was  used  until  1898.  She,  in  turn,  proved  to  be  too  small,  and  was 
replaced  by  a  full-powered  steamship  of  more  than  1400  tons.  In  1892 
the  Prince  of  Monaco  again  visited  Scotland,  and  contributed  a  paper 
to  the  Edinburgh  meeting  of  the  British  Association.  Subsequently, 
besides  carrying  on  deep-sea  work,  he  undertook  a  new  investigation. 
He  had  for  many  years  taken  much  interest  in  meteorology,  especially 
as  connected  with  the  ocean,  and  had  developed  the  study  of  this 
science  on  Atlantic  islands.  He  now  undertook  investigations,  by  means 
of  kites  and  balloons,  in  the  higher  atmosphere.  Not  content  with  his 
investigations  in  the  regions  of  the  trade  winds,  he  turned  his  attention 
to  the  Polar  regions,  and  last  year  he  made,  as  already  noted  here,  his 
third  cruise  to  Spitsbergen  and  the  neighbouring  seas.  There  he  carried 
out  a  series  of  successful  and  interesting  experiments  with  meteorological 
kites  and  balloons,  and  also,  with  the  assistance  of  French,  Norwegian, 
and  Scottish  parties,  undertook  a  detailed  survey  of  a  large  part  of  the 

VOL.  XXIIL  E 


58  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

north-west  of  Spitsbergen  and  Prince  Charles  Foreland.  In  1899  the 
foundation  stone  of  the  great  Cceanographical  Museum  of  Monaco  was 
laid,  under  the  patronage  of  the  German  Emperor;  and  last  year,  as  we 
have  also  recorded,  the  Prince  of  Monaco  founded  an  institute  in 
Paris,  with  an  international  committee,  associated  with  his  collections 
in  Monaco.  This  institute  he  endowed  to  the  extent  of  £1  GO, 000. 
Almost  every  European  country  has  some  prominent  scientists  Avho  have 
been  definitely  associated  with  the  oceanographical  and  meteorological 
work  of  the  Prince  of  Monaco.  In  this  country  there  are  associate-! 
with  him  the  names  of  Mr.  J.  Y.  Buchanan,  whose  scientific  researches 
on  board  the  Princesse  Alice  and  at  the  Monaco  Museum  have  been  of 
much  importance  ;  Mr.  W.  S.  Bruce,  of  the  Scotia,  who  accompanied  him 
on  all  his  Arctic  voyages;  and  Mr.  W.  Smith,  junr.,  Aberdeen,  who  sailed 
with  him  in  1899  as  artist. 

The  Prince  is  further  associated  with  oceanographical  research  in 
this  country,  in  that  during  his  recent  visit  he  presided  at  the  inaugura- 
tion of  the  Scottish  Oceanographical  Laboratory,  and  was  there  met  by 
a  representative  gathering  of  Scottish  men  of  science  and  others.  At 
the  close  of  the  meeting  the  Prince  w^as  asked  by  Mr.  W.  S.  Bjuce,  the 
Director  of  the  Laboratory,  to  accept  a  replica  of  the  medal  which  had 
been  presented  to  the  members  of  the  Scottish  National  Antarctic  Expe- 
dition, as  an  acknowledgment  of  the  valuable  services  which  he  had 
rendered  to  the  expedition  by  the  loan  of  instruments  and  in  other 
ways,  and  also  as  a  memento  of  his  association  with  the  new  Institu- 
tion. The  Prince  is  thus  not  only  himself  a  scientific  investigator,  but 
has  also  been  associated  in  more  than  one  country  with  the  promotion 
of  scientific  research  by  others. 


THE  NIGER  BASIX  AND  MUNGO  PAP.K.i 

(mth  Map.) 

By  Sir  Harry  H.  Johnston,  G.C.M.G.,  K.C.B. 

In  1603  the  Scottish  people  discovered  England  as  a  field  for  adventure 
and  enterprise.  In  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  from 
thence  to  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth,  they  carried  out  an  ecjually 
remarkable  work  of  exploration  and  settlement  in  Ireland.  But  it  was 
after  the  union  of  the  legislatures  of  England  and  Scotland  that  the 
Scottish  people  really  embarked  on  their  great  career  as  pioneers  of  dis- 
covery and  commercial  adventure.  Entering  then  for  the  first  time  fully 
into  the  privilege  of  subjects  of  the  British  Crown  under  a  dynasty  still 
Scottish  in  direct  origin,  the  Scots  rapidly  made  themselves  famous  in 
the  history  of  the  world's  development  by  their  enterprise  in  Central 

^  An  Address  deliveruil  at  Selkirk  ou  Dccemljer  10,  1906,  in  couuectiou  with  the  uuveiling 
of  the  centenary  memorial  panels  in  the  Mungo  Park  statue. 


THE   NIGER    BASIN    AND   MUNGO   PARK.  59 

America,  the  West  Indies,  India  and  Africa.  James  Bruce,  born  at 
Kinnaird  House,  Stirlingshire,  in  1730,  was  sent  to  Harrow  to  be 
educated,  and  from  there  was  despatched  by  his  father  to  work  in  the 
wine  business  between  Spain,  northern  Portugal,  and  Great  Britain. 
But  Bruce's  ambitions  led  him  far  beyond  the  Spanish  peninsula  into 
North  Africa,  where  he  was  appointed  Consul-General,  and  later  on  to 
Egypt,  from  which  country  he  made  his  celebrated  exploration  of  the 
Blue  Nile  and  Abyssinia.  He  did  not  discover,  as  he  had  thought,  the 
ultimate  source  of  the  Nile  :  that  good  fortune  was  to  fall  jointly  to  the 
lot  of  an  Englishman,  Speke,  and  a  Scotsman,  Grant.  Were  it  not  very 
certain  that  the  source  of  the  Blue  Nile  had  really  been  discovered  by 
Portuguese  missionaries  in  the  sixteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries  and 
that  therefore  Bruce,  unknown  to  himself,  had  been  forestalled,  Scotland 
would  have  had  a  two-thii'ds  share  in  the  glory  of  discovering  the  origin 
of  the  two  upper  head-streams  of  the  Nile.  Another  great  Scot,  David 
Livingstone,  revealed  to  us  the  principal  sources  of  the  Zambezi  and  the 
Congo.  In  1777  a  Scottish  explorer,  Captain  Robert  Jacob  Gordon, 
discovered  the  Orange  Eiver  of  South  Africa,  Avhich  has  since  played 
such  a  considerable  part  in  the  delimitation  of  South  African  states. 
Perhaps  in  proper  sec^uence  I  should  have  mentioned  that  the  first 
explorer  of  North  Africa  (Tunis  and  Algeria)  who  gave  an  account  of 
his  travels  in  the  more  modern  style  was  William  Lithgow,  who  at  the 
commencement  of  the  seventeenth  century — about  1610 — travelled 
through  parts  of  Algeria  and  Tunis,  During  the  eighteenth  century 
adventurous  Scots  found  their  way  to  Morocco  or  Algeria,  most  often 
unwillingly,  being  captured  by  Moorish  pirates,  and  making  their  first 
experiences  of  Northern  Africa  as  captives.  They  generally  secured  their 
freedom  through  their  hard  work  and  skill,  obtaining  recognition  in  the 
eyes  of  some  local  potentate,  or  by  the  more  prosaic  way  of  being 
ransomed,  or  possibly  released  at  the  end  of  some  treaty-making  with  a 
Dey,  a  Bey,  or  a  Sultan.  Apparently  some  of  these  Scottish  adventurers 
returned  to  the  ports  of  Morocco  or  Algeria  in  a  trading,  or  even  in  a 
consular  capacity,  and  several  of  them  took  part  in  the  newly  arisen 
Liverpool  trade  with  West  Africa  in  the  eighteenth  century,  thereby 
finding  their  way  to  the  Senegal,  Gambia,  Sierra  Leone  and  the  Gold 
Coast. 

The  greatest  hero,  however,  of  Scottish  exploration  in  the  eighteenth 
century  was  Mungo  Park,  to  honour  whose  memory  we  are  assembled 
here  to-night.  It  is  of  him  and  the  results  of  his  work  that  I  shall  treat 
principally  ;  but  before  I  begin  to  describe  his  truly  remarkable  journeys, 
perhaps  you  will  allow  me  to  give  some  description  of  their  main  object — 
the  solution  of  the  Niger  mystery. 

Towards  the  close  of  the  eighteenth  century,  public  curiosity  as  to  the 
ultimate  source  of  the  Nile  was  for  a  time  set  at  rest  by  the  journeys  of 
Bruce,  Whether  or  not  Bruce  had  been  preceded  by  the  Portuguese,  no 
one  a  hundred  odd  years  ago  (except  perhaps  a  French  geographer, 
D'Anville)  had  any  doubt  that  the  main  stream  of  the  Nile  was  the 
Abyssinian  river.  What  therefore  now  attracted  scientific  curiosity  was 
the  course  and  outlet  of  the  Niger.     The  Greek  writers  on  geography  in 


60  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

the  centuries  that  preceded  the  Eoman   Empire  collected  from  their 
intercourse  with  the  people  of  the  southern  Mediterranean,  especially  the 
Carthaginians  and  Egyptians,  vague  rumours  of  a  fertile,  well-watered 
ref^ion  beyond  the  Sahara  Desert,  faint  indications  not  only  of  the  origin 
an'd  course  of  the  Nile,  but  also  of  some  other  Nile,  some  other  great 
river  or  lake  in  West  Central  Africa.     The  Eomans,  when  they  took 
possession  of  the  North  African  states,  made  at  least  one  expedition  to 
tlie  southern  regions  of  Morocco,  and  a  still  more  remarkable  one  under 
Julius  Maternus  through  Tripoli  southwards  into  Fezan,  and  apparently 
from  Fezan  to  somewhere  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bilma,  that  is  to  say, 
within  no  very  great  distance  of  Lake  Chad.    The  stories  gathered  up  by 
them  and  transmitted  to  us  in  the  writings  of  Plinius  Secundus,  who  was 
born  at  Verona  in  A.D.   23,  pay  much  attention  to  the  geography  of 
Morocco,  though  the  southward  extent  of  this  country  is  no  doubt  much 
exaggerated  and  confounded  in  Pliny's  mind  with  vague  traditions  which 
may  have  reached  him  of  Carthaginian  journeys  along  the  north-west 
coast  of  Africa.     Pliny  mentions  repeatedly  a  great  river  flowing  to  the 
southward  of  Morocco  called  the  Gir  or  Xigir.    Much  of  his  information, 
no  doubt,  relates  to  the  River  Draa,  which  is  the  southern  boundary  of 
Morocco,  and  is  a  very  important  watercourse  draining  the  southern  part 
of  the  Atlas  Mountains — a  river,  however,  which  probably  never  flows  to 
the  sea  in  one  continuous  stream  more  than  once  in  every  few  years,  for 
a  few  weeks.     There  is  nothing  about  this  river  to  suggest  well-watered 
tropical  regions,  nor  are  there  in  it  any  hippopotami  or  crocodiles.     But 
in  his  description  of  the  great  River  Nigir,  Pliny,  though  he  places  it  very 
much  where  the  River  Draa  is  found  at  the  present  day,  was  evidently 
repeating  stories  of  the  Bambotus  or  Senegal  of   the  real  Niger.     It 
is  very  nearly  certain  that  the  Senegal  River  had  been  revealed  to  the 
knowledge    of   the  Caucasian    race   by   Hanno   or    other    Carthaginian 
maritime   adventurers.     A  knowledge   of  it  spread  from  Carthaginian 
sources  to  Greek  writers,  and  the  description  given  of  the  fauna  and  of 
the  vegetation  makes  it   certain  that,  some  five  hundred  years  before 
Christ,  the  Mediterranean  world  had  a  glimmering  knowledge  of  the 
regions  of  Atlantic  Africa  beyond  the  Sahara  Desert ;  they  knew,  that  is 
to  say,  that  beyoad  the  limits  of  this  arid  region  there  were  hot  lands 
through  which  copious  rivers  flowed,  lands  of  strange  wild  beasts  and  of 
savage,  naked  men.     Such  information  as  reached  the  Mediterranean  by 
the  commencement  of  the  Christian  era  may  have  suggested  to  ancient 
Greeks  or  Romans  the  existence  in  West  Africa  of  another  mighty  river 
similar  in  many  of  its  characteristics  to  the  Nile,  perhaps  even,  in  the 
minds  of  some  geographers,  the  ultimate  head-waters  of  the  Nile,  which 
by  an  extraordinary  curve  reached  Ethiopia  and  then  turned  at  right 
angles  to  the  Mediterranean. 

With  the  irruption  of  the  Barbarians  into  the  Roman  Empire,  all 
interest  in  geography  died  away  so  far  as  Western  Europe  was  concerned, 
while  the  Byzantine  I'^mpire  limited  its  curiosity  to  the  regions  of  the 
East.  It  was  the  Arabs  who  were  to  take  up  the  geographical  work 
commenced  by  Herodotus  and  continued  by  Aristotle  and  Strabo,  Pliny, 
and  Ptolemy  of  Alexandria.      The  Arabs  invaded  North  Africa  in  G40 


THE   NIGER   BASIN    AND   MUNGO   PARK.  61 

A.D.  They  rapidly  imparted  their  religion  and  language  to  the  Berber 
tribes  whom  they  so  strongly  resembled  in  physical  characteristics  and 
mode  of  life,  even  their  languages  having  a  very  remote  affinity.  In  the 
ninth  century  the  Arabs  seem  to  have  penetrated  into  Negro  Africa  due 
west  from  the  Nile,  and  across  some  old  caravan  routes  from  Tripoli  to 
the  northern  bend  of  the  Niger.  In  the  tenth  century  they  had  already 
produced  maps  indicating  an  actual  knowledge  of  the  regions  south  of 
the  Sahara  Desert.  By  about  the  .year  950  A.d.  some  of  their  pioneers 
had  travelled  along  the  Atlantic  coast  south  of  Morocco  till  they  reach(  d 
the  mouth  of  the  Senegal.  They  then  wandered  eastwards  up  the  course 
of  that  river  and  across  the  water-parting  to  the  UpiJer  Niger,  on  which 
river  they  probably  met  other  pioneers  of  Islam  who  had  penetrated 
through  the  regions  of  Lake  Chad  to  the  northern  bend  of  the  Niger.  By 
the  beginning  of  the  eleventh  century  Muhammadanism  and  Arab  influence 
had  completely  dominated  the  valley  of  the  Niger,  from  its  entry  into  the 
Sahara  Desert  near  Timbuktu  almost  to  its  source.  Great  Muhammadan 
kingdoms  arose  in  the  lands  of  the  Mandingo  round  about  the  Upper 
Niger,  and  the  mysterious  Fula  race  between  the  Niger  and  the  Senegal 
became  converted  to  the  faith  of  Muhammad.  In  fact,  in  the  eleventh 
century  a  great  proselytising  movement  led  a  tribe  of  Berbers,  the 
Murabitin  or  Moravides,  across  the  Sahara  Desert  to  Morocco  and  Spain, 
once  more  reconquering  for  Islam  the  Spanish  peninsula.  This,  I  think, 
was  one  of  the  most  extraordinary  episodes  in  the  history  of  Africa  : 
that  at  the  commencement  of  the  Middle  Ages  a  wild  race  of  Tawartq 
nomads  should  start  from  the  Niger  and  in  a  very  few  years  overiun 
Morocco,  Algeria,  and  nearly  all  Spain  and  Portugal,  thus  staving  oflF 
for  another  four  hundred  years  the  collapse  of  Islam  in  Western 
Europe. 

All  these  movements  of  Arabs  and  Arabised  Berbers  and  Negroes 
implanted  very  firmly  in  civilised  Morocco- — for  Morocco  w-as  then  a 
country  of  high  civilisation — the  knowledge  of  the  existence  of  a  great 
river  in  West  Africa  beyond  the  Desert.  This  river  was  much  confused 
with  the  Senegal.  Some  people  thought  that  the  Niger — as  it  came 
afterwards  to  be  called — floAved  from  Lake  Chad  more  or  less  due  west 
till  it  entered  the  sea  through  the  mouth  of  the  Senegal.  This  was  the 
impression  made  on  the  minds  of  those  European  adventurers  who 
coasted  along  North-West  Africa  in  the  fourteenth  centuiy.  Some  of  the  se 
bold  Normans  from  Dieppe,  C4enoese  or  Majorcans,  probably  visited 
the  Senegal.  They  brought  back  stories  of  a  river  of  gold,  which 
greatly  excited  the  cupidity  and  interest  of  the  Portuguese.  Through 
their  intercourse  with  Morocco,  which  they  had  partially  conquered,  the 
Portuguese  heard  from  their  Moorish  captives  these  stories  of  the 
Great  River  beyond  the  Desert.  Being  at  the  same  time  industrious 
students  of  the  Classics  in  the  revival  of  learning  which  had  followed 
the  erection  of  Portugal  into  a  Christian  kingdom,  the  Poituguese 
identified  the  Great  River  beyond  the  Desert,  the  River  of  Gold,  the 
river  of  crocodiles  and  sea-horses,  with  the  "  Nigir  "  of  Pliny,  and  it  was 
probably  the  Portuguese  who  first  invented  the  modern  name  of  the 
river  which  by  a  slight  variation  we  call  "Niger." 


62  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

It  seems  possible,  however,  that  the  rortugue.se  were  not  the  first 
amongst  the  Latin  nations  to  reach  AVestern  Tropical  Africa  beyond  the 
Sahara  Desert.  In  the  thirteenth  century  the  Genoese  navigators  had 
rediscovered  the  Canary  Islands,  and  in  the  fourteenth  century  Nor- 
mans from  Dieppe,  Genoese  and  Catalans  from  Majorca,  had  sailed  down 
past  the  limits  of  the  Sahara  to  the  Senegal  Kiver,  and  even  onwards  to 
the  coast  of  modern  Liberia  (where  the  Norman  French  claimed  to  have 
established  themselves  for  nearly  a  hundred  years)  as  far  as  Elmina  on  the 
Gold  Coast.  The  Genoese  navigators  even  may  have  penetrated  further, 
and  perhaps  may  have  returned  in  safety,  but  leaving  no  definite  record 
of  their  achievement;  for  all  Italian  maps  of  the  fourteenth  and  early 
fifteenth  centuries,  sixty  or  seventy  years  at  least  before  the  Portuguese 
discoveries,  gave  a  delineation  of  the  African  continent  which  on  its 
west  coast  is  strikingly  like  actuality.  But  from  various  causes  to  do 
with  European  history,  these  efforts  emanating  from  the  south  coast  of 
the  British  Channel  and  the  north  coast  of  the  Mediterranean  came  to 
an  end  in  the  early  part  of  the  fifteenth  century,  or  were  fused  with  the 
now  stirring  tale  of  Portuguese  adventure  which  began  under  the  direct 
impulse  of  Prince  Henry  the  Navigator.  Genoese  and  Venetian  captains 
took  service  with  the  crown  of  Portugal.  In  1444  the  Portuguese  ships 
reached  the  mouth  of  the  Senegal  River.  This  was  at  the  time 
identified  with  the  River  of  Gold  or  the  Western  Nile  of  the  Arabs  or 
with  the  Nigir  or  Niger  of  Pliny.  In  1456  the  remarkable  Venetian 
navigator,  Ca'  da  Mosto,  in  the  service  of  Portugal  visited  the  Senegal 
and  Gambia  Rivers,  and  appears  to  have  made  a  journey  inland  for  some 
distance  along  the  course  of  the  Senegal.  From  intercourse  with  the 
Moors  he  brought  back  stories  of  the  Niger  River  and  Timbuktu,  and 
above  all  of  a  wonderful  city  or  country  called  Guint-  or  Ghinala.  These 
stories  seem  to  have  had  for  origin  the  remarkable  civilisation  of  Jene,  a 
well-known  town  and  district  on  the  Upper  Niger,  constantly  the  head- 
quarters of  a  powerful  Muhammadan  kingdom  either  under  the  Man- 
dingos  or  the  Fulas. 

From  this  time  onwards  till  the  eighteenth  century  either  the 
Senegal  or  the  Gambia  were  looked  upon  as  the  outlet  into  the  sea  of  a 
great  river  flowing  from  a  lake  in  the  heart  of  Africa  (Lake  Chad,  in 
fact)  to  the  Atlantic.  The  Moorish  stories  of  a  great  watercourse  run- 
ning east  and  west  ^  muddled  European  geography  for  several  centuries. 
All  round  the  Atlantic  coast  of  Guinea  may  be  observed  one  great 
estuary  after  another.  Every  few  miles  from  the  Senegal  southward 
one  encounters  an  important  river  mouth.  It  might  well  be  supposed, 
therefore,  that  these  multitudinous  estuaries  constituted  perhaps  the 
vast  delta  of  a  great  river  draining  at  least  a  third  of  tropical  Africa. 
Besides  the  thirst  for  gold,  which  for  a  time  was  partially  .slaked  by  the 
discovery  of  the  Gold  C  >ast,  European  covetousness  was  attracted  towards 
the  basin  of  the  Niger,  a  land  which  was  felt  vaguely  to  be  analogous  to 
the  Moslem  Exst.     Portuguese  explorers  had  penetrated  inland  from  the 


1  The  Seuegal,  Niger,  Koiuaiugu,  Lake  Chad  and  Bahv-el-Ghazal  appearc-d  eviiKutly  to 
the  first  Arab  explorers  to  be  one  continuous  waterway. 


THE   NIGER   BASIX    AND    MUNGO   PARK.  63 

Cxokl  Coast  to  the  verge  of  the  Xiger  watershed  in  that  direction,  at  any 
rate  to  lands  beyond  the  forest,  under  the  influence  of  some  semi-civilised 
Muhammadan  peoples.  The  civilisation,  in  fact,  of  the  Niger  basin 
between  the  sources  of  that  river  and  the  falls  of  Bussa  was  very  nearly 
on  a  par  with  the  European  civilisation  of  the  fifteenth  and  sixteenth 
centuries.  There  is  very  little  doubt  that  the  valley  of  the  Upper  Niger 
north  of  10°  N.  lat.  has  for  many  centuries  been  lifted  above  mere 
savagery — above  that  savagery  which  was  the  almost  unbroken  quality  of 
the  Guinea  coast  belt  from  the  Gambia  to  the  Niger  Delta,  the  Congo 
and  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  prior  to  the  Portuguese  settlement  of  the 
fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries.  Some  have  even  supposed  that  the 
influence  of  the  Caucasian,  wliich  is  everywhere,  I  believe  (except  in 
America),  synonymous  with  the  Neolithic  Age  and  the  raising  of  Man 
from  a  condition  of  barbarism,  emanated  from  Ancient  Egypt :  that 
something  of  Egyptian  civilisation,  including  the  domestic  animals  of 
Egypt,  found  its  way  from  the  middle  Nile  across  Kordofan  and  Darfur 
to  the  basin  of  Lake  Chad  and  thence  to  the  Upper  Niger,  while  at  a 
later  date  the  Libyans  of  North  Africa  and  the  Sahara  Desert,  who  are 
absolutely  of  Caucasian  stock,  found  their  way  across  the  Sahara  Desert 
with  the  aid  of  oxen  and  camels  and  permeated  the  healthy  regions  of 
the  Upper  Niger.  Some,  like  myself,  believe  the  Fulas  to  have  been  a 
Caucasian  race  of  North  Africa  speaking  a  type  of  language  antecedent 
to  the  Berber  and  Semitic  tongues,  and  driven  from  North-West  Africa 
into  Negro-laud  by  the  advent  of  tlie  Iberians,  who  brought  with  them 
from  southern  Europe  a  type  of  language  from  which  the  modern 
Hamitic  and  Semitic  tongues  are  descended.  At  any  rate  the  civilisa- 
tion of  the  Niger  seems  to  be  older  than  the  irruption  of  Islam  and  the 
Islamic  Arabs  and  Moors  into  that  region. 

It  was  therefore  towards  something  like  a  western  India,  a  laud  of 
gold,  and  also  a  land  of  well-clothed,  turbaned  people  riding  on  horses 
or  donkeys,  a  land  of  well-built  cities  and  much  material  comfort,  that 
European  adventure  was  so  strongly  attracted  from  the  fifteenth  century 
onwards.  The  British  were  not  slow  to  be  infected  with  this  search  for 
the  Niger  River  and  the  far-famed  city  of  Timbuktu.  In  the  seventeenth 
century  a  British  company  was  formed  to  explore  the  Gambia  with  the 
object  of  reaching  the  Niger.  The  first  explorer  sent  out  by  this  enter- 
prise, Richard  Thomson,  eventually  met  with  a  disaster,  being  murdered 
at  the  instigation  of  the  Portuguese,  but  he  was  succeeded  by  Richard 
Jobson,  who  ventured  a  considerable  distance  up  the  Gambia — about 
three  hundred  miles.  He  failed,  however,  to  reach  the  Niger,  and  for 
nearly  a  hundred  years  enterprise  in  this  direction  on  the  part  of  the 
British  was  stopped.  The  French,  however,  had  taken  the  matter  up 
by  way  of  the  Senegal.  Their  explorations,  however,  showed  con- 
clusively that  the  Senegal  and  the  Gambia  also  were  rivers  quite 
independent  of  the  Niger  system.  This  was  confirmed  by  Captain 
Bartholomew  Stibbs,  who  explored  the  Gambia  on  behalf  of  a  British 
company  in  1723. 

In  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  Lord  Halifax,  a  British 
statesman,  became  much  interested  in  African  exploration,  especially  as 


64  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

regards  the  source  of  the  Nile,  It  was  he  who  made  the  great  Scottish 
traveller,  Bruce — one  of  the  first  scientific  explorers — Consul  or  Consul- 
General  in  Algeria,  and  then  furnished  him  with  the  means  to  penetrate 
far  into  North-Eastern  Africa.  Bruce's  preliminary  work  in  Algeria, 
Tunis  and  Tripoli  so  whetted  the  curiosity  of  scientific  men  in  England 
and  Scotland  as  to  the  marvels  of  interior  Africa  that  it  led  indirectly 
to  the  foundation  of  the  African  Association,  which  proved  such  a  potent 
instrument  in  African  discovery,  and  which  was  the  direct  parent  of  the 
Royal  Geographical  Society  of  London.  The  moving  spirit  of  this 
association  was  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  and  it  was  Sir  Joseph  Banks  who 
selected  ]\rungo  Park  for  the  exploration  of  the  Niger.  The  African 
Association  had  despatched  a  daring  but  too  eccentric  American  seaman, 
Ledyard,  to  Egypt,  with  the  idea  that  he  should  cross  the  African 
continent  and  come  out  on  the  Guinea  coast,  but  he  died  soon  after  his 
arrival  in  Egypt.  Another  traveller  despatched  in  1789  was  Horneman, 
an  ancestor,  I  believe,  of  the  founder  of  the  famous  tea  firm.  Horneman, 
we  now  know,  made  a  most  marvellous  journey.  He  started  from  Tripoli 
in  1789,  crossed  the  Sahara,  and  almost,  if  not  quite,  reached  the  Lower 
Niger.  He  seems  to  have  died  in  the  Nupe  country,  which  is  now 
the  headquarters  of  British  administration  in  Nigeria.  Had  Horneman 
not  succumbed  to  dysentery  or  fever,  he  would  certainly  have  attempted 
to  follow  the  great  river  to  its  outlet  in  the  sea,  and  might  thus  have 
forestalled  by  something  like  fifty  years  the  ultimate  discovery  of 
Richard  Lander.  Major  Houghton  was  sent  by  the  Association  to 
the  Gambia.  He  reached  the  Upper  Niger  from  this  direction,  the 
country  of  Bambuk,  and  the  Upper  Senegal,  but  was  misled  by  Moorish 
tribes  into  entering  the  Desert,  where  he  was  finally  killed  or  left 
to  die. 

All  this  time,  though  no  European  had  yet  returned  to  tell  of  actual 
vision  of  the  Niger  waters,  there  was  no  doubt  whatever  in  the  mind 
of  educated  Europe  that  Western  Africa  did  possess  a  mighty  water- 
course, rising  somewhere  behind  the  mountains  of  Senegambia  and  flow- 
ing eastwards.  What  became  of  the  river  then  was  a  matter  of  much 
disputed  conjecture.  Some  geographers  held  that  it  ended  in  Lake 
Chad,  a  great  inland  sea  of  Central  Africa  which  had  no  outlet.  Others 
believed  that  the  Niger  after  flowing  past  Timbuktu  took  a  southern 
bend  (which  was  quite  true)  and  flowing  down  through  the  Equatorial 
regions  of  Western  Africa,  entered  the  sea  under  the  name  of  Congo. 
This  was  the  theory  favoured  by  Mungo  Park,  and  one  which  was  not 
completely  disproved  till  the  journey  of  Richard  and  John  Lander  in 
18.32  finally  solved  all  doubt  by  proving  the  Niger  to  possess  about  fifteen 
outlets  into  the  Bight  of  Benin. 

When  Major  Houghton  had  disappeared,  the  African  Society  looked 
about  for  another  explorer  to  search  for  and  relieve  Houghton,  and  if  neces- 
sary to  continue  his  task.  Their  choice  fell,  through  the  influence  of  Sir 
Joseph  Banks,  on  a  young  Scottish  surgeon,  Mungo  Park,  who  was 
born  at  Foulshiels,  four  and  a  half  miles  from  Selkiik,  on  the  10th  of 
September  1771.  He  was,  as  you  know,  the  seventh  child  of  a  family 
of  thirteen  ;  his  father,  Thomas  Park,  being  a  small  farmer,  who,  after 


THE   NIGER   BASIN   AND    MUNGO    PARK.  65 

the  manner  of  his  class  and  country,  determined  to  give  all  his  children 
the  best  possible  education.  Fortunately,  perhaps,  for  the  fulfilment  of 
his  desire,  Fate  or  Providence  thinned  out  the  family  of  thirteen  to 
eight.  jNTungo,  in  common  with  most  of  his  brothers  and  sisters,  was 
first  educated  at  home  by  a  teacher,  and  then  transferred  to  the  Selkirk 
Grammar  School,  to  which  he  Avalked  backwards  and  forwards  most 
days  in  the  week — a  distance  of  nine  miles.  At  fifteen  years  of  age 
he  became  apprenticed  to  Dr.  Thomas  Anderson,  a  surgeon  in  Selkirk, 
whose  descendants,  I  believe,  are  amongst  Selkirk's  citizens  at  the 
present  day. 

In  1789  Mungo  Park  entered  the  Edinburgh  University  to  complete 
his  medical  studies,  during  which  time  he  gave  special  attention  to 
botany.  This  taste  had  a  decisive  effect  on  his  career,  for  it  brought  him 
into  close  relations  with  a  clever  young  gardener  and  botanical  student, 
James  Dickson,  who  married  one  of  Park's  sisters.  Dickson  came  to 
know  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  who  had  himself  given  Dickson  a  botanical 
appointment  in  London.  Through  Sir  Joseph  Banks'  influence  Park 
was  appointed  surgeon  to  an  East  India  Company's  ship,  and  under 
these  auspices  Park  accomplished  a  sufficiently  noteworthy  voyage  to 
Sumatra  and  other  parts  of  the  East  Indies,  where  he  made  collections 
of  Natural  History.  On  his  return,  when  he  was  twenty-four  years  of 
age,  through  the  influence  of  Sir  Joseph  Banks  he  was  selected  by  the 
African  Association  alluded  to  already. 

On  the  21st  of  June  1795  he  landed  at  the  mouth  of  the  Gambia, 
where  he  was  obliged  to  remain  until  the  beginning  of  October.  On  the 
2nd  of  December  in  the  same  year  he  left  the  navigable  regions  of  the 
Upper  Gambia  and  directed  his  little  caravan  toward  the  Upper  Senegal. 
Between  the  Faleme  and  the  main  Senegal  Kiver,  however,  he  met  with 
almost  insuperable  difliculties.  His  goods  were  plundered,  his  followers 
dispersed,  and  he  was  reduced  almost  to  death  by  starvation  till  he  was 
pitied  and  relieved  by  an  old  woman.  At  this  juncture  also  there  came 
on  the  scene  the  son  of  a  great  Mandingo  chief  of  the  Upper  Senegal, 
who,  thinking  that  his  father  might  like  to  see  a  real  white  man,  took 
Park  along  with  him  to  his  father,  the  King  of  Kason,  whose  country 
lay  round  about  the  modern  French  station  of  Kayt^s.  From  this  point 
the  Senegal  is  navigable  almost  all  the  year  round  to  the  sea.  This,  in 
fact,  was  the  country  of  Bambuk  which  has  always  played  an  important 
part  in  AVest  African  history.  From  here  he  made  his  way  to  Kaarta, 
still  in  the  land  of  Negroes,  though  a  region  bordering  on  the  Sahara. 
Consciously  or  unconsciously,  he  was  following  the  same  route  as 
Houghton.  Although  longing  to  proceed  due  east  and  strike  the  Niger, 
native  wars  and  rumours  of  wars  kept  heading  him  oft"  in  the  direction 
of  the  Sahara  Desert  and  the  land  of  the  Moors.  These  Moors  were 
distinctly  different  to  the  Tamasheq  (Tawareq)  of  the  more  central  parts 
of  the  Sahara,  who  founded  Timbuktu  in  the  eleventh  century,  and  who 
ever  since  have  been  intermittent  raiders  of  the  northern  bend  of  the 
Niger.  The  "Moors"  who  are  to  be  met  with  along  the  north  bank  of 
the  Senegal  and  in  the  western  limits  of  the  Sahara  Desert  are  allied 
in  origin  to  the  Tawereq,  but  are  a  good  deal  more  mixed  with  Negro 


66 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


and  Arab  blood.  Some  of  them  si)eak  the  Zenaga  dialect  of  that  great 
group  of  Berber  tongues  which  includes  the  language  of  the  Tamasheq 
(Tawareq  or  Touareg)  also.  But  a  debased  form  of  Arabic  ("  Hassanieh  ") 
more  ordinarily  prevails  amongst  them.  The  Sultan  of  Ludamar  was 
the  chief  of  a  section  of  these  Moorish  tribes,  and  a  man  probably  of 
mainly  Arab  descent.  He  enticed  Park  and  his  two  remaining  servants, 
Johnson  and  Demba,  into  his  possession.  Between  February  and  June 
1796  Mungo  Park  was  treated  like  a  mouse  captured  by  a  cat.  The 
detestable  Arab-Moorish  hybrids,  sometimes  known  as  the  Hassanieh 
tribe,  submitted  him  to  every  indignity  and  considerable  torture.     Again 


The  Niger  Ba^ill. 

and  again  they  were  within  an  inch  of  killing  him.  Sometimes  he  would 
be  allowed  a  deceptive  amount  of  personal  liberty,  so  that  he  would 
escape  and  perhaps  travel  a  hundred  miles  or  so  from  their  clutches,  only 
however  to  be  captured,  brought  back,  and  worse  treated  than  ever.  He 
was  robbed  little  by  little  of  his  possessions.  Once,  he  tells  us,  he  was 
shut  up  in  a  hut  with  a  wild  hog,  any  species  of  pig  appearing  to  these 
fanatical  Muharamadans  to  be  the  vilest  of  animals,  and  consequently  to 
have  a  natural  affinity  with  Cliristians.  Strange  to  say,  however,  the 
pig  did  not  attack  Park,  but  frequently  charged  and  gored  his  tormentors. 
His  faithful  personal  attendant,  Demba,  was  sold  into  slavery,  and  never 
heard  of  ariy  more.     Tue  other,  an  Anglicised   Negro  named  Johnson, 


THE   NIGER   BASIN   AND   MUNGO    I'AKK.  67 

worn  out  with  constant  terror  and  privations,  lost  all  hope,  and  refused 
at  the  last  moment  to  accompany  Mungo  Park  on  his  second  attempt  at 
escape.     Park  during  his  captivity  would  have  died  several  times  from 
sheer  starvation  had  he  not  been  taken  pity  on  by  some  of  the  Moorish 
women,    especially    by    a    certain    Fatima,    the    wife    of    his    principal 
tormentor,  Ali.     Fatima  was  a  mountain  of  flesh,  as  are  all  the  high- 
caste  women  in  the  harems  of  these  Moors.      She  took  a  capricious  liking 
to   Park  from   his  good  looks,  which  were  apparent  even  when  he  was 
emaciated    with    hunger    and    fatigue.       Indeed,    through    all    these 
adventures  in   Africa  women    befriended    him,    old    and   young    alike. 
Generally  at   some   crisis  a   woman  provided  him  with  food  or  shelter. 
Yet   it   is    amusing   to    read    that   the  Moors,  women  and    men  alike, 
reproached    Park    with    being   grossly  indecent,    because    he  wore  the 
European  clothes  which  were  fashionable  at  the  end  of  the  eighteenth 
and  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  centuries.     Though  these  persons  were 
almost  without  an  elementary  idea  of  morality — were  even,  one  might 
say,  depraved — they  considered  that  the  human  form  should  be  as  little 
revealed   as   possible,  and   shrouded    in   voluminous    garments.       It    is 
perhaps  somewhat  extraordinary  that  Muugo   Park,  like  several  other 
African  explorers  of  the  same  date,  in  the  North  as  well  as  in  the  tropical 
regions,  clung  so  tenaciously  to  European  clothing,  obviously  unfitted  as 
the  fashions  of  that  da}^  were  for  African  travel,  besides  the  fact  that 
they  made  the  white  man  at  once  c^nsjticuous;  whereas  clad  in  Arab  or 
Moorish   fashion   he  might  have  p.issed  through  these  regions  without 
undue  notice  or  opposition. 

When  in  the  month  of  February  1796,  Park  left  the  Moorish  camp 
before  the  dawn,  jumped  on  to  a  horse,  aad  galloped  for  freedom,  he  had 
embarked  upon  the  most  critical  period  of  his  life  until  that  last  struggle 
with  the  rapids  of  the  Lower  Xiger  which  terminated  his  existence. 
He  had  to  ride  from  the  verge  of  the  Sahara  through  the  Negro  country 
of  Bambara.  Much  of  the  northern  part  of  this  country  was  waterless. 
Park  was  sometimes  five  days  at  a  time  without  a  drink  of  water,  which 
he  then  only  obtained  from  some  chance  rainfall.  There  was  fortunately 
a  certain  amount  of  herbage  which  ke})t  his  horse  alive,  and  he  himself 
would  assuage  the  agonies  of  thirst  by  chewing  leaves.  As  often  as  not 
the  storms  which  seemed  to  promise  relief  were  only  dust  storms,  and 
added  to  his  agonies  of  thirst.  Occasionally  he  would  be  unable  to 
approach  a  well  or  a  stream-bed  because  the  way  to  the  water-supply 
was  obstructed  or  guarded  by  fierce  lions.  The  journey  was  by  no 
means  devoid  of  human  beings,  but  from  none  of  these  did  he  derive 
anything  but  harsh  treatment.  Much  of  the  country  had  to  be 
accomplished  on  foot,  the  horse  being  too  weak  to  bear  him.  If  his 
resistance  to  the  agonies  of  thirst  is  wonderful,  it  strikes  the  reader  of 
his  experiences  how  more  remarkable  was  that  bodily  strength  which 
enabled  him  to  exist,  walking  or  riding,  for  a  week  or  ten  days  at  a 
time  with  practically  no  more  food  than  could  be  derived  from  the 
chewing  of  leaves  or  roots,  or  an  occasional  handful  of  beans  tossed  to 
him  by  some  half-contemptuous  Negro. 

But  at  last  he  got  near  to  the  Bambara  capital  of  Segu,  and  to  his  great 


68  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

relief  his  reception  at  the  hands  of  the  Negro  king  was  a  friendly  one, 
though  the  king,  influenced  by  Moorish  visitors  at  his  court,  refused  to 
see  Park  personally.  It  was  when  waiting  to  cross  the  Niger  at  Segu, 
"shunned  and  treated  like  a  pariah,"  that  he  received  unexpected 
hospitality  and  kindness  from  a  negress,  who,  while  he  rested,  sang  with 
her  companions  that  song  which  Park  inscribed  in  his  book,  and  which 
has  been  so  often  quoted  : — 

"The  winds  roared  and  the  rains  fell. 
The  poor  white  man  sat  under  our  tree. 
He  has  no  mother  to  bring  him  milk, 
No  wife  to  grind  his  corn. 
Let  us  pity  the  white  man  ; 
No  mother  has  he."' 

From  Segu,  Park  travelled  along  the  north  bank  of  the  Niger  to 
Sansandig,  where  he  was  again  harassed  by  the  detestable  Moors.  His 
journey  extended  along  the  Niger  banks  for  another  eighty  miles  east- 
wards; but  he  stopped  short  before  reaching  Lake  Debo  owing  to  the 
utter  destitution  of  his  condition  and  the  hostility  of  the  Moorish 
merchants  (whose  denunciation  of  him  dissuaded  the  Negroes  and  Fulas 
from  showing  him  hospitality).  His  clothes  were  reduced  to  rags.  He 
had  absolutely  no  means  with  which  to  buy  food,  having  parted  even 
with  the  brass  buttons  of  his  coat  in  return  for  such  hospitality  as  bad 
been  shown  him.  Amongst  the  tortures  he  endured  at  that  time  were 
mosquito  bites.  The  whole  valley  of  the  Niger  was  swarming  with 
mosquitoes,  and  every  night  was  renewed  miseiy.  How  under  these  con- 
ditions— alone,  half-naked,  and  absolutely  without  means — he  ever 
succeeded  in  returning  to  the  coast,  is  one  of  the  marvels  of  African 
exploration. 

For  some  time  past  he  had  been  without  his  faithful  horse,  which  he 
had  lelt  behind  in  an  emaciated  condition  at  a  place  called  Madibu. 
After  returning  on  foot  from  his  furthest  exploration  of  the  Niger,  and 
again  at  the  point  of  despair,  having  been  very  badly  treated  by  a  Negro 
guide,  he  raised  his  voice  in  expostulation  in  the  streets  of  this  town  of 
Madibu,  and  to  his  surprise  Avas  answered  by  the  loud  neighing  of 
a  horse.  At  that  moment  the  head  man  of  the  town  came  up  to  him 
and  asked  if  he  knew  who  was  speaking  to  him.  Park  looked  puzzled, 
and  the  man  explained  his  jest  by  saying  that  the  neighing  came  from 
Park's  own  horse  which  he  had  left  behind,  thinking  it  was  dying,  which 
had  recovered,  and  now  recognised  its  master's  voice. 

But  his  troubles  were  far  from  being  over,  though  it  was  a  great  joy 
to  regain  possession  of  the  faithful  steed.  The  rains  had  burst  in  their 
fullest  violence  in  the  month  of  August.  As  he  retraced  his  steps  along 
the  Niger  banks  the  Moors  renewed  their  persecution.  He  was  driven 
from  village  to  villaj;e,  often  without  food  or  shelter,  sometimes  within 
an  ace  of  being  killed  by  lions,  which  in  those  days  seem  to  have  infested 
this  country  in  extraordinaiy  numbers.  Whenever  his  life  was  saved 
by  timely  food  or  shelter,  it  was  a  Negro  who  showed  this  kindness. 
Moors,  Arabs,  and  Fulas  evinced  an  unwavering  hostility  towards  the 
white  man.     Yet  it  is  regrettable  to  note  that  Park  apparently  to  the 


THE    NIGER   BASIN   AND   MUXGO   PARK.  G9 

end  of  his  days  could  not  bring  himself  to  condemn  the  Slave  Trade.  The 
only  thing  which  excited  his  compassion,  in  the  horrors  of  which  he  was 
one  of  the  principal  witnesses,  was  the  fate  of  the  intelligent  Muham- 
madans  of  the  superior,  almost  Caucasian  races — Arab  or  Fula  hybrids — 
being  sent  into  captivity.  For  the  poor  simple-minded  black  Negro, 
the  one  type  of  humanity  that  had  made  his  exploration  of  the  Niger 
possible,  he  had  little  to  say. 

Ou  his  return  journey  he  traced  the  course  of  the  Niger  upwards  as 
far  as  Bammako.  Here,  curiously  enough,  the  Moors  showed  themselves 
very  civil,  and  sent  the  traveller  rice  and  milk.  Leaving  Bammako  to 
travel  through  the  Fula  country  of  Handing,  Park  was  set  upon  by  Fula 
robbers,  who  stripped  Him  naked,  robbing  him  even  of  his  liat.  \Yhen 
he  protested  they  were  within  an  ace  of  shooting  him,  but  as  they  rode 
away,  one  of  the  Fulas,  more  compassionate  than  the  rest,  threw  back  to 
him  his  hat,  shirt,  and  trousers.  Park  was  transported  with  delight,  for 
in  the  lining  of  the  hat  were  hidden  the  precious  notes  that  he  had  made 
of  his  journey.  Once  again  he  was  rescued  by  Negroes,  and  Negroes  on 
his  subsequent  journey  across  the  mountains  towards  the  Gambia  nursed 
him  when  he  was  ill  with  fever,  and  kept  him  as  their  guest  for  months 
till  he  regained  his  strength.  At  last  he  joined  a  Muhammadan  slave 
caravan,  and  under  its  escort  reached  the  navigable  waters  of  the  Gambia, 
where,  of  course,  he  found  that  he  had  long  since  been  given  up  for  dead. 
From  the  mouth  of  the  Gambia  his  journey  home  was  still  one  of  ill-luck. 
He  started  in  a  slave  ship  bound  for  the  United  States.  The  ship  was 
so  unseaworthy  that  it  had  to  put  into  the  island  of  Antigua  in  the 
West  Indies.  Here,  fortunately,  he  obtained  a  passage  in  a  fast  sailing 
vessel  which  landed  him  at  Falmouth  on  the  22nd  of  December  1797. 
He  had  been  absent  from  England  two  years  and  nine  months. 

Arrived  in  London,  Park  devoted  himself  to  writing  an  account  of 
his  travels.  He  then  returned  to  Foulshiels,  and  spent  much  of  the  year 
1798  in  the  vicinity  of  Selkirk.  In  the  summer  of  1799  he  married 
Miss  Anderson,  the  daughter  of  his  old  master  and  teacher,  Dr.  Anderson. 
They  had  a  happy  mai'ried  life  (during  which  three  children  were  born), 
until  the  close  of  1803,  when  he  was  invited  to  visit  the  Colonial  Office 
in  London.  Between  1799  and  1803  Park  practised  as  a  surgeon  at 
Peebles,  but  was  constantly  visited  with  restless  longings  to  add  to  his 
achievements  as  an  explorer.  The  British  Government  now  offered  him 
the  command  of  an  expedition  to  explore  the  course  of  the  Niger.  He 
accepted  the  commission.  Various  delays  occurred  in  its  equipment, 
but  at  last,  on  the  3 1st  of  January  1806,  he  started  from  England,  accom- 
panied by  Dr.  Anderson  and  Mr.  George  Scott,  both  of  them  from 
Selkirk  or  the  vicinity.  He  also  took  with  him  five  boat-builders 
or  carpenters.  At  the  island  of  Goree,  which  is  in  the  harbour  of  Dakar 
(now  the  capital  of  French  West  Africa,  but  then  a  British  possession), 
Park  picked  up  Lieutenant  Martyn,  thirty-five  British  soldiers,  and  two 
bluejackets.  With  this  force,  which  rode  donkeys  that  had  been  shipped 
from  the  Cape  Verde  Islands,  he  ascended  the  Gambia,  and  on  the  27th 
of  April  1805  set  out  from  the  upper  navigable  reaches  of  that  river  in 
the  direction   of  the  Niger.     He  reached  Bammako  on  the  Niger  at  the 


70  SCOTTISH  GKOGKAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

end  of  August  with  only  sevta  survivors  out  of  the  foity  Europeans  w  ho 
had  started  with  him  from  the  Gambia.  Xone  of  these  Europeans  were 
of  any  real  aid  to  Park  owing  to  their  inexperience  of  African  travel, 
their  over-indulgence  in  alcohol,  and  the  extent  to  which  they  suffered 
from  fever  ;  but  he  had  with  him  a  Mandingo  head-man,  Isaac  or  Izako, 
who  was  often  of  great  assistance,  and  whose  ultimate  action  in  regard 
to  Mungo  Paik  probably  rescued  for  us  the  only  evidence  we  have  of  his 
second  exploration  of  the  Niger.  Alexander  Anderson,  his  brother-in- 
law,  to  whom  he  was  devotedly  attached,  died  on  the  28th  of  October 
1805,  and  Scott  soon  afterwards.  Nevertheless,  with  Lieutenant  Mart}n 
and  the  remaining  Europeans  (Martyn  unfortunately  seems  to  have  been 
a  man  of  very  different  calibre  and  usefulness  to  either  Scott  or  Ander- 
son), Mungo  Park  left  Sansandig  on  the  Upper  Niger  at  the  end  of 
November  1805  in  a  sailing  vessel  which  he  had  rigged  out  in  prepara- 
tion for  his  journey  of  discovery  down  the  Niger.  His  crew  consisted  of 
Martyn,  three  British  soldiers  (one  of  whom  was  mad,  while  the  others 
were  sick),  Amadi  Fatuma  (a  Mandingo  guide),  and  three  Negro  slaves. 

From  the  subsequent  information  collected  by  Izako  from  Amadi 
Fatuma,  who  was  the  sole  survivor  of  the  expedition,  we  gather  that 
Park,  after  leaving  Sansandig,  journeyed  almost  uninterruptedly  down 
the  course  of  the  Niger  as  far  as  Yauri,  a  place  on  the  Niger  some 
distance  to  the  north  of  the  Bussa  rapids.  Park's  expedition  had  been 
attacked  by  natives  near  Lake  Debo,  and  again  in  the  vicinity  of  Tim- 
buktu. At  the  Tosaye  rapids  fresh  attacks  took  place  on  the  part  of  the 
Tawareq,  while  the  vessel  was  nearly  lost  on  the  rocks  with  which  the 
river  began  to  be  strewn.  But  after  leaving  the  Ansonga  rapids  the 
expedition  had  a  long  stretch  of  uninterrupted  navigation,  especially 
when  they  entered  the  Hausa  country,  and  therefore  Park  dismissed  his 
faithful  interpreter,  Amadi  Fatuma,  at  Yauri,  believing  that  he  was  now 
in  close  proximity  to  the  Gulf  of  Guinea.  Moreover,  as  from  this  point 
southwards  he  expected  to  travel  through  Negro  lands,  he  felt  assured  of 
a  friendly  reception.  Unfortunately,  Lieutenant  Martyn  was  the  worst 
possible  assistant  under  these  circumstances.  His  one  idea  seems  to  have 
been  to  shoot  at  any  native  gathering  of  suspicious  aspect  or  intentions. 
The  hostilities  increased  concurrently  with  the  frightful  difficulty  of 
navigating  the  Bussa  rapids.  At  last  the  prow  of  the  vessel  stuck  in  the 
cleft  of  a  rock,  and  in  despair  Park  and  his  companions  jumped  into  the 
water,  where  they  were  either  droAvned  or  killed  by  the  weapons  of  the 
enraged  Negroes.     Only  one  boatman  (a  slave)  survived  this  disaster. 

We  must  not  be  too  severe  perhaps  even  on  the  memory  of  Martyn. 
It  must  be  remembered  that  the  appearance  of  the  white  man  in  the 
lands  of  the  Niger  was  a  serious  portent  to  the  intelligent  Fula,  to  the 
Arabised  Moor,  and  to  the  Tawareq  of  the  desert.  They  already  realised 
that  in  the  Northern  Caucasian  they  themselves  saw  a  future  master,  one 
who  was  going  to  set  their  world  to  rights.  Therefore  wherever  Park 
went  with  his  expedition  they  received  him  with  undisguised  hostility. 
The  rumour  of  war  spreads  easily  in  Africa,  and  no  doubt  long  before 
Park  himself  arrived  within  their  gates  the  Negroes  of  Bussa  heard  an 
exaggerated  account  of  the  slaughter  w'hich  was  being  effected  by  the 


THE    NIGER    BASIN    AND    MUNGO    TAKK.  71 

white  man's  weapons.    Nevertheless  it  was  a  cruel  tragedy  which  robbed 
this  gallant  pioneer  of  the  complete  accomplishment  of  his  task. 

It  was  long  before  his  family  believed  that  Park  was  really  dead, 
despite  the  fact  that  the  British  Government  despatched  Izako  to  collect 
positive  evidence,  and  that  Izako  even  succeeded  in  bringing  back  Park's 
sword-belt  from  the  King  of  Yauri.  As  late  as  the  year  1827,  Thomas 
Park,  the  explorer's  second  son,  .seized  an  opportunity  of  landing  on  the 
Gold  Coast,  and  started  for  the  interior  to  search  for  his  father.  He 
died  or  was  killed  on  the  borders  of  Ashanti. 

Not  even  when  Izako  returned  with  all  the  intelligence  he  could 
collect  as  to  the  fate  of  Park's  expedition  was  it  realised  hoAV  near  the 
great  explorer  had  been  to  solving  the  whole  secret  of  the  Niger,  that 
he  had  died  in  fact  at  a  spot  only  some  four  hundred  miles  in  a  direct 
line  from  the  Gulf  of  Guinea.  The  first  calculations  as  to  the  extent  of 
his  exploration  only  carried  the  Niger  eastwards  about  a  hundred  miles 
beyond  Timbuktu.  Nevertheless  in  1808  a  clever  German  geographer, 
Reichardt,  had  published  a  guess  to  the  eft'ect  that  the  final  outlet  of  the 
Niger  was  contained  in  that  huge  delta  of  rivers — in  fact,  what  we  now 
know  as  the  Niger  Delta,  in  the  Bight  of  Benin.  Very  little  notice  was 
taken  of  this.  Nor  was  there  even  much  attention  paid  to  the  still 
more  remarkable  deductions  of  M'Queen.  M'Queen  was  a  Scotsman 
who  resided  for  a  time  in  the  West  Indies,  and  there  came  into  contact 
with  Mandingo  slaves,  one  or  two  of  whom  had  actually  known  Park  on 
the  Niger.  For  years  he  collated  the  accounts  given  to  him  by  intelligent 
Negroes  in  the  West  Indies,  and  in  1816,  and  again  in  1821,  he 
published  theories  as  to  the  course  of  the  Niger  and  its  outlet  into  the 
Bight  of  Benin  which  traced  its  course  with  astonishing  accuracy. 
Nevertheless  a  considerable  volume  of  scientific  opinion  held  that  the 
Niger  could  not  cut  its  way  through  the  continuous  range  of  the  Kong 
Mountains,  which  theorists  had  drawn  all  round  the  West  African  coast- 
belt.  The  theory  that  the  Niger  was  lost  in  the  wastes  of  the  Sahara 
was  too  disappointing  to  be  entertained.  Consequently  the  Congo  was 
considered  its  only  possible  outlet,  and  Captain  Tuckey  was  sent  out  by 
the  British  Government  to  the  mouth  of  the  Congo  to  trace  that  river  up 
till  it  ended  in  Mungo  Park's  Niger.  His  expedition  was  a  complete 
disaster. 

Then  a  new  way  of  approaching  the  Niger  regions  was  suggested, 
and  Denham  and  Clapperton  and  Oudney  were  despatched  by  the 
British  Government  from  Tripoli  to  cross  the  Sahara.  This  they  did 
with  extraordinary  success.  They  discovered  Lake  Chad  and  the  Shari 
River,  and  finally  Clapperton  reached  the  vicinity  of  the  Niger  at  Sokoto. 
But  the  Tula  sultan  would  not  allow  him  to  continue  his  journey  to  the 
great  river.  He  therefore  returned  to  England,  and  was  again  despatched 
to  West  Africa.  Amongst  his  companions,  all  of  whom  soon  died  after 
leaving  the  Gulf  of  Benin,  was  Richard  Lander,  a  Cornishman.  Clapper- 
ton and  Lander  jjassed  through  Yoruba,  and  reached  the  Niger  almost 
at  the  exact  spot  where  Park  had  been  killed.  Clapperton  then  pro- 
ceeded by  a  devious  course  to  Sokoto,  where  he  died  of  fever.  His 
faithful  companion.  Lander,  returned  to  England.     Under  discouraging 


72  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

circumstances,  and  with  very  paltry  encouragement  from  the  British 
Government,  Richard  Lander  with  his  brother  John  went  out  again  to 
West  Africa,  landed  at  Badagry,  a  place  near  Lagos,  and  thence  reached 
Yauri  on  the  Niger.  The  brothers  Lander  navigated  the  river  down 
stream  till  its  junction  with  the  Benue,  and  thence  southwards  into  the 
fierce  Pagan  cannibal  country  of  the  Lower  Niger  and  its  delta.  After 
overcoming  tremendous  difficulties,  they  issued  from  the  main  stream  of 
the  Niger  through  the  Brass  River  to  the  breakers  of  the  Atlantic 
Ocean,  They  had  completed  Mungo  Park's  exploration  down  to 
the  sea. 

There  then  only  remained  to  trace  the  main  stream  of  the  Niger  to  its 
source.  The  sources  of  the  Niger  were  perhaps  actually  discovered  by 
two  French  explorers,  Zweifeland  Moustier,  and  by  the  English  traveller, 
Winwood  Rede,  in  the  sixties  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

The  ultimate  history  of  Niger  exploration  has  been  a  division  of 
glories  between  Britain  and  France,  with  some  share  also  to  be  attributed 
to  the  eminent  German,  Flegel.  The  region  drained  by  this  great  river 
is  partly  under  French  and  partly  under  British  administration.  The 
great  names — so  far  as  Britain  is  concerned — in  this  work  are  also 
Scottish  in  descent,  if  not  always  in  birthplace.  Amongst  them  must  be 
mentioned  MacGregor  Laird,  who  practically  founded  the  British  naviga 
tion  of  the  Lower  Niger,  and  that  fleet  of  trading  vessels  now  belonging  to 
Messrs.  Elder  Dempster,  with  its  shipbuilding  yards  at  Glasgow  ;  Joseph 
Thomson,  who  made  the  most  important  treaties  that  extended  British 
influence  over  Northern  Nigeria  (and  who  has  written  an  admirable  Life 
of  Mungo  Park) ;  and  Sir  George  Taubman  Goldie,  whose  family,  I  believe, 
originated  not  far  from  Selkirk,  who  was  the  political  founder  of  the 
British  dominions  of  vast  extent  which  lie  between  the  Niger,  the  Benue 
and  Lake  Chad.  Perhaps  also  I  may  venture  to  attach  my  own  name 
with  due  humility  to  the  long  list  of  "Nigerians,"  as  also  being  one  of 
Scottish  descent,  for  to  your  lecturer  of  to-night  fell  the  lot  of  organising 
the  beginnings  of  the  British  Protectorate  of  Southern  Nigeria,  in  that 
Delta  of  the  river  which  Mungo  Park  very  nearly  succeeded  in  tracing 
to  its  outlet  in  the  ocean  :  that  river  with  which  his  name  must  remain 
for  ever  connected,  like  that  of  Speke  with  the  Nile,  Stanley  with  the 
Congo,  and  Livingstone  with  the  Zambezi. 


ON  THE  FRONTIER  OF  THE  WESTERN  SHIRfi,  BRITISH 
CENTRAL  AFRICA. 

{With  Map.) 

By  H,  Crawford  Angus. 

Though  the  boundaries  of  the  Western  Shir6have  been  defined  upon 
the  map,  and  several  of  the  more  important  rivers  and  mountains  have 
bden  approximately  denoted,  yet  very  little  seems  to  be  even  yet  knoMn 


ON   THE   FRONTIER   OF   THE   WESTERN    SHIRE.  73 

of  the  country  through  which  the  frontier  line  passes,  and  several  errors 
are  apparent  in  the  course  of  rivers,  the  position  of  mountains,  and 
names  of  places,  on  the  latest  maps,  which  facts  lead  me  to  conclude 
that,  though  the  country  has  been  roughly  triangulated,  no  more  detailed 
survey  has  been  executed,  the  significant  words  "  from  native  informa- 
tion "  being  often  noticed  on  recent  surveys. 

Having  lived  in  that  j)ortion  of  Central  Africa  for  nearly  two  years, 
engaged  in  hunting  and  trading,  I  acquired  a  very  intimate  knowledge 
of  its  geographical  features,  and  it  is  therefore  my  purpose,  while 
describing  the  lesser  characters  of  this  frontier  country,  to  point  out 
some  of  the  omissions  and  errors  which  are  noticeable  in  the  current 
majjs  of  that  locality. 

At  the  time  that  I  first  penetrated  into  this  district,  it  was  practi- 
cally unknown,  and,  as  far  as  I  could  ascertain,  I  was  the  first  European 
who  had  ever  travelled  in  that  region.  None  of  the  chiefs,  and  hardly  any 
of  the  inhabitants,  had  ever  seen  a  white  man,  and  no  intercourse  was 
held  with  the  neighbouring  tribes.  There  were  no  routes  or  paths 
leading  to  the  country,  and  the  only  way  of  reaching  it  was  to  travel 
through  the  jungle. 

There  were  several  reasons  for  this  state  of  things,  the  chief  of  which 
were  the  evil  reputation  which  the  inhabitants  had  acquired  from  their 
warlike  habits  and  their  use  of  poison,  which  facts  caused  trading 
caravans  to  avoid  the  district  and  proceed  to  the  Zambezi  or  Shire  by 
other  routes,  and  the  constant  warfare  in  which  the  inhabitants  were 
engaged  Avith  the  Angoni  in  the  North,  the  Makololo  in  the  South  Shire 
districts,  and  the  Portuguese  and  their  ally  Chinsinga  in  the  Zambezi 
districts  north  of  Tete.  This  state  of  war  was  responsible  for  the 
absence  of  the  ordinary  native  paths,  which  in  that  country  act  as 
means  of  intercommunication,  the  people  being  in  the  habit  of  avoiding 
making  defined  tracks  through  the  jungle  in  order  that  their  enemies 
might  have  no  clue  to  their  strongholds.  Finally,  another  cause  is  the 
suspicious  and  turbulent  character  of  the  inhabitants  themselves.  At 
the  time  I  write  of,  the  Anglo-Portuguese  boundary,  though  laid  down  in 
theory,  had  not  yet  been  defined,  and  the  Central  African  Administration 
being  elsewhere  engaged  in  "  peaceful  penetration,"  had  not  taken  any 
steps  to  bring  the  district  on  their  side  of  the  frontier  under  their  rule, 
while  the  Portuguese,  on  their  side,  had  been  powerless  to  make  their 
rule  acknowledged. 

These,  then,  were  the  reasons  to  which  were  due  the  unexplored  state 
of  the  district,  which  is  an  important  district,  being  the  watershed  of 
the  Shire  and  Zambezi  rivers. 

The  columns  of  a  geographical  magazine  are  not  the  place  to  discuss 
anthropological  subjects,  but  the  effect  of  geographical  surroundings  has 
such  an  important  bearing  on  the  lives  and  customs  of  the  inhabitants 
that  I  must  permit  myself  a  short  reference  to  them. 

There  are  two  tribes  inhabiting  this  country,  the  one  occupying  the 
mountainous  region  between  the  Revubwi  and  Mwanza  rivers,  and  the 
other  the  country  lying  between  the  Revubwi  and  the  Kapochi.  My 
observations  concern  mainly  the    former,   who   are  termed  "Azimba," 

VOL.  XXIII.  F 


74  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

and    my    acquaintance   with  the  latter,    termed    "Achipeta,"   was  less 

intimate. 

I  am  very  much  inclined  to  think  that  the  origin  of  these  two  tribes 
is  different,  though  some  persons  have  considered  them  to  spring  from 
the  same  source,  but  this  I  do  not  think  likely ;  and  while,  so  far  as  I 
can  ascertain,  the  Azimba  are  directly  descended  from  the  original 
inhabitants  of  the  country  which  they  at  present  inhabit,  the  Achipeta 
I  consider  a  tribe  originally  living  beyond  the  Loangwa  river,  who  were 
forced  east  by  the  Zulu  emigration  northwards  under  Kazunga-ndawa. 
Though  I  have  stated  that  the  Achipeta  country  lies  between  the 
Kapochi  and  Eevubwi  rivers,  yet  kindred  tribes  inhabit  all  that  country 
beyond  the  Kapochi  as  far  as  the  Loangwa,  and  have  their  strongholds 
wherever  there  is  a  rocky  eminence  or  mountain.  Under  various  names, 
as  Asenga,  Avisa,  the  country  inhabited  by  them  stretches  far  north, 
circling  round  the  borders  of  Northern  Angoniland.  But  the  Azimba 
are  only  to  be  found  in  that  small  portion  of  territory  bounded  by  the 
Shir6  on  the  east,  the  Revubwi  on  the  west,  Central  Angoniland  on  the 
north,  and  Makanga  country  and  Mikolongo  on  the  south. 

The  customs  of  the  two  tribes  are  also  distinctly  and  unmistakably 
different.  Their  initiation  ceremonies,  their  funeral  and  marriage  rites, 
their  mode  of  dress  and  hair-dressing,  their  weapons,  all  differ,  and  their 
lan^uajze  and  intonation  are  also  so  different,  that  the  two  people  can 
hardly  understand  each  other. 

One  important  point  is,  that  though  the  Azimba  have  knowledge  of 
various  poisons  Avhich  they  use  for  the  capture  of  game  and  fish,  and  to 
mix  in  the  food  and  water  of  their  enemies,  yet  they  have  no  knowledge 
of  the  poison  with  which  the  Achipeta  smear  their  war  arrows,  and  look 
on  the  custom  with  horror.  Indeed  I  have  seen  them  cry  out  with  fear 
and  bolt  precipitately  on  occasions  when  these  arrows  have  been  used 
against  them. 

I  was  at  some  pains  to  go  into  the  history  of  the  Azimba  tribe 
during  my  residence  amongst  them,  and  what  I  gathered  I  shall  relate 
as  briefly  as  I  can. 

When  I  first  came  in  contact  with  them,  I  found  that  they  were 
split  into  five  portions  or  small  clans.  The  one  under  Ndifula  and  his 
brother  inhabited  the  Mount  of  Zobwi  and  Nyamba-chikopa — the 
place  of  torn  shields,  named  from  a  fight  which  took  place  there  with 
the  Angoni,  in  which  the  latter  were  beaten  —  and  claimed  all 
the  country  as  far  as  the  banks  of  the  Mwanza  river  on  the  east 
and  the  river  Nkombedzi  on  the  west.  Another  clan,  the  most 
powerful,  under  Kasuza,  inhabited  Mount  Ntapassa,  and  claimed 
territory  from  the  banks  of  the  Nkombedzi  river  as  far  north  as  the 
borders  of  Angoniland,  and  as  far  west  as  the  rear  side  of  Mount 
Xtapassa,  where  the  country  of  Mombusa  commences,  and  goes  west  as 
far  as  the  Revubwi  river,  both  countries  reacliing  south  as  far  as  Miko- 
longo and  Makanga.  Further  northwest  was  another  chief,  Goruza, 
who  claimed  from  the  nortliern  boundary  of  Mombusa's  country  to  the 
banks  of  the  river  Dwembi  northwards  ;  eastwards  to  Kasuza's  boundary, 
and    westwards    to    the    Revubwi ;    and    still    further   north,    beyond 


ON   THE   FRONTIER    OF   THE   WESTERN    SHIRK.  75 

Goruza's  boundary,  on  the  Dwembi,  was  Matiweri  and  his  mother, 
Nyangu,  the  real  chief,  with  boundaries  on  the  Dwembi,  the  Eevubwi, 
Angoniland,  and  Kasuza's  country. 

These  were  the  five  clans,  and  it  is  interesting  to  see  how  a  people, 
once  evidently  powerful  and  united,  came  to  be  split  up  into  factions 
always  warring  with  each  other. 

I  may  as  well  give  the  tribes'  history  by  the  mouth  of  Goruza,  the 
man  who  related  it  to  me : — 

"  Long  ago  we  were  a  powerful  people,  and  all  that  country  you 
passed  through,  all  across  that  plain  where  runs  the  Nkombedzi,  our 
villages  were  thick,  and  instead  of  trees  was  all  maize  fields  and  millet. 
In  those  days  the  elephants  used  to  come  in  herds  to  trample  our  corn, 
and  we  used  to  kill  many,  and  get  much  ivory ;  now  there  is  nothing  to 
fill  even  one  elephant,  and  I  have  to  catch  monkeys  and  sell  their  skins 
to  buy  powder.  But  all  this  was  long  ago,  before  I  was  born,  or  before 
my  father's  father  was  born.  Then  we  were  under  one  chief,  and  were 
strong  in  war,  so  that  all  the  people  about  us  gave  us  peace,  and  we  sold 
them  our  ivory  for  many  slaves ;  now  we  live  like  mice  in  holes,  and 
are  harried  by  every  one.  Do  not  the  Angoni  call  us  '  the  mice  that 
God  has  given  them  to  kill — Zimbewa  za  raalunga.' 

"  Along  the  Mwanza  were  tobacco  fields,  and  at  Chuwali  (on  the 
Eevubwi)  we  grew  rice,  so  you  may  see  how  big  a  land  we  ate  u^),  and 
right  as  far  as  Nsanganu  we  made  new  gardens.  To-day  you  can  see 
the  marks  of  our  rubbish  heaps  at  the  head  of  the  Makurumadzi. 
Wasn't  that  a  big  land  to  cover  1  but  we  covered  it  as  easily  as  I  cover 
my  body  with  this  little  piece  of  bark  cloth,  which  is  so  old  that  even  the 
lice  cannot  hide  in  it  any  more,  not  like  the  thick  cotton  cloth  the  white 
man  has  in  his  tent. 

"But  all  this  was  swallowed  up,  washed  away  like  the  Nkombedzi 
in  flood  washes  the  dead  leaves,  when  the  Angoni  came.  For  first  we 
had  trouble  with  the  Achipeta,  with  whom  we  used  to  barter  iron  and 
ivory,  which  they  sold  to  the  Arab  traders,  who  came  down  the  Loangwa. 
For  they  came  to  us  and  wanted  to  take  our  land,  as  they  had  been 
beaten  in  war  by  a  great  tribe,  whom  we  did  not  then  know  were  the 
Angoni.  And  they  wanted  to  come  into  our  place,  but  it  is  ill  making 
room  for  a  beaten  people,  as  when  the  lion  wounds  his  prey  he  follows 
it  and  then  he  kills  where  he  goes.  So  we  refused  them,  and  fought 
and  beat  them  beyond  the  Revubwi.  For  a  long  time  we  heard  tales  of 
men  armed,  with  the  skins  of  cows  and  with  goats'  hair  on  their  heads, 
but  they  never  troubled  us  till  after  I  was  born.  I  was  born  at  Zobwi, 
and  my  father  had  all  the  land  down  to  the  Makurumadzi.  And  then 
one  day  the  news  came  that  fire  had  been  put  to  our  villages  at  Nsan- 
ganu, and  a  strong  tribe  was  eating  up  our  people  there ;  but  we  did 
not  fear,  for  we  did  not  then  know  these  Angoni.  So  all  our  men  went 
out  to  meet  them,  and  we  fought  a  great  fight  all  from  Nsanganu  down 
to  Kalangombe.^ 

1  The  resting  place  of  oxen — named  so  froiu  the  fact  that  the  Angoni  halted  there  when 
taking  their  cattle  to  Tete  ;  the  name  is,  therefore,  evidently  subsequent  to  the  Angoni 
invasion. 


76  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

"  For  weeks  we  fought,  but  always  the  Angoui  brought  up  fresh  men, 
and  we  were  compelled  to  fall  back.  And  so  it  went  on  for  years,  until 
at  last  we  were  driven  to  the  hills,  and  even  then  we  had  to  hide  in 
caves,  and  grow  our  maize  in  hollows  of  the  rocks,  and  many  of  us  were 
caught  and  killed,  and  many  made  slaves,  until  very  few  of  us  were  left. 
When  it  came  to  that — I  was  a  grown  man  then,  and  had  a  wife  and  a 
child — we  saw  that  to  stay  on  here  was  simply  to  give  our  bodies  to 
wash  the  Angoni  spears  in  sport,  and  Kasuza's  father  called  us  all 
together,  and  after  burning  our  houses  and  breaking  our  pots,  we  went 
down  and  offered  submission  to  Kankuni,  the  father  of  Chinsinga,  who 
was  a  friend  of  the  Portuguese,  and  owned  Makanga  country.  We  had 
always  fought  them  till  then,  but  now,  even  though  we  were  a  weak 
people,  he  wanted  us,  as  we  were  good  hunters,  and  he  knew  we  Avould 
bring  him  ivory.  Also  he  was  at  war  with  the  Angoni  and  needed  help. 
We  may  have  been  slaves  to  go  to  him,  but  at  least  we  could  carry  on 
our  dances  and  initiations  in  the  j^roper  way  ;  when  living  like  rock 
rabbits,  we  could  not  teach  the  young  girls  and  boys,  and  we  had  only 
water  enough  to  drink,  and  none  to  make  the  proper  ablutions  with. 

"  So  we  went  to  him  and  he  gave  us  welcome  for  a  time,  and  good 
came  to  him  from  our  friendship,  for  we  killed  many  elephants,  and  always 
sent  him  the  ground  tusk.^  But  at  last  a  talk  arose  that  we  Avere  too 
strong,  and  Kankuni's  mind  began  to  fear  that  we  might  at  last  come 
to  rule  in  his  land,  for  our  chief  Kasuza's  father  was  a  wise  man,  and 
Kankuni  resolved  to  cut  at  our  strength.  So  when  the  first  fruit 
offerings,  which  are  made  when  the  corn  is  ripe,  came  round,  he  called 
our  old  people  together  to  do  them  honour  and  make  a  big  feast,  and 
they  all  went,  and  he  gave  them  much  cloth  and  beer,  so  that  their  hearts, 
which  at  first  shrank  from  him,  turned,  and  they  all  praised  him ;  but 
when  night  of  the  second  day  of  the  feast  was  come,  he  mustered  all 
his  own  following,  and  confusing  our  old  people  by  mixing  hemp  in 
their  beer,  he  gave  them  all  to  the  spears  of  his  people.  Young  and 
old,  women  and  children,  all  suffered  ;  only  I,  having  been  warned  by 
Kasuza's  mother,  fled,  taking  with  me  Kasuza  and  his  brothers  and 
mother.  That  was  a  great  killing,  and  the  shame  of  it  still  rests  on 
Kankuni's  son  Chinsinga.  Right  northwards  I  fled  with  the  mother 
and  the  sons  till  I  rested  at  Chuwali,  where  T  found  shelter,  for  the 
people  of  Chuwali  did  not  eat  from  Kankuni's  hand  because  of  trouble 
about  a  ground  tusk,  and  they  lived  in  too  strong  a  place  for  Kankuni 
to  come  at  them. 

"  Then  I  being  a  hunter,  left  there  the  mother  and  her  sons,  and 
went  to  hunt  elephants.  Much  I  hunted,  and  many  elephants  I  killed, 
but  at  last  I  was  caught  by  a  party  of  Angoni  ;  see  the  marks  on  my 
body  of  the  wounds  they  gave  me  ;  and  for  years  they  held  me  a  slave, 
however,  treating  me  well,  as  I  was  known  for  a  big  hunter.  So  I  lived 
and  was  in  peace  with  Chikusi  their  chief,  who  gave   me  wives.     But 


1  When  au  elephant  is  killed  the  tusk  next  the  ground  when  the  elephant  lies  dead  is  the 
right  of  the  chief  on  whose  land  it  was  killed. 


ON   THE   FRONTIER   OF   THE   WESTERN    SHIRE.  77 

with  one  chief  I  was  not  friends,  for  he  desired  '  ka  nyanda  nyangu,'  ^ 
whom  I  had  lately  acquired.  And  he  being  powerful,  one  day  when 
I  was  away  hunting  he  took  my  wife,  and  Chikusi  would  not  give 
me  redress.  So  I  brooded  over  this  till  news  reached  me  that  there  was 
a  talk  of  people  living  in  our  old  land,  and  I  thought  of  Kasuza  and  his 
mother  whom  I  had  left  at  Chuwali,  whom  I  discovered,  from  fear  of 
Kankuni,  had  left  Chuwali  and  gone  back  to  the  old  place.  When  our 
people  heard  of  this,  gradually  one  by  one  they  turned  to  her,  and  soon 
villages  sprang  up  on  the  mountain  of  Ntapassa,  the  people  preferring  to 
live  in  war  rather  than  eat  the  poison  of  their  hosts.  So  I  resolved,  too, 
that  I  would  also  go  home.  But  before  I  left  Angoniland,  I  waited  for 
my  revenge  upon  the  man  who  had  stolen  my  wife  ;  and  one  day,  he  being 
called  to  Chikusi's  village,  I  gathered  my  people,  for  I  had  a  following, 
and  burning  the  village  of  my  enemy,  and  taking  all  his  cattle  and  pots 
and  women  I  fled  south  to  Ntapassa.  That  was  a  big  blaze  which  I 
made,  and  when  my  enemy  came  back  and  found  the  fire  in  his  thatch 
and  all  his  women  gone,  he  followed  me,  and  we  fought  on  the  road, 
but  my  people  having  knowledge  of  guns  beat  off  the  Angoni,  whose 
weapons  are  the  spear ;  and  whereas  in  olden  times  an  arroAV  could  not 
pierce  a  shield,  a  bullet  now  goes  clean  through  it  and  hits  the  man 
behind.  So  I  came  to  Ntapassa  and  found  Kasuza  and  his  mother,  but 
even  then  there  was  no  peace,  for  many  small  headmen  arose  each  want- 
ing power,  and  one  climbed  into  that  hill  and  said,  '  I  am  a  chief — 
a  chief  of  what,  of  rock  rabbits — and  another  into  that  hill,  and  all 
quarrelled  about  gardens  and  ground  tusks,  as  if  the  Angoni  were  not  at 
our  doors.  And  now  you  see  how  we  are,  with  fire  all  round  us  (Fire  is  a 
polite  term  for  war).  In  the  north  are  the  Angoni,  but  with  them  since 
the  fight  at  Nyamba-Chikopa,  where  we  beat  them  and  gathered  a  heap 
of  shields,  so  high,  we  have  had  very  little  trouble.  In  the  south  are  the 
Portuguese,  who  want  us  to  eat  Chinsinga's  grain,  he  whose  father  killed 
us  like  rats.  In  the  south-east  to  Mikolongo  are  the  Makololo,  who  want 
our  country ;  and  in  the  west  the  Achipeta,  who  use  poison  on  their  arrows 
and  who  know  no  decency.  And  now  our  only  hope  is  that  the  white 
man  will  give  us  peace,  and  then  our  gardens  will  stretch  to  Nsangnu 
again,  for  we  bear  many  children,  at  present  food  for  spears." 

Many  other  stories  the  old  man  told  me  of  the  j^ast  glory  of  the  tribe, 
and  it  was  easy  to  see  from  their  customs  and  ceremonies  that  they  had 
once  been  an  important  people.  Many  degradations  had,  however,  from 
necessity  of  their  changed  mode  of  life,  crept  into  their  ceremonies,  such 
as  the  use  of  clay  instead  of  water  for  certain  ablutions,  due  to  a  scarcity 
of  water  in  the  caves  where  they  lived,  and  immoral  relations  due  to  a 
scarcity  of  womankind ;  the  structure  of  their  dwellings,  and  their 
mode  of  life,  also  deteriorated  by  their  confinement  to  the  hills.  When 
not  at  war  with  their  neighbours  they  were  always  fighting  amongst 
themselves,  and  killings  were  of  daily  occurrence.     Poison  was  freely 

1  A  domestic  term  for  a  wife,  only  used  in  Azimbaland,  literally  "my  little  piece  of  bark 
cloth,"  derived  from  the  phrase  applied  to  a  wife,  "the  little  piece  of  bark  cloth  that  keeps 
my  back  warm,"  from  the  fact  that  the  man  lies  next  the  fire  in  the  hut,  his  wife  sleeping 
at  his  back  between  him  and  the  wall. 


78  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

used  to  get  rid  of  an  enemj-,  and  slaves  were  harshly  treated  and  given 
no  benefit  from  the  slave  laws  that  usually  govern  their  existence. 
During  my  stay  with  this  peoi^le  I  gained  their  confidence  to  a  large 
extent  and  managed  to  put  a  stop  to  the  Angoni  raids  which  harassed 
them,  so  that  before  I  left  them  they  had  to  a  certain  extent  left  the 
hills  and  begun  to  cultivate  the  plains  again.  They  also  evinced  more 
cohesion  among  themselves,  and  many  matters  over  which  they  used 
formerly  to  fight  were  referred  to  a  council  of  chiefs  for  settlement.  I 
have,  however,  though  the  history  of  the  tribe  and  a  description  of  their 
customs  would  fill  no  small  volume,  already  devoted  too  much  space  to  this 
subject,  and  I  will  now  turn  to  the  geographical  features  of  the  country 
and  the  errors  which  I  have  noticed  in  the  current  maps  of  that  district. 

In  a  map  by  Mr.  Daniel  Eankin,  made  in  1892,  his  route  is  marked 
as  passing  through  part  of  the  country  I  refer  to,  but  as  none  of  the 
chief  mountains  or  rivers  are  marked,  and  some  places  now  definitely 
fixed  are  erroneously  located  by  him,  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  he 
passed  south  of  Azimbaland,  and  that  his  route  was  not  so  far  north  as 
he  has  placed  it  on  his  map.  He  evidently  did  not  cross  the  Makura- 
madzi,  and  only  followed  the  Mwanza  up  a  little  above  Mikolongo. 

To  turn  first  of  all  to  the  trade  routes  and  means  of  intercommunica- 
tion in  and  surrounding  that  district : 

On  the  east  there  is  the  Shir6  river,  impassable  at  that  portion  on 
account  of  the  Murchison  cataracts,  and  thus  the  route  to  the  north  from 
Chinde  and  the  sea  lies  via  Blantyre  to  Matope  on  the  Upper  Shire.  The 
Shir6  river  makes  a  wide  circle  between  Matope  and  Katunga,  the  land- 
ing place  for  Blantyre  and  the  north,  the  greater  portion  of  which  circle 
is  broken  by  rapids.  This  route  via  Blantyre  is  the  only  route  to  the 
north  on  the  east  side. 

From  Matope  and  Mpimbi  higher  up  the  Upper  Shire  there  are 
several  well-defined  paths  leading  to  Northern  and  Central  Augoniland, 
and  the  southernmost  path  of  all,  the  one  leading  from  Matope  to 
Chinkombe's  in  Central  Angoniland  may  be  taken  as  the  northernmost 
boundary  of  Azimbaland. 

On  the  south  a  well  defined  track  from  Katunga  on  the  Lower  Shir6 
to  M'chena,  marked  Muchena  on  Kankin's  map — M'chena  means  "  white  " 
or  "  whiteness  "  ;  Muchena  would  mean  "in  whiteness" — via  Mikolongo 
on  the  Mwanza,  forms  a  rough  boundary  between  the  Azimba  and  their 
southern  neighbours,  though  the  villages  of  the  tribe  are  many  miles 
north  of  this. 

On  the  west  a  fairly  well  beaten  path  leads  from  Tete  to  Makanga, 
]\rch(''na,  and  Central  and  Northern  Angoniland,  keeping,  however, 
west  of  the  Revubwi  river  and  avoiding  the  boundaries  of  Azimbaland, 
and  after  leaving  M'chena  passing  through  Achipetaland.  Still  further 
west  there  are  two  more  routes,  both  starting  north  from  the  Karoabassa 
rapids  on  the  Zambezi,  the  one  crossing  the  Kapochi,  Luia,  Loangwa  and 
Chiritsi  rivers,  and  leading  to  northern  Angoniland  and  the  lake,  and 
the  others,  following  the  Kapochi  to  Undi,  and  from  thence  proceeding 
north  to  the  Loangwa  river.  It  is  this  last  route  which  is  followed  by 
the  Arab  trading  caravans  coming  down  to  Tete  and  the  coast  from 


MAP   OF   THE 

WESTERN  SHIRE  HIGHLANDS 

irxglish   Miles 


•80  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

Bangvveolo  and  Tanganyika.  Between  this  route  and  the  Kevubwi 
river,  which  is  the  boundary  of  the  Azimba,  the  country  is  hilly,  covered 
with  a  low  "Masuko  "  scrub  and  badly  watered.  There  are  few  hills  of 
any  size  until  Chuwali  on  the  banks  of  the  Eevubwi  is  reached,  and  the 
country  is  cut  up  by  numerous  dry  ravines  and  barren  gorges.  The 
few  hills  and  prominences  which  are  scattered  over  the  face  of  the  land 
are  inhabited  by  the  Achipeta,  who  live  in  a  state  of  constant  warfare 
and  whose  hostile  attitude  to  strangers  causes  them  to  be  avoided.  I 
had  some  dealings  with  them,  not  always  of  a  friendly  nature,  and 
found  their  customs  repulsive  and  their  standard  of  life  and  morals  very- 
low. 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  Azimbaland  is  comparatively  isolated  from 
the  surrounding  country,  none  of  the  big  trade  routes  passing  through 
it.  The  only  route  traceable,  which  at  one  time  traversed  the  country, 
and  which  is  now  hardly  distinguishable,  is  that  leading  from  Tete  to 
Central  Angoniland.  This  route,  evidently  at  one  time  of  importance, 
runs  from  Tete  to  Mount  Salumbidwa,  and  skirting  the  western  slopes  of 
that  mountain  heads  north  until  the  Nkombedzi  river  is  reached,  then 
follows  the  Nkombedzi  north  to  almost  its  source  near  Mount  Nsanganu, 
to  a  slope  which  Mr.  Rankin  has  marked  as  the  Bondeka  mountains,  but 
before  reaching  this  point  the  path  turns  oflf  and  cuts  over  to  the  Dwembi 
river,  a  tributary  of  the  Revubwi,  which  it  crosses  and  enters  Central 
Angoniland.  This  route,  now  disused,  was  made  by  the  Angoni  in 
driving  their  cattle  to  Tete  for  sale,  and  must  have  been  followed  and 
regularly  traversed  in  the  early  days  of  the  Angoni-Zulu  invasion,  but 
since  their  power  weakened  has  been  neglected  through  fear  of  the 
Azimba,  who  used  to  attack  and  cut  up  the  caravans. 

Inter-communication  between  the  villages  of  this  district  is  infrequent, 
intercourse  being  held  between  them  by  means  of  elephant  and  game 
paths.  There  is  no  path,  connected  with  any  of  the  aforementioned 
trade-routes,  leading  to  the  country,  and  the  only  way  of  reaching  it  is 
to  steer  a  course  through  the  bush.  To  approach  the  country  from  the 
Shire  the  best  way  is  to  leave  the  river  at  the  Murchison  Falls  and 
follow  the  Makurumadzi  river  until  it  turns  northwards,  and  from  this 
point  it  is  a  distance  of  not  more  than  ten  miles  to  the  Mwanza  river, 
which  is  found  running  parallel  to  the  Makurumadzi.  The  country 
traversed  is  very  broken,  the  soil  being  a  reddish  brown,  interspersed 
with  quartz  veins  and  quantities  of  schist.  A  gradual  rise  over 
a  series  of  low  ridges  takes  place  after  leaving  the  Shir6  river  until  the 
highest  point  between  the  Marurungwi  mountain  and  the  Shir<§  is  reached, 
which  is  the  dividing  ridge  between  the  Mwanza  and  Makurumadzi  rivers. 
The  whole  of  this  country  is  covered  with  a  low  bushy  scrub,  mingled 
with  huge  boabab  trees,  and  is  very  sterile,  only  the  banks  of  the  rivers 
being  at  all  well  wooded  or  possessing  any  luxuriant  vegetation.  From 
the  dividing  ridge  between  the  two  rivers  country  of  the  same  nature  can 
be  seen  stretching  away  north  and  south,  the  formation  running  in 
ridges  parallel  with  the  course  of  the  river,  i.e.,  north  and  south.  To 
the  west  the  peak  of  jMount  Zobwi  begins  to  be  visible,  and  the  shoulder 
of  a  long  low  mountain  a  little  to  the  south  of  it  named  Zangi,  the 


ON   THE   FRONTIER   OF   THE   WESTERN    SHIRE.  81 

eastern  slope  of  which  is  washed  by  the  Mwanza  river,  which  continues 
its  course  right  northwards,  and  does  not  rise  at  Mount  Zangi  as  mapped 
by  Mr.  Eankin.  Leaving  the  banks  of  the  Mwanza  river  the  country 
rises  more  sharply,  and  the  low  scrub  gives  place  to  forests  of  well-grown 
"  Masuko "  with  luxuriant  foliage,  which  tree  provides  the  bark  cloth 
universally  worn  throughout  this  district. 

The  gradual  upward  ascent  ends  abruptly  in  a  broad  well-wooded 
plateau  twenty  miles  in  breadth,  which  is  mapped  under  the  name  of 
the  Marurungwi  range,  at  the  portion  I  refer  to,  and  further  north  as  the 
Kirke  mountains.  But  it  is  in  reality  two  distinct  ranges  divided  by 
the  plateau.  Mount  Zangi,  Mount  Zobwi,  and  Mount  Nyamba-chikopa 
are  the  only  hills  of  any  prominence  on  the  eastern  side — the  side 
nearest  the  Shir6.  Neither  are  they  continuous,  being  isolated  and 
separated  from  each  other  by  broad  plains  and  deep  gorges. 

None  of  the  three  mountains  gives  birth  to  any  stream  of  importance, 
though  several  small  burns  find  their  source  on  their  slopes,  and  all  run 
to  join  the  Mwanza  river. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  plateau  the  character  of  the  range  is  very 
different,  being  much  more  rugged  and  precipitous,  but  even  here  there 
are  only  two  mountains  of  any  prominence.  The  first  of  these  is  Mount 
Ntapassa,  and  the  second  Mount  Madzudzu,  which  both  rise  to  a  great 
height  above  the  plain,  and  are  scarped  and  terraced  for  hundreds  of 
feet.  Mount  Madzudzu,  which  is  the  stronghold  of  Mombusa,  lies  a  little 
to  the  south  and  rear  of  Ntapassa,  Kasuza's  seat,  which  faces  the 
plateau. 

Further  west  the  country  descends  to  the  Revubwi  river  in  a  series  of 
well-defined  rolling  shoulders  and  dales,  much  more  prominent  than  the 
approach  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  plateau,  and  to  the  north  and  south 
merges  into  a  compact  mass  of  low  rounded  hills,  well-wooded,  which 
gradually  descend  to  join,  in  the  north,  the  open  plains  of  Angoniland, 
and  in  the  south  the  barren  country  stretching  to  the  Zambezi. 

The  whole  distance  between  the  Mwanza  and  the  Revubwi  rivers  is 
about  fifty  miles,  the  plateau  being  about  twenty  miles  in  breadth,  and 
the  two  confining  ranges  and  the  ascents  to  them  accounting  for  the 
remaining  thirty  miles. 

Between  the  two  ranges,  but  nearer  the  western  than  the  eastern 
one,  runs  the  river  Nkombedzi,  a  tributary  of  the  Revubwi  river,  and 
this  is  the  only  stream  of  importance  which  traverses  the  plateau.  The 
river  Minjova,  finding  its  source  on  the  southern  slopes  of  Mount 
Zangi  far  south  of  Mount  Zobwi,  and  the  Lisamodzi  river  which  rises 
at  Nyamba-chikopa  and  joins  the  Nkombedzi,  are  at  this  point  dry 
except  during  the  rains.  The  Nkombedzi  and  the  Minjova  being 
tributaries  of  the  Zambezi,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  eastern  range 
confining  the  plateau  is  the  true  division  between  the  watersheds  of  the 
Shir6  and  Zambezi,  all  the  streams  rising  in  the  western  range  on  the 
slopes  of  Makzudzu  and  Mount  Ntapassa  running  to  swell  the  waters 
of  the  Zambezi  either  through  the  medium  of  the  Nkombedzi  or  the 
Revubwi.  Mount  Ntapassa  gives  birth  to  several  strong  burns,  all  of 
which  go  to  join  the  Nkombedzi,  on  the  other  hand  those  streams  rising 


82  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

on  the  slopes  of  Madzudzu  mountain  all  seek  the  Revubwi  river.  It 
will  be  seen  from  the  foregoing  description  that  this  plateau  running 
north  and  south  is  confined  by  two  ranges,  the  one  of  which  is  bounded 
by  a  tributary  of  the  Shire,  and  the  other  by  a  tributary  of  the  Zambezi, 
and  the  plateau  itself  is  traversed  by  the  Nkombedzi,  a  sub-tributary  of 
the  Zambezi,  and  that  north  and  south  both  ranges  flatten  out  to  merge 
into  the  rolling  plains  from  which  they  rise.  The  plateau  is  thickly  wooded 
with  Masuko,  but  in  the  vicinity  of  Mount  Zobwi  and  Mount  Ntapassa 
is  badly  watered,  and  it  is  not  till  its  more  northern  portion  is  reached 
that  the  many  small  burns,  which  intersect  it  and  run  to  join  the 
Dsvembi  river,  are  crossed. 

Seen  from  the  plateau  Mount  Ntapassa  has  a  very  striking  appearance, 
the  slopes  of  the  foot-hills  rising  gradually  to  the  foot  of  the  first  preci- 
pitous upward  leap,  and  then  follows  leap  on  leap  of  black  slimy  rock  till 
the  ragged  edge  of  the  summit  stands  out  against  the  skyline.  The 
mountain  in  length  is  about  five  miles  from  end  to  end,  and  has  a  basal 
breadth  of  nearly  three  miles.  Behind  it,  a  little  to  the  south,  Madzudzu 
mountain  raises  a  round  capped  head,  as  distinct  from  the  flat  irregular- 
shaped  summit  of  Xtapassa,  and  to  the  north  the  low  hills  pile  them- 
selves one  on  to  the  other  till  they  fade  into  the  distance.  These  foot- 
hills are  much  intersected  by  small  burns  which  feed  the  Revubwi  river 
on  the  one  side  and  the  Nkombedzi  on  the  other,  though  the  greater 
number  flow  into  the  former  river. 

The  descent  from  Mount  Ntapassa  to  the  foot-hills  about  the 
Revubwi  is  very  sudden,  the  ravines  between  the  low  long  parallel  ridge& 
being  precipitous  in  nature ;  and  thus  the  journey  from  Ntapassa  to  the 
Revubwi  is  a  tiresome  one,  many  steep  ascents  and  descents  having  to 
be  accomplished,  as  the  dividing  ridges  run  north  and  south. 

But  to  give  a  detailed  description  of  this  district  it  will  be  better  if  I 
begin  at  where  I  consider  the  mountainous  region  commences,  a  little 
north  of  Mikolongo,  and  work  north  to  its  termination  at  Nsanganu,. 
describing  as  I  go  along  the  chief  characters  of  the  country  and  the 
points  on  which  I  differ  from  the  originators  of  the  existing  map. 

But  first  it  must  be  understood  that  from  Mikolongo  in  the  south  a 
gradual  rise  of  the  whole  plateau  takes  place  till  an  elevation  of  GOO 3 
feet  is  attained  at  the  northern  termination  at  Mount  Nsanganu, 
whence  the  country  again  falls  to  the  plain  of  Angoniland ;  also  it 
must  be  understood  that  this  district  is  not  of  a  continuously  moun- 
tainous character  throughout  its  extent,  but  that  the  upward  ascent  is 
very  gradual,  almost  imperceptible,  and  is  composed  of  low  ridges  and 
gentle  slopes  amid  which  there  are  only  a  very  few  hills  of  any  promi- 
nence, and  they,  from  the  unprominent  nature  of  the  surrounding  country, 
seem  to  rise  abruptly  from  the  ascending  plateau. 

Mount  Salumbidwa  is  really  the  commencement  of  the  range,  and  is 
situated  as  mapped  a  little  to  the  north  and  west  of  Mikolongo  on  the 
Mwanza.  Here  the  Minjova,  a  river  which  joins  the  Zambezi  at  the 
Lupata  gorge,  finds  its  source,  and  two  small  tributaries  of  the  Minjova 
also  rise  here,  but  one,  the  largest  of  all,  circles  round  the  western  slope 
of  Salumbidwa   and  runs  north  to   Mount  Zan^i.     But  I  am   of  the 


ON    THE   FRONTIER   OF   THE    WESTERN    SHIRK.  83 

opinion,  as  I  have  already  stated,  that  this  tributary,  marked  Nkombedzi- 
wa-chuma,  is  really  the  true  stream  of  the  Minjova.  Further  west  runs 
the  Nkombedzi,  and  on  the  east  further  north  a  few  isolated  hills  rise 
from  the  ascending  country  commencing  the  broken  chain  of  the  water- 
shed. Several  small  streams,  dry  except  in  the  rains,  find  their  source 
in  these  hills  and  traverse  the  plateau  to  join  the  Nkombedzi.  Further 
east  beyond  these  hills,  in  the  broken  country  lying  between  them  and 
the  Shire,  the  Ngona  and  the  Mwanza,  the  former  a  tributary  of  the 
latter,  run  parallel  to  each  other,  and  continue  thus  till  the  Ngona 
turns  west  to  its  source  on  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  plateau  at  Mount 
Zangi,  mapped  as  Mount  Tambani,  the  Mwanza  continuing  its  course  due 
north  and  receiving  several  small  burns  from  the  eastern  portion  of  the 
plateau.  These  burns  are  all  of  a  perennial  nature,  and  thus  the  Mwanza 
never  fails  in  its  supply  of  water. 

On  the  western  side  of  the  plateau  the  range  leading  to  Madzudzu 
and  Mount  Ntapassa  now  commences  to  distinguish  itself  from  the 
prevailing  character  of  the  country,  but  it  is  not  until  opposite  to  Mount 
Zangi  that  the  western  range  attains  any  prominence,  and  here  Mount 
Madzudzu  is  the  first  height  of  any  importance,  after  which,  further 
north  and  east,  comes  Mount  Ntapassa. 

On  the  current  map  several  fair  sized  streams  are  given  as  traversing 
this  plain,  running  from  the  slopes  of  the  eastern  range  to  join  the 
Nkombedzi,  but  none  of  them  are  of  importance  and  most  of  them  are 
dry  in  the  summer  months. 

Still  proceeding  north  and  following  the  course  of  the  Nkombedzi 
river,  mapped  as  the  Nkondodzi  river,  the  country  assumes  a  more 
broken  character,  on  the  western  side  falling  in  a  jumble  of  low  wooded 
hills  to  the  Eevubwi  river,  and  on  the  eastern  side  still  bounded  by  the 
Mwanza,  to  which  the  country  falls  steeply.  The  only  hill  in  this 
latitude  on  the  eastern  side,  of  any  importance,  is  Mount  Nyamba- 
chikopa. 

The  plateau  narrows  here  considerably,  and  at  this  point  the 
Nkombedzi  begins  to  flow  from  the  north-west,  considerably  diminish- 
ing the  distance  between  itself  and  the  Mwanza  river,  a  rugged  ridge 
or  backbone  dividing  the  two  rivers.  At  the  same  time  further  east 
the  Makurumadzi  is  still  pursuing  its  southern  course,  flowing 
parallel  with  the  Mwanza,  and  divided  from  it  by  a  similar  backbone. 
Makurumadzi  means  "big  water,"  and  further  west  of  the  Nkombedzi 
the  Dwembi  is,  behind  a  similar  ridge,  continuing  the  like  southern  course. 
It  is  at  this  portion  that  there  is  an  error  in  the  present  map,  the 
Mwanza  being  mapped  as  having  its  source  in  this  dividing  ridge, 
whereas,  though  one  or  two  dry  ravines  join  it  from  hereabouts,  the  true 
Mwanza  still  continues  to  flow  from  the  northward  and  finds  its  source  in 
the  conglomeration  of  low  hills  and  ridges  out  of  which  Mount  Nsanganu 
rises.  Here  also  amid  these  hills,  on  various  portions  of  these  slopes, 
rise  the  Makurumadzi  river  and  the  Lisungwi ;  there  being  thus  three 
important  rivers,  all  tributaries  of  the  Shir6,  rising  from  the  north-east, 
east  and  south-eastern  slopes,  and  two  important  tributaries  of  the 
Zambezi  rising  from  the  north-west  and  southern  slopes,  these  rivers 


84  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

being  tlie  Xkombedzi  and  the  Dwembi,  both  of  which  flow  directly 
into  the  Revubwi  river,  the  former  near  M'chena,  and  the  latter  at 
Chuwali. 

Tliere  is  not  ten  miles  distance  between  the  source  of  any  of  these 
rivers.  The  Nkombedzi,  the  Lisungwi,  and  the  Dwembi  rise  all 
within  five  miles  of  each  other,  and  the  Makurumadzi  and  Mwanza  a 
little  further  south  ;  and  though  different  names  can  be  given  to  the 
sources,  Nsanganu  Mount  is  really  the  head  of  their  watershed. 

This  is  practically  the  termination  of  the  plateau,  and  though 
beyond  this  point  the  elevation  is  still  above  that  of  the  country  lying 
to  east  and  west,  the  country  is  open  and  unconfined  by  any  definite 
chain  of  hills,  and  the  descent  to  the  Revubwi,  which  continues  its  course 
past  Nsanganu  and  rises  far  to  the  north,  is  very  gradual. 

The  features  of  all  these  streams  are  very  much  the  same ;  none  of 
them  have  high  banks,  and  the  valleys  of  the  Mwanza,  Xgona,  and 
Makurumadzi  are  very  narrow,  with  hardly  any  breadth  of  bottom. 
The  banks  of  the  Nkombedzi  are  much  flatter  and  being  unconfined 
in  a  valley  its  current  inundates  a  certain  amount  of  land  on  either 
bank  when  the  river  is  in  flood.  The  vegetation  on  the  banks  of  all 
these  streams  is  similar;  on  the  Mwanza  and  the  Xkombedzi  the 
raphia  palm  grows  in  great  profusion.  Bamboo  of  an)"  size  is 
however  scarce,  the  bamboo  thickets  which  clothe  the  mountain  slopes 
being  of  a  stunted  nature. 

Of  all  these  rivers  the  Dwembi  is  the  most  interesting,  as  at  part  of 
its  course  it  passes  through  a  series  of  caves.  I  cannot  be  quite  certain 
whether  it  is  the  Dwembi  itself  or  a  tributary  which  runs  underground, 
as  I  have  no  means  of  refreshing  my  memory. 

These  caves  are  of  a  fair  size  and  are  all  inhabited,  stores  of  grain 
being  kept  there,  together  with  sheep  and  goats.  There  are  two  under- 
ground channels,  an  upper  one  through  which  the  river  seems  to  have 
flowed  at  one  time,  and  a  lower  one  into  which  it  now  seems  to  have 
subsided. 

The  country  traversed  by  the  Dwembi  is  very  fertile,  far  more  so 
than  any  other  I  have  travelled  through,  the  banks  of  the  river  being 
very  flat  and  the  bottoms  of  the  valleys  being  broad  and  open.  The 
soil  is  rich^  and  maize,  rice,  cotton  and  tobacco  flourish  luxuriantly. 
The  natural  vegetation  is  also  very  profuse,  bamboos  growing  to  an 
enormous  girth  and  forming  large  thickets  low  down  on  the  bases  of 
the  hills. 

The  altitude  of  the  Dwembi  valley  is  much  beneath  the  plateau,  and 
nearly  on  the  same  level  as  the  Kevubwi,  of  which  it  is  a  tributary,  and 
which  runs  parallel  to  it  a  little  further  west  for  a  great  part  of  its 
course.  There  is  a  certain  amount  of  rubber  on  the  hills  in  this  locality, 
and  at  Chuwali,  where  the  Dwembi  joins  the  Revubwi  there  is  a  con- 
siderable forest  of  it,  the  Achipeta  inhabiting  the  mountain  of  Chuwali 
doing  a  fair  commerce  in  rubber  and  monkey  skins.  These  monkeys 
are  of  great  beauty,  and  their  skins  are  much  prized  by  the  Angoni  for 
making  their  war  costumes.  Leopards  also  abound  hereabouts,  and 
the  natives  trap  great  numbers  of  them  in  log  falls. 


ON   THE   FRONTIER   OF   THE   WESTERN    SHIRE.  85 

Before  I  close  I  would  like  to  refer  once  more  to  the  characteristics  of 
the  Azimba  and  Achipeta.  The  former  are  extremely  dark,  their  skins 
being  thin  and  of  a  soft,  easily  manipulated  texture.  The  majority  of 
the  men  and  \yomen  are  tall  and  handsome,  thin-lipped  and  aquiline  in 
feature.  They  are  very  long-limbed,  active  and  graceful  in  their  move- 
ments, long  trunked  and  slender  fingered  and  toed,  the  second  and 
third  toes  being  unusually  long  and  not,  as  I  have  observed  (whether  it 
may  be  an  anthropological  fact  or  not  I  am  unaware),  like  the  hill  and 
cave  dwellers  of  Achipetaland,  whose  big  toes  are  abnormally  spatu- 
lated,  and  whose  other  toes  and  fingers  are  thick  and  stumpy.  The 
Achipeta  are  much  thicker-skinned,  and  their  colour  is  not  such  a  deep 
black,  being  more  a  dark,  dirty  brown.  The  hair  of  the  Achipeta  also  is 
laot  so  dark  as  that  of  the  Azimba,  being  browner  in  colour,  whereas  the 
hair  of  the  Azimba  is  jet  black. 

The  males  of  the  Azimba  tribe  wear  their  hair  long  and  unplaited, 
whereas  the  Achipeta  plait  their  hair  and  smear  it  with  red  clay  and 
white  flour. 

Some  years  ago  I  described  the  initiation  ceremony  for  girls  in  a 
paper  I  contributed  to  the  German  Anthropological  Society,  I  being  the 
first  European  who  ever  witnessed  this  ceremony,  which  was  held  under 
my  protection  in  the  open  plains  for  the  first  time  for  many  years  ; 
Angoni  raids  formerly  having  deterred  the  people  from  venturing  from 
the  safety  of  the  hills.  The  Achipeta  ceremony  is  a  very  different  one, 
and  far  more  degraded,  but  I  cannot  enter  into  such  subjects  in  the 
columns  of  a  geographical  magazine ;  and  it  must  suffice  that  the 
customs  of  the  two  people  are  very  different,  the  Achipeta  dances  and 
initiations  being  much  more  complicated,  and  to  Europeans  indecorous, 
though  to  the  anthropologist  they  afford  much  new  information  and  have 
many  points  of  interest. 

Of  the  two  tribes,  the  Achipeta  are  the  more  turbulent  and  treacherous, 
though  not  so  courageous  or  warlike  as  the  Azimba.  The  former  are 
quick  to  attack  unsuspecting  strangers,  while  the  latter  are  hospitable 
and  frank.  Of  this  latter  fact  I  had  experience  during  my  travels  in 
Achipetaland,  when  one  evening,  having  taken  up  my  quarters  in  the 
vicinity  of  one  of  the  Achipeta  rock  dwellings,  I  was  alarmed  by  my 
headman  coming  to  me  and  telling  me  that  the  inhabitants  were  disposed 
to  attack  us,  one  of  their  number  (though  I  had  been  on  friendly  terms 
with  them  for  some  days)  having,  after  exciting  himself  with  a  decoction 
of  hemp,  climbed  on  to  a  rock  with  a  sheaf  of  poisoned  arrows  and 
commenced  to  threaten  my  camp.  When  I  approached  the  scene  I 
found  the  man  at  the  distance  of  about  one  hundred  yards  standing  on 
a  rock  with  his  bow  bent  and  the  arrow  pointed  at  us.  He  was  shouting 
at  the  top  of  his  voice  in  a  peculiar  sing-song  tone.  "  ISTa-penya-ulendo — 
na-penya-ulendo  " — "I  see  strangers,"  though  his  cry  could  not  be  called 
parliamentary  in  any  sense,  "  Lassa-ni-ulembi" — "Lassa-ni-ulembi  " 
— "  Wound  them  with  poison,  wound  them  with  poison."  I  recognised 
that  hemp  was  the  cause  of  his  conduct,  and  not  wishing  to  have  to 
shoot  him,  as  I  wanted  no  trouble  with  the  villagers,  I  called  up  his 
chief,  who  said  he  was  powerless  to  control  him,  and  that  the  best  thing 


86  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

we  could  do  would  be  to  bolt.  But  this  would  have  been  only  to  incite 
him  to  actually  attack  us,  and  in  the  end  I  decided  to  wait  till  dark  and 
then  try  and  capture  him.  This  we  effected,  getting  round  him  under 
cover  of  dusk ;  though  it  was  not  a  pleasant  wait,  literally  under  fire  the 
whole  time ;  of  course  had  he  actually  shot  an  ai-row  at  us  I  would  have 
had  to  shoot  him  to  save  my  men,  who  were  so  alarmed  that  I  discovered 
afterwards  that  they  had  all  gone  quietly  and  made  an  offering  to  their 
guardian  spirit,  the  offering  taking  the  form  of  pulling  leaves  off  a  tree 
and  laying  them  in  a  heap,  each  man  contributing  :  the  action  being 
accompanied  by  the  usual  hand  clapping  and  supplications. 

This  will  show  how  untrustworthy  the  character  of  the  Achipeta  is ; 
in  comparison  to  the  Azimba,  who  once  formed  a  fair  sized  force  and 
came  over  150  miles  to  my  aid  when  they  heard  that  I  was  in  a  tight 
corner,  far  over  in  North  Achipetaland. 

Another  difference  between  the  two  peoj^le  is  their  mode  of  dwelling, 
the  Achipeta  fortifying  all  their  villages  with  stockades  or  mud  walls,  no 
matter  even  if  they  are  living  in  the  recesses  of  the  hills,  and  the 
Azimba  having  no  fortified  place  throughout  the  whole  extent  of  their 
country. 

In  concluding  this  article  I  wish  to  state  that  in  trying  to  describe 
the  district  I  have  dealt  with,  while  correcting  what  seem  to  me  to  be 
errors  in  the  current  maps,  I  have  rather  tried  to  give  a  picture  that  can 
be  understood  by  the  average  person  than  dealt  minutely  with  every 
feature  of  mountain  and  river,  and  that  my  observations  are  not  those 
of  the  surveyor,  but  simply  those  of  an  ordinary  traveller  whose 
knowledge  of  that  district  is  thorough,  having  lived  and  hunted  in  it, 
and  mapped  it  in  a  rough  and  ready  way  without  such  aids  as  theodolites 
and  plane  tables. 


THE  UPPER  ITURI.i 
By  J.  Penman  Browne,  M.E. 

{mth  Illustration.-^.) 


As  the  earlier  stages  of  our  journey  were  over  comparatively  well-known 
ground,  it  may  be  sufficient  to  begin  the  present  account  at  Mahagi, 
which  lies  near  the  shore  of  Lake  Albert  Xyanza  and  almost  at  the  foot 
of  the  Luru  mountains.  We  stayed  two  days  here,  and  on  the  third 
morning  about  5  A.M.  set  out  north-west  to  cross  the  Luru  hills,  in  order 
to  continue  our  journey  to  the  Ituri  forest.  We  were  well  up  the  hills 
when  the  sun  rose,  and  witnessed  a  magnificent  sunrise. 

After  traversing  the  Luru  hills  we  came  to  a  most  beautiful  country. 
From  the  top  of  the  hills  right  on  to  the  Ituri  forest  there  are  broad 
rolling  plains  and  fertile  valleys,  having  a  plentiful  supply  of  clear,  cool 
water  in  the  many  streams  that  flow  through  the  region,  which  is  in  my 

'  The  illustrations  accompanying  this  paper  are  from  photographs  by  Colonel  Harrison. 


THE   UPPER   ITURI.  87 

opinion  very  suitable  for  the  white  man's  occupation,  and  would  make 
an  ideal  stock-raising  country. 

In  addition,  the  climate  is  splendid,  as  can  be  gathered  from  the  fact 
that  this  particular  territory  lies  at  an  altitude  ranging  from  3000  feet 
to  6000  feet  above  sea-level. 

What  surprised  me  very  much  on  the  first  two  days'  march  from 
Mahagi  was  the  absence  of  any  living  thing.  No  mammals,  except  a 
few  domesticated  ones  in  the  two  large  villages  we  came  to,  were  seen, 
and  no  birds,  except  a  species  of  black-and-white  crow  seen  near  the 
villages  also.  Walking  along  for  hours  without  seeing  an  antelope 
bound  across  our  path,  without  seeing  a  bird  flying  overhead,  began  to 
get  monotonous,  and  we  were  very  glad  to  see  at  last  the  huts  and 
plantations  of  a  chief,  Moka  by  name.  Not  until  the  end  of  our  second 
day's  march  did  we  find  ourselves  out  of  this  "  Silent  Land,"  and  then, 
strange  to  say,  we  found  a  district  thickly  populated,  and  stranger  still, 
a  land  teeming  with  all  manner  of  birds  and  game.  Here  the  natives 
turned  out  in  force  to  welcome  us. 

We  obtained  a  plentiful  supply  of  sweet  potatoes,  manioc,  bananas, 
tomatoes,  and  European  potatoes,  and  large  bowls  of  milk,  while  many 
dozens  of  eggs  were  off'ered  us  freely,  as  also  were  sheep,  goats,  and 
fowls. 

On  this  route — the  Mahagi-Ituri  forest  route,  which  at  the  mountains 
immediately  to  the  rear  of  the  first-mentioned  place  attains  an  altitude 
of  3500  feet,  and  gradually  rises  to  6000  in  less  than  100  miles — one 
naturally  finds  many  changes  in  the  vegetation  with  the  change  of 
altitude.  For  instance,  at  an  altitude  of  3000  feet  to  4000  feet  one  finds 
the  people  cultivating  the  ground  extensively  and  depending  much  upon 
tropical  grain  as  the  chief  means  of  subsistence.  Further  on,  and  at  a 
higher  altitude,  bananas  and  sweet  potatoes  form  the  staple  food.  At 
this  point,  European  vegetables  thrive  remarkably  w^ell,  and  it  has  been 
pointed  out  that  European  grain  might  equally  do  well,  and  so  increase 
the  suitability  of  the  district  for  the  European. 

The  natives  in  these  parts  are  peaceable  and  law-abiding,  and  seem 
to  be  happy  and  contented  under  the  Belgian  rule.  It  was  these  same 
people  who  tried  to  hinder  Stanley  on  his  journey  to  relieve  Emin  Pasha 
at  Dufile,  but  now,  instead  of  trying  to  kill  the  white  man,  they  welcome 
him  and  do  all  in  their  power  to  assist  him.  This  was,  at  least,  our 
experience  of  them. 

Five  days'  march  (ninehours  per  day)  from  Mahagi  brought  ustolrumu. 
From  the  latter  place  (which  is  to  be  the  headquarters  of  the  Haut  Ituri 
administi'ation)  one  can  hear  the  dull  roar  of  the  river  Ituri  as  it  dashes 
and  tumbles  over  the  rocks  on  its  rush  to  join  the  mighty  Zaire,  or  Congo 
River.  We  set  off  again  after  a  stay  of  one  day  here,  and,  after  a  march 
of  five  hours,  saw  the  dark  forest  looming  out  in  the  distance.  One  hour 
more  brought  us  there,  and  we  saw  for  the  first  time  a  band  of  that  little 
nomad  people,  the  wandering  pigmies  of  the  great  Ituri  forest.  They 
were  singing  and  dancing  in  front  of  the  resthouse,  and  continued  doing 
this  for  about  an  hour  after  our  arrival,  apparently  for  our  benefit. 
They  were  very  inquisitive,  and  did  not  seem  to  be  quite  sure  of  us, 


88 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL    MAGAZINE. 


regarding  us  with  a  certain  amount  of  suspicion.  However,  after  giving 
them  a  few  presents,  consisting  of  cloth  and  salt  and  beads,  we  took  a 
few  photos  of  them  and  exacted  a  promise  from  them  that  they  would 
return  and  see  us  the  following  morning.  Next  morning  came,  but  no 
pigmies.  They  had  all  fled  into  the  forest  depths,  evidently  thinking 
we  had  some  sinister  motive  in  wishing  them  to  return. 

My  friend.  Colonel  Harrison,  then  went  off  in  search  of  elephants, 
there  being  many  in  the  forest  here,  for  we  could  see  traces  "where  they 
had  been  during  the  night,  and  they  could  be  heard  in  the  distance 
trumpeting  loudly.     Taking  my  rifle  and  shot  gun,  I  got  into  the  old 


Fig.  1.— a  Group  of  Pigmies  and  Balesse. 


canoe,  and  with  two  men  to  paddle  I  went  down  the  river,  intending 
to  look  for  rubber-bearing  vines,  and  also  to  try  and  get  a  shot  at  the 
many  bright-coloured  birds  which  were  seen  flitting  about  in  the  trees 
near  the  river.  I  saw  a  few  of  the  beautiful  black-and-white  Colobus 
monkeys  as  they  swung  from  tree  to  tree,  but  could  not  get  a  shot  at 
any  of  them. 

The  journey  I  made  down  the  river  Ituri  in  the  "  pirogue  "  was  peace- 
ful and  pleasant  in  the  extreme.  Here,  running  through  a  vast  forest 
of  giant  trees  and  shrubs,  consisting  of  gigantic  false  cotton-trees  belong- 
ing to  the  order  Sterculiaceae  and  other  species  of  the  Rosaceae,  Euphor- 
biaceae  and  Artocarpeae  orders,  the  river  wound  and  turned.  Now  and 
then  the  sun's  rays  fell  upon  the  pleasant  waters  causing  them  to  glimmer 
like  silver  sheen.     Here  and  there,  all  down  the  river,  were  scattered 


THE   UPPER   ITURI,  89 

innumerable  small  islands,  on  which  grew  a  few  tall  trees,  and  on  the  trees 
could  be  seen  many  grey  parrots ;  also  sharp-eyed  kingfishers,  who  sat  on 
branches  overhanging  the  river,  looking,  no  doubt,  for  their  breakfast  in 
the  rippling  waters  of  the  Ituri.  Green  and  yellow  paroquets,  sun-birds, 
weaver-birds,  and  many  others  could  also  be  seen  flitting  about  among 
the  trees  and  undergrowth. 

The  Ituri  forest  in  certain  parts  contains  many  valuable  woods, 
such  as  African  mahogany,  teak,  greenheart,  camwood,  copalwood, 
ebony,  and  ironwood,  and  I  also  found  there  many  species  of  Lan- 
dolphias  (rubber  vines),  while  by  the  rivers,  where  the  forest  sends  out  its 
prolongations,  I  have  come  across  much  of  both  kinds  of  rubber,  good 
and  bad,  the  latter  consisting  of  a  bastard  species  {Funtumia  latifoli), 
the  latex  of  which  cannot  be  got  to  coagulate  properly. 

Orchids  are  very  numerous,  a  red-and-white  variety  being  the  most 
common.     Ferns  are  plentifully  distributed  throughout. 

The  Belgians  have  already  surveyed  a  way  through  this  forest  in  con- 
nection with  their  Chemin  de  Fer  des  Grands  Lacs  scheme,  but  in  order 
to  exploit  this  region  one  need  not  wait  till  this  railway  is  constructed, 
for  Lake  Albert  Nyanza  is  in  close  proximity  to  a  part  of  the  Ituri 
forest.  Timber  and  produce  generally  could  be  shipped  across  the  lake 
to  Uganda,  or  taken  down  the  Nile  as  far  as  Nimule.  Just  below  this 
latter  place,  the  Tola  rapids  of  the  Nile  occur,  which  boats  cannot  navigate, 
so  it  is  obvious  that  other  means  than  transport  by  w\ay  of  the  river 
must  be  found.  A  very  advisable  plan  would  be  for  the  Uganda 
government  to  consider  the  feasibility  of  continuing  the  Uganda  rail- 
way from  its  present  terminus  (Port  Florence)  to  Gondokoro,  the  point 
where  the  Khartum  steamers  call  every  month.  Were  the  Uganda 
railway  constructed  to  Gondokoro,  the  Sudan  authorities  might  then 
consider  the  advisability  of  linking  it  up  with  the  Khartum  one.  In 
the  near  future  the  trade  of  Central  Africa  must  assume  enormous  pro- 
portions, and  personally,  I  do  not  think  that  the  Nile,  as  a  means  of 
transport,  could  cope  with  the  increase  of  traflfic  which  is  bound  to  be 
the  outcome  of  the  development  of  such  vast  dormant  territories  as  the 
Bahr  el  Ghazal,  Uganda,  and  Central  Africa  generally.  The  advantages 
that  would  be  gained  by  such  a  railway  would  be  many,  for  it  is  well 
known  that  the  aforementioned  territories  are  very  rich  and  fertile,  and 
offer  immense  possibilities  to  the  enterprising  pioneer. 

To  the  naturalist  the  Ituri  forest  should  offer  immense  possibilities. 
It  has  not  been  thoroughly  explored  by  white  men  yet,  and  extends 
over  an  area  of  some  hundreds  of  square  miles,  and  is  only  inhabited 
round  the  fringe  by  rubber  "  hunters,"  and  the  Wambutti  or  Mambutti 
race  of  pigmies.  There  that  rare  and  beautiful  animal,  the  okapi,  first 
made  known  to  science  by  Sir  Harry  Johnston,  finds  a  home;  and  there 
it  is  free  from  molestation  from  big-game  hunters,  for  it  is  next  to 
impossible  for  a  white  man  to  hunt  there,  the  forest  growths  being  so 
dense.  For  this  reason  this  rare  animal  will  be  safe  from  extermination 
for  many  years  to  come.  Further  north  the  white  rhinoceros  and 
beautiful  eland  are  fast  becoming  extinct,  by  reason  of  the  easiness  of 
access  to  their  haunts  for  indiscriminate  sportsmen.  We  had  not  the 
VOL.  XXIII.  G 


90  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

luck  to  see  any  of  these  animals  on  this  trip,  and  during  the  time  we 
were  in  the  forest  we  only  saw  the  spoor  of  a  solitary  okapi. 

The  Pigmies  gave  us  some  information  regarding  the  okapi.  I 
might  mention,  in  passing,  that  the  word  okapi  is  from  the  Pigmy 
language,  and  the  animal  is  known  to  them  by  this  name.  Colonel 
Harrison  showed  them  a  large  coloured  drawing  of  the  animal,  and 
many  and  loud  were  the  exclamations  on  their  beholding  it.  One 
man  drew  an  imaginary  bow  to  shoot  it,  and  cries  of  "  Okapi !  Okapi !  " 
were  many. 

They  told  us  that,  contrary  to  popular  supposition,  if  disturbed, 
the  animal  does  not  run  far  away.  They  also  informed  us  that  its 
habits  are  similar  to  those  of  a  forest  hog,  for  it  is  often  found  wallow- 
in »  in  a  mud  puddle.  It  feeds  on  young  shoots  and  shrubs,  also 
succulent  roots,  which  it  digs  up  with  its  forefeet. 

But  to  return  to  our  journey — going  back  to  the  resthouse  I  found 
Colonel  Harrison  awaiting  me,  he  having,  like  myself,  returned  without 
getting  anything,  so  we  decided  to  strike  camp  and  make  for  Mayaribu. 
This  place  we  reached  about  4.30  in  the  afternoon.  Going  down  the 
river  we  spied  three  small  red  buffaloes,  but  before  the  canoe  could  be 
stopped  they  had  made  off  into  the  depths  of  the  forest,  where  we  were 
unable  to  follow  them. 

From  Mayaribu  we  could  hear  the  song  and  jest  of  the  rubber- 
gatherers  as  they  gathered  the  milky  latex  that  was  later  to  be  con- 
verted into  that  commodity  of  commerce,  rubber,  over  the  smoke  of 
their  nut-fires. 

From  Mayaribu  we  proceeded  to  Kavalli,  where  we  decided  to  stay 
a  week  or  two,  in  order  to  get  better  acquainted  with  our  little  Pigmy 
friends,  and,  if  possible,  to  try  and  get  an  okapi. 

After  having  gained  the  confidence  of  the  Pigmies,  we  went  hunting 
one  day  with  them.  Starting  out  one  morning  as  soon  as  daylight  set  in, 
we  accompanied  a  band  numbering  somewhere  about  one  hundred  and  fifty. 
They  were  all  armed  with  the  usual  equipment  for  the  chase,  consisting 
of  poisoned  spears,  bows  and  barbed  arrows,  and  knives,  which  are 
about  six  inches  long  in  the  blade.  They  were  also  accompanied  by  a 
few  mongrel-looking  dogs  about  the  size  of  a  fox-terrier.  Round  the 
necks  of  these  were  hung  iron  rattles,  which  had  a  long  slit  on  the 
underside.  Into  this  slit  a  wisp  of  grass  was  stuffed  to  prevent  them 
making  a  noise  when  not  tracking  game.  As  soon  as  any  animal 
is  raised  the  wisp  of  grass  is  immediately  withdrawn,  and  away  the 
dogs  set  in  pursuit,  the  Pigmies  following  the  sound  of  the  rattle. 

The  Pigmies  poison  their  spears,  but,  curiously  enough  it  is  not  the 
blade  which  is  poisoned,  but  the  part  of  the  stick  next  the  blade.  It  is 
notched  at  this  part,  and  the  poison  is  rubbed  into  the  notches,  and 
this  means  that  it  must  be  driven  in  over  the  blade  before  the  poison 
can  take  effect. 

They  have  also  a  reed  whistle  upon  which  they  perform  a  few 
"  calls,"  which  signifies  various  things.  The  hunting  parties  are  usually 
divided  up  into  two,  one  party  driving  and  the  other  receiving  the 
drive.     We  elected  to  stay  with  the  latter  party.     After  travelling  for 


THE   UPPER   ITURI. 


91 


about  two  hours  on  the  forest  path  which  leads  to  Fort  Beni,  and 
crossing  a  stream,  we  divided  our  forces,  with  the  object  aforementioned. 
We  sent  on  the  driving  party  to  enter  the  forest  at  a  point  further  east, 
while  we,  with  the  remaining  party,  tried  to  follow  the  stream.  We 
Avere  not  long  started  when  we  heard  a  peculiar  "  call  "  on  the  whistle. 
We  stopped,  and  were  informed  by  our  leader  (a  Pigmy)  that  the  interpre- 
tation of  the  "call"  was  that  something  had  been  raised.  We  were  at 
once  on  the  alert,  and  waited  with  bated  breath  in  expectancy.  We 
did  not  need  to  wait  long  when  another  "  call "  sounded,  this  time 
entirely  different  from  the  first.  We  had  no  need  to  be  told  this  time 
Avhat  it  meant,  for  our  leader  rushed  off  to  where  the  sound  proceeded 


Fig.  2. — A  Balesse  Hut  in  the  Ituri  Forest. 


from,  leaving  us  to  follow  as  best  we  could,  and  when  we  reached  the 
place  we  found  not  what  we  fondly  expected  (an  okapi)  but  an  "ingo- 
lubi,"  or  forest-hog,  lying  in  its  last  death-throes. 

Sending  it  off  to  camp  we  set  off  through  the  forest  again,  but  we 
only  succeeded  in  getting  a  small  forest  antelope. 

There  are  a  great  many  small  animals  in  this  forest.  This  can  be 
accounted  for  by  the  fact  of  the  dense  undergrowth  ;  no  large  or  medium- 
sized  animal  could  force  a  way  through,  while  smaller  animals  can  creep 
through  it  without  much  trouble.  We  went  on  until  about  two  in  the 
afternoon,  when,  led  by  our  friends,  the  Pigmies,  we  made  for  camp, 
which  was  reached  about  five  in  the  evening.  I  was  so  tired  out  that  I 
lay  in  bed  the  next  day  until  twelve  o'clock,  when  my  boy  came  and 
informed   me  that  the  sun  was  "  Gati  Gati,"  that  is  halfway,  or,  in 


92  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

other  words,  it  was  midday.  By  the  time  I  rose  and  dressed,  the 
Pigmies  had  come  in,  with  another  forest-hog,  and  then  we  had  as  much 
work  as  kept  us  busy  until  evening  again. 

When  evening  came  we  got  our  friends,  the  Pigmies,  gathered  round 
us,  and  tried  to  glean  some  information  about  their  habits  and  customs, 
etc.  The  following  are  a  few  facts  which  I  noted  down  at  the  time.  If 
they  wish  to  have  success  in  their  hunting  operations,  they,  previous  to 
setting  out,  cut  a  number  of  small  slits  down  the  back  of  their  wrists, 
and  rub  in  a  concoction  made  from  the  roots  of  a  certain  shrub,  then 
they  call  on  Allah  or  God,  whom  they  designate  "Loadi,"  also  their 
departed  father  (if  he  be  dead),  to  watch  over  them  and  to  prevent  them 
from  going  astray  in  the  depths  of  the  forest.  If  one  loses  his  way  and 
never  returns,  the  Devil,  or  "  Ouda  "  as  they  name  His  Satanic  Majesty, 
is  supposed  to  have  flown  oft'  with  him  to  some  unknown  j^art.  If  a 
female  child  is  born,  the  father  gathers  a  few  plantain  leaves  and  brings 
them  home,  then  he  and  the  mother  start  to  lash  the  poor  infant  with 
them.  They  do  not  want  female  children.  On  the  other  hand,  should 
a  male  child  be  born,  then  there  are  great  preparations  made  to  celebrate 
this  little  one's  advent  into  the  world.  A  great  feast  is  given  at  which 
unlimited  banana  beer  (called  "  Choki  ")  is  consumed. 

Polygamy  is  the  recognised  custom,  it  being  usual  for  a  man  to  have 
two  or  three  wives,  according  to  his  means.  Circumcision  is  practised 
also.     Adultery  is  punishable  by  death. 

They  live  chiefly  on  meat,  the  proceeds  of  their  hunting  operations. 
In  hunting  they  are  very  skilful  and  nimble,  and  thej-  are  expert 
bowmen.  I  have  seen  them  kill  an  elephant  by  following  it  and  severing 
the  tendons  of  the  hind  legs,  while  at  the  same  time  one  would  dart 
forward  and  thrust  a  large  spear  into  the  region  of  its  heart. 

Any  surplus  meat  they  may  have  is  exchanged  with  their  larger 
neighbours  for  grain,  sweet  potatoes,  or  bananas,  but  they  are  never 
seen  by  those  with  whom  they  made  the  exchange.  At  nightfall  they 
bring  the  piece  of  meat  and  put  it  down  in  a  prominent  part  of  the 
village,  and  the  following  night  they  return  to  find  in  its  place  grain  or 
bananas. 

Another  of  their  customs  is  this :  if  a  father  dies  his  sons  construct 
a  very  small  hut  over  his  grave;  and  outside  the  hut  that  was  once  the 
home  of  the  deceased,  they  make  a  small  conical  structure,  into  which 
they  place  a  few  pieces  of  meat  and  some  bananas  occasionall}',  thinking 
that  one  day  he  will  return  from  the  grave,  and  these  articles  of  food 
are  placed  in  readiness  for  him,  in  case  he  should  be  hungry. 

The  men  wear  a  cloth  which  they  make  from  the  bark  of  a  tree,  and 
this  cloth  is  usually  dyed  blue  or  red,  the  only  two  dyes  that  are  made 
by  them.     The  women  wear  a  bunch  of  leaves. 

They  have  many  curious  dances.  They  go  through  a  regular  system 
of  hunting  operations  in  the  course  of  the  dance,  while  the  women  trot 
round  in  a  circle,  decorated  with  long  racemes  of  gaudy  flowers  hanging 
from  their  elbows,  and  parrots'  feathers  stuck  through  their  hair. 
Another  dance,  the  "  sacred  dance,"  is  one  which  is  a  favourite  with 
them.     The  chief  dances  round  in  a  zigzag  circle,  followed  by  all  the 


THE   UPPER   ITUEI. 


93 


others ;  suddenly  he  turns  round  and  tries  to  overthrow  the  next  one 
with  his  right  leg.  The  first  time  he  fails,  or  elects  to  fail ;  but  on 
trying  again  he  this  time  overthrows  his  man :  this  is  said  by  some 
people  to  represent  the  great  battle  of  Horus  and  Sut. 

But  to  return  to  the  characteristics  of  the  region,  we  have  in  the 
Upper  Ituri  a  vast  fertile  district  comprising  an  area  of  many  square 
miles,  a  part  of  which  is  clothed  by  primaeval  forest  which,  as  I  have  else- 
where mentioned,  contains  many  valuable  commercial  commodities.    The 


Fig.  3.— a  Group  of  Shilluks,  encountered  near  the  Sohat,  on  the  way  to  Kliartum. 


climate  is  splendid,  and  labour  is  plentiful  and  cheap.  Many  of  the 
hillsides  are  covered  with  bracken,  a  species  of  mountain  shield  fern 
grows  freely,  while  in  the  ravines  and  valleys  I  found  the  common 
bramble  or  blackberry  fruiting  freely.  Further  instances  of  the  nature 
of  the  climate  are  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that  strawberries  from  Europe 
were  introduced  here,  and  in  the  officers'  gardens  at  Irumu  they  did 
wonderfully  well,  and  fruited  without  having  any  special  attention  or 
covering  from  the  sun.  At  this  same  place  roses  were  blooming 
profusely  at  the  time  of  our  visit,  Xotwithstanding  the  fact  that  the 
sun  is  very  powerful,  and  no  rain  falls  for  a  few  months,  the  sun  has  not 


94  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

the  injurious  effect  upon  vegetation  which  one  might  suppose,  for  during 
the  course  of  the  night  there  falls  a  heavy  dew  which  is  very  beneficial 
to  vegetation. 

In  Chief  Buna's  domains,  three  days  from  Mahagi,  there  are  great 
ravines,  up  which  grow  many  Dracaenas,  giant  lobelias,  and  numerous 
plantains,  also  tree  ferns.  Another  tree  found  growing  here,  although 
not  in  large  numbers,  is  a  species  of  Symphonia.  This  tree  seems  to  be 
distributed  over  nearly  the  whole  of  Central  Africa,  from  the  West 
Coast  to  the  East  and  in  Uganda. 

At  the  present  moment  the  known  natural  resources  of  the  Ituri  are 
rubber  and  valuable  woods  in  the  forest  regions,  and  native  grain, 
bananas,  etc.,  while  gold  is,  at  present,  the  only  valuable  mineral  of  any 
importance  discovered. 

In  order  to  develop  the  wealth  (vegetable  and  mineral)  of  the  Ituri, 
it  is  obvious  that  some  up-to-date  method  of  transport  must  be  employed. 
Railways  would  have  to  be  constructed,  for  at  present  there  are  none. 
To  develop  every  source  of  this  territory's  wealth  a  railway  must  be 
made,  for  Avhether  it  be  rubber  cultivation,  cotton  cultivation,  grain 
growing,  or  gold  mining  which  first  attests  the  wealth-producing 
capacity  of  this  territory,  some  means  of  transport  must  be  considered. 
As  I  have  mentioned  before,  the  Belgians  have  surveyed  a  route  for  a  rail- 
way through  this  district,  in  connection  with  the  one  which  they  are  at 
present  busily  constructing  towards  the  Great  Lakes  from  Stanleyville, 
and  which  it  is  proposed  to  continue  right  on  to  Mahagi  on  Lake  Albert 
iSTyanza,  thence  to  Rejaf  on  the  White  Nile.  But  as  yet  that  railway 
has  not  nearly  reached  Lake  Tanganyika,  and  when  one  considers  that  a 
railway  from  this  last-mentioned  lake  to  Lake  Albert  Nyanza  has  to  be 
constructed  through  what  is  almost  the  most  inaccessible  part  of  Central 
Africa,  it  is  obvious  that  it  will  be  a  long  time  yet  before  the  natives  of 
these  parts  are  startled  by  the  whistle  of  the  "masua,"  as  they  name 
an  engine.  And  if  the  wealth  of  the  Ituri  has  to  wait  until  this 
raihvay  is  made,  it  will  not  be  developed  for  many  years  to  come.  On 
the  other  hand,  seeing  that  it  is  the  intention  of  the  Congo  authorities 
to  construct  their  Great  Lakes  railway  to  Mahagi  and  Kejaf,  why  not 
begin  to  do  this  from  both  ends,  i.e.  from  Stanleyville  at  one  end  and 
Rejaf  at  the  other'?  By  this  means  they  w^ould  be  able  to  finish  their 
railway  in  very  much  less  time,  and  as  there  are  no  formidable  obstacles 
in  the  way  of  building  a  railway  from  Rejaf  to  the  Ituri,  it  would  reach 
that  place  in  a  very  short  time,  and  could  be  made  to  pay  from  the 
very  start. 

Even  although  it  was  a  matter  of  a  few  years'  time  yet  before  the 
advent  of  a  railway  in  these  parts  of  the  Congo  which  I  have  already 
mentioned,  it  would  be  an  excellent  plan  in  the  meantime  to  employ 
capable  men,  such  as  economic  botanists,  trained  arboriculturists,  and 
men  well  up  in  all  branches  of  scientific  agriculture,  also  capable  mining 
engineers,  etc.,  in  order  to  teach  the  natives  there  some  of  the  best 
methods  of  raising  the  kinds  of  produce  most  suited  to  that  particular 
l>art,  and  to  develop  the  mineral  resources  and  wealth  of  this  region 
generally. 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE.  95 

PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE  ROYAL  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL 

SOCIETY. 

Lectures  in  February. 

Ox  February  1,  Professor  Sir  William  M.  Ramsay,  D.C.L.,  LL.D., 
Litt.P.,  D.D.,  of  Aberdeen  University,  will  deliver  his  lecture  on  "  Roads 
and  Railways  on  the  Plateau  of  Asia  Minor  "  in  Glasgow,  on  February  20 
in  Dundee,  and  on  February  21  in  Aberdeen.  Mr.  C.  S.  Seligmann, 
M.B.,  will  address  the  Society  on  "  Anthropogeographical  Investigations 
in  British  New  Guinea"  (with  cinematograph  pictures)  in  Edinburgh 
on  February  14,  Glasgow  on  February  11,  Dundee  on  February  12,  and 
Aberdeen  on  February  13.  Professor  George  Adam  Smith,  M.A., 
D.D.,  LL.D.,  will  lecture  on  "The  Historical  Evolution  of  Jerusalem" 
in  Edinburgh  on  February  21,  and  in  Glasgow  on  February  22. 


GEOGRAPHICAL  NOTES. 

Errata: — Geographical  Photography. — In  our  last  issue  on 
p.  18,  in  the  paragraph  beginning  "  The  late  Dr.  Schlichter,"  in  the  second 
line  the  word  latitude  has  been  inserted  in  error  in  place  of  longitude. 
On  p.  16,  Dr.  A'addox  should  be  Dr.  Maddox. 

Asia. 

Expedition  to  Burmah. — The  pearl  oyster  fisheries  of  the 
Mergui  Archipelago,  lying  oif  the  province  of  Tenasserim,  Lower 
Burmah,  are  to  be  the  object  of  an  investigation  on  behalf  of  the 
Indian  Government,  and  for  this  purpose  Mr.  R.  N.  Rudmose  Brown 
and  Mr.  J.  J.  Simpson  left  early  last  month  for  Rangoon.  It  is 
extremely  probable  that  an  examination  of  the  ground  may  result 
in  the  discovery  of  new  pearl  banks,  or  at  least  the  possibility  of 
such  banks  being  started.  It  is  expected  that  the  investigation,  at 
least  on  its  economic  side,  will  be  completed  before  the  commencement 
of  the  south-west  monsoon  season  in  May.* 

Africa. 

Ruwenzori. — The  Duke  of  the  Abruzzi  lectured  on  January  7  at 
Rome,  and  at  London  on  January  12,  on  his  recent  expedition  to 
Mount  Ruwenzori,  and  there  is  thus  for  the  first  time  available  official 
information  as  to  his  results.  It  will  be  noted  that  the  official  figures 
as  to  the  heights  of  the  peaks  differ  considerably  from  those  previously 
given.     The  following  is  quoted  from  the  Times  report  of  the  lecture : — 

"  Roughly  described,  the  Ruwenzori  range  consists  of  six  principal 
groups — divided  by  cols  which  average  between  14,432  ft.  and 
13,786  ft.  in  height  —  stretching  from  north-north-east  to  south- 
south-west  with  a  slightly  circular  trend.  These  groups  and  cols  in 
their  order,  starting  from  north  to  south,  have  been  named: — Mount 


96  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL   ilAGAZINE. 

Gessi — col  Roccati,  Mount  Emin — col  Cavalli,  Mount  Speke — col  Stuhl- 
mann,  Mount  Stanley — col  Scott  Elliott,  Mount  Baker — col  Freshfield, 
and  Mount  Thompson.  Mount  Speke  corresponds  to  the  Duvvoni  of 
Sir  Harry  Johnston,  and  Mount  Baker  to  the  Semper  or  Kiyanja.  The 
separate  peaks  of  these  groups  have  also  been  named.  The  highest 
group  is  the  Mount  Stanley,  where  two  adjacent  peaks,  named 
Margherita  and  Alexandra,  reached  respectively  the  heights  of  16,815 
and  16,744  feet.  They  were  among  the  first  climbed  by  the  Duke, 
who  had  reason  to  recognise  at  once  their  superior  height  to  the  rest 
of  the  range.  It  was  on  June  17  that  he  made  the  ascent  of  peak 
Alexandra,  arriving  at  the  summit  at  6.30  in  the  morning.  At  that 
hour  the  whole  range  was  covered  by  a  level  sea  of  white  mist,  out  of 
which  stood  two  islands  alone,  the  snowy  top  of  Alexandra,  from  which 
he  looked,  and  that  of  Margherita.  Five  hours  later,  at  11.30  on  the 
same  morning,  he  was  on  the  summit  of  Margherita  and  had  ascended 
the  two  highest  points  of  the  range. 

"  The  snow  was  always  in  good  condition,  and  the  climbing,  both  on 
rock  and  ice,  never  presented  any  difficulty.  The  lowest  point  of  glacier 
was  at  13,677  ft.  AH  the  glaciers  show  signs  of  receding;  none  were 
of  the  first  order,  all  being,  without  exception,  of  the  secondary  order, 
without  tributaries,  recalling  the  glaciers  of  Scandinavian  type.  There 
was  no  niv4.  The  limit  of  perpetual  snow  was  at  about  14,600  feet;  the 
area  covered  by  it  had  a  radius  of  some  five  miles  from  its  centre.  The 
temperature  upon  the  highest  summits  varied  betAveen  a  maximum  of  42-8 
degrees  Fahrenheit,  and  a  minimum  of  26'6  degrees.  The  chief  difficulty 
experienced  was  the  weather,  which  was  hardly  ever  clear.  In  spite  of 
its  conditions,  the  Duke  of  the  Abruzzi  and  his  companions  succeeded  in 
all  the  objects  of  their  expedition,  making  an  exact  survey  of  the  range, 
climbing,  determining  the  height  of  its  several  summits,  fixing  the 
watershed,  and  bringing  back,  besides  their  maps,  an  admirable  series  of 
photographs,  the  work  of  Signor  Sella." 

From  the  above  it  appears  that  Mr.  AVollaston  (cf.  xxii.  p.  380)  was 
correct  in  believing  that  no  peak  of  Ruwenzori  exceeds  17,000  feet  in 
height. 

America. 

Earthquake  in  Jamaica. — A  severe  earthquake  shock  occurred 
in  Jamaica  on  14th  January,  and  caused  great  destruction  of  life  and 
property  in  the  town  of  Kingston.  As  has  frequently  happened  lately, 
the  shock  was  followed  by  destructive  fires,  and  has  apparently  caused 
the  subsidence  of  parts  of  the  harbour  and  the  neighbouring  coast. 

Polar. 

Meteorology  in  the  Antarctic. — It  will  be  remembered  that 
several  members  of  the  staff  of  the  recently  closed  Ben  Xevis  Observatory 
left  more  than  a  year  ago  to  continue  the  meteorological  and  magnetic 
work  initiated  in  March  1903  by  Mr.  W.  S.  Bruce,  leader  of  the  Scottish 
National  Antarctic  Expedition,  at  Scotia  Bay,  South  Orkneys.  News  has 
been  received  from  Buenos  Ayres  to  the  effect  that  the  Antarctic  research 


GEOGRAPHICAL   NOTES,  97 

ship  Urugucuj  left  that  port  on  11th  December  last  for  the  South 
Orkneys  with  a  party  under  the  leadership  of  Mr.  Angus  Rankin,  late 
superintendent  of  the  Ben  Nevis  Observatory.  Included  in  the  party  is 
Mr.  Meldrum,  a  son  of  the  late  Dr.  Meldrum,  C.M.G.,  of  Mauritius,  who 
is  well  known  for  his  meteorological  work. 

The  UriKjuaii  takes  plenty  of  provisions  in  case  the  party  has  to 
winter  in  these  latitudes,  as  it  is  understood  that  the  ice  conditions  this 
year  in  the  south  are  exceptionally  bad,  the  pack  lying  further  north 
than  previously  recorded. 

On  the  return  of  the  Uruguay  to  Ushuaia,  the  second  party,  consisting 
largely  of  members  of  the  late  Ben  Nevis  Observatory  staff,  under  the 
leadership  of  Mr.  Bee,  was  to  leave  for  Wandel  Island,  at  the  southern 
extremity  of  Gerlache  Strait,  Charcot's  winter  quarters,  where  a  new 
meteorological  and  magnetic  station  will  be  established. 

Before  leaving  Buenos  Ayres,  Messrs.  Eankin  and  Bee  were  invested 
by  the  Argentine  Ministry  with  the  official  insignia  of  office  pertaining 
to  the  position  of  Political  Officer  for  these  places,  so  that  by  this 
time  their  formal  annexation  to  the  Argentine  Eepublic  has  been 
consummated. 

The  station  at  South  Georgia  is  also  being  continued,  while  the 
installation  of  parties  on  one  of  the  islands  of  the  South  Sandwich 
group,  as  well  as  on  the  west  side  of  the  Falklands,  is  contemplated 
in  the  immediate  future. 

This  comprehensive  scheme  of  work  cannot  fail  to  very  materially 
advance  our  knowledge  of  the  meteorology  and  magnetism  of  the  area 
lying  to  the  south  and  west  of  Cape  Horn,  especially  as  the  meteoro- 
logical service  of  the  Argentine  Republic  is  already  in  a  high  state  of 
efficiency.  This  elaborate  programme  is  largely  due  to  the  initiative 
and  enterprise  of  Mr.  Walter  G.  Davis,  Director  of  the  Argentine 
Meteorological  Office,  whose  efforts  have  been  cordially  supported  by 
the  Ministry  of  that  country. 

The  Peary  Arctic  Expedition. — Some  further  details  may  be 
added  to  the  short  account  which  was  all  that  space  permitted  in  our 
December  issue. 

The  Roosevelt  left  Etah  on  August  16,  1905,  and  reached  Cape 
Sheridan  on  September  15.  The  ice  then  enclosed  and  held  the  ship, 
and  she  was  made  fast  there  for  some  days.  The  ice  jammed,  damaging 
the  rudder  and  propeller  and  unmercifully  squeezing  the  vessel,  which 
on  the  16th  was  lifted  till  her  propeller  showed.  The  vessel  was  not 
floated  again  until  the  following  summer,  and  this  position  perforce 
became  headquarters.  Supplies  and  equipments  were  landed  on  October 
12,  and  from  the  summit  of  Black  Cape,  Peary  saw  the  sun  for  the  last 
time.  The  winter  proved  the  direct  antithesis  of  that  which  the  Alert 
experienced  in  the  same  region.  The  temperatures  were  comparatively 
high,  and  there  were  squalls  every  few  days,  sometimes  continuing  as 
furious  gales  for  two  or  three  days.  During  October  there  was  a  rapid 
succession  of  deaths  among  the  dogs.  It  Avas  traced  to  poisoning  from 
cured  whale-meat,  several  tons  of  which  had  accordingly  to  be  thrown 


98  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

away.  During  the  winter  the  dogs  and  the  Esquimos  lived  in  con- 
sequence upon  the  country,  obtaining  musk  oxen,  reindeer,  hare,  and 
salmon,  and  building  snow-houses  in  the  Lake  Hazen  Basin,  where  they 
were  sent  by  Peary. 

On  February  21,  Peary  started  on  a  sledge  trip  in  the  direction  of 
the  Pole,  several  parties  having  preceded  him  by  a  couple  of  days. 
Three  marches  brought  him  to  Cape  Hecla,  where  the  entire  expedition 
assembled.  The  encampment  comprised  Bartlett,  Wolf,  Marvin, 
Henson,  Clarke,  Ryan,  Peary,  21  Eskimos,  and  120  dogs.  The  plan 
concerted  was  to  proceed  in  one  main  and  five  or  six  division  parties, 
which  Peary  hoped  would  be  able  to  advance  supplies  and  maintain 
communications  with  the  selected  base.  Point  Moss,  lying  20  miles 
to  the  west  of  Cape  Hecla,  was  determined  upon  as  the  point  of 
departure  from  the  land.  Open  leads  and  rough  ice  rendered  progress 
slow,  and  a  considerable  portion  of  the  trail  had  to  be  cut  with 
pick-axes.  The  first  glimpse  of  the  sun  was  obtained  on  March  6. 
About  80  miles  from  the  land  the  character  of  the  going  greatly 
improved,  but  leads  were  more  frequent  and  wider.  "  At  latitude 
84°  38',"  says  Commander  Peary,  "  I  came  up  with  Bartlett,  Henson, 
and  Clarke,  with  their  parties  stalled  by  a  broad  lead  extending  east 
and  west  as  far  as  it  could  be  seen.  After  a  delay  of  six  days,  we 
crossed  on  young  ice,  which  bent  beneath  our  weight.  Bartlett  and 
Clarke  were  sent  back  for  supplies." 

Peary  then  established  a  coxlip-,  in  which  instruments  were  placed  for 
the  supporting  parties,  and,  preceded  by  Henson,  then  continued  his 
journey,  but  three  days  later  it  began  to  blow  heavily.  The  gale  lasted 
six  days,  during  which  Peary  and  Henson  were  driven  70  miles 
eastward  by  the  drifting  of  a  great  floe  on  which  they  had  encamped. 
Two  of  the  Eskimos  were  then  sent  back  for  news.  They  returned  in 
seventy-four  hours  and  reported  that  the  ice  was  wide  open  to  the  south. 
Nothing  had  been  seen  of  the  supporting  parties.  In  consequence  it 
was  resolved  to  make  a  dash  for  the  Pole,  and  by  forced  marches,  on 
April  21,  87°  6'  was  readied,  as  already  mentioned.  Here  it  was  found 
necessary  to  turn,  and  great  difficulties  were  then  encountered.  After 
harking  back  to  latitude  81°,  a  big  lead  was  encountered  over  which  no 
crossing  could  be  found.  The  party  camped  on  a  big  floe,  which  drifted 
steadily  eastward.  Here  the  dogs  were  driven  away  and  the  sledges 
broken  up  to  cook  the  dog-meat,  which  the  party  ate.  On  the  fifth  day 
the  two  Eskimos  reported  young  ice  a  few  miles  distant,  which  the  party 
eventually  crossed  on  snow-shoes.  After  fearful  difficulties  the  ] tarty 
dragged  themselves  on  May  12  into  the  ice  at  the  foot  of  the  Greenland 
coast,  at  Cape  Neuraayer.  Here,  two  days  later,  a  junction  was  eff'ected 
with  Clarke's  party,  and  seven  musk-oxen  were  secured. 

The  remainder  of  the  march  back  to  the  Piooscvelt  was  accomplished 
without  any  extraordinary  incident.  Commander  Peary  made  another 
trip,  leaving  records  at  various  points,  including  Cape  Columbia.  On 
July  30  he  returned  to  the  Roosevelt,  which  next  day  steamed  for  Thank 
God  Harbour.  On  August  25  the  vessel  was  delayed  by  the  ice  in 
Lady  Franklin  Bay,  where  the  case  seemed  so  hopeless  that  the  explorers 


GEOGRAPHICAL   NOTES.  99 

prepared  for  a  second  year's  sojourn  in  the  frozen  north  ;  but  the  Boosevelt 
managed  to  get  free  and  the  voyage  was  resumed.  At  Etah  the  ship 
was  beached  for  four  days  for  repairs.  When  more  open  water  was 
reached  storm  after  storm  was  encountered,  and  the  Itoosevelt  was  beaten 
back  and  forth  for  days,  until  she  finally  reached  Labrador.  The  voyage 
from  Labrador  southward  was  also  very  stormy. 

The  Amundsen  Polar  Expedition. — Capt.  Koald  Amundsen  re- 
turned to  Christiania  towards  the  close  of  November,  after  his  three  and 
a  half  years'  absence  in  Polar  regions.  The  records  of  his  magnetic 
observations  will  be  worked  out  in  Christiania,  and  he  has  presented 
his  entire  collection  to  the  Norwegian  Government.  Among  the  honours 
which  he  has  received  may  be  mentioned  the  cross  of  St.  Olaf  bestowed 
upon  him  by  the  King  of  Norway.  Before  leaving  America,  Captain 
Amundsen  was  entertained  by  the  Geographic  Society  of  Chicago,  when 
addresses  were  delivered  by  American  geographers  and  others.  The 
first-fruits  of  Captain  Amundsen's  expedition  have  already  reached  us 
in  the  form  of  a  pamphlet  entitled  Northern  JFaters,  by  Dr.  Fridtjof 
Nansen,  which  discusses  the  results  obtained  during  the  (z/'ca's  preliminary 
oceanographical  cruise  in  1901,  in  their  relation  to  the  question  of  the 
origin  of  the  bottom  waters  of  the  Northern  Seas. 

New  Arctic  Expedition. — It  is  reported  from  St.  Petersburg  that 
an  expedition  to  the  Arctic  regions  is  being  equipped  there  under  the 
leadership  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Sergeyeff.  The  expedition  is  expected 
to  last  for  several  years,  and  will  start  from  Yeniseisk,  making  from 
there  for  Behring  Strait. 

The  Duke  of  Orleans'  Greenland  Expedition. — In  vol.  xxi. 
p.  610  we  give  a  brief  account  of  the  chief  results  obtained  by  the  Duke 
of  Orleans  in  his  expedition  to  the  north-east  coast  of  Greenland  in  the 
BeJgica  during  the  summer  of  1905.  In  La  Giograiihie  for  September 
15,  Commandant  de  Gerlache  gives  a  detailed  account  of  the  cruise, 
accompanied  by  a  chart  of  the  ocean  between  Spitsbergen,  Greenland 
and  Iceland,  and  a  sketch-map  of  the  new  parts  of  the  coast  of  Greenland 
discovered  by  the  expedition.  A  narrative  of  the  expedition  by  the  Duke 
has  also  reached  us,  and  a  volume  of  scientific  results  is  to  appear  shortly. 

Perhaps  the  most  interesting  point  as  regards  the  general  results  is 
the  proof  of  the  existence  of  an  elevation  of  the  sea-bottom  between 
Spitsbergen  and  Greenland.  In  lat.  78°  13'  and  long.  5'  W.  of 
Greenwich  successive  soundings  of  1476  fathoms,  1152  fathoms,  and  779 
fathoms  were  obtained,  indicating  a  rapid  rise.  At  a  later  stage  in  the 
cruise,  in  almost  the  same  latitude,  but  in  long.  14°  W.,  off  the  coast  of 
Greenland,  a  submarine  bank  rising  to  31  fathoms  of  the  surface  was 
found,  but  unfortunately  the  condition  of  the  pack  prevented  the 
complete  investigation  of  this  region.  It  is,  however,  possible  that  an 
island  occurs  here.     The  elevation  has  been  called  the  Belgica  bank. 

The  sketch-map  shows  the  new  portion  of  the  coastline  so  far  as  it 
was  possible  to  depict  this  under  the  very  unfavourable  conditions  of 


100  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

fog  which  prevailed.  The  stretch  of  land  previously  called  France  Land 
has  now  been  called  Duke  of  Orleans  Land,  while  the  island  on  which 
Cape  Philippe  is  placed,  and  on  which  a  landing  was  effected,  has  been 
named  He  de  France.  This  island  is  apparently  an  old  moraine,  and 
proved  to  be  nearly  bare  of  ice  in  its  southern  part.  Though  there  is  very 
little  vegetable  soil  yet  the  flora  proved  rich,  19  phanerogams,  7  mosses, 
4  fungi,  and  6  lichens  being  found  here. 

Scottish  National  Antarctic  Expedition. — Another  of  the  bottle- 
floats  despatched  on  the  voyage  of  the  Scotia  has  been  received  by  the 
Admiralty.  This  float  was  thrown  overboard  on  July  2,  1904,  in 
lat,  36    5'  X.,  long.  30'   50'  W.,  and  was  recovered  on  November  6, 

1906,  about  two  miles  from  the  north  end  of  Long  Island,  Bahamas, 
lat.  23"-  20'  X.,  long.  75"  07'  W.  The  bottle  thus  travelled  at  least 
2427  miles  in  867  days  or  less,  or  at  an  average  rate  of  at  least 
2 '8  miles  per  day. 

Generat,, 

The  Italian  Geographical  Congress  of  1907. — By  the  courtesy 
of  the  Executive  Committee,  Ave  have  received  a  copy  of  the  circular  in 
regard  to  the  meeting  of  the  Italian  Geographical  Congress,  from  which 
we  extract  the  following  details  : — 

The  Congress  is  to  bo  held  in  Venice,  from  the  26th  to   31st  May 

1907,  under  the  patronage  of  H.M.  the  King  of  Italy.  Intending 
members  must  send  in  an  intimation,  with  the  subscription  of  10  lire, 
addressed  "Al  Comitate  Esecutivo  del  Yl  Congresso  Geografico  Italiano, 
Venezia.' 

The  President  of  the  Executive  Committee  is  Baron  Treves  de' 
Bonfili,  senator. 

The  Congress  is  divided  into  four  sections: — 1.  Mathematical, 
physical,  and  anthropological  geography.  2.  Economic,  commercial,  and 
colonial  geography.  3.  Educational  (geography  in  education  ;  the  culti- 
vation and  diffusion  of  geographical  knowledge).  4.  Historic  (the 
history  of  geography  and  cartography,  place-names,  etc.). 

The  Council  is  endeavouring  to  secure  all  facilities  for  the  members, 
so  that  both  travelling  and  accommodation  may  be  as  reasonable  as 
possible.     Tempting  excursions  of  various  kinds  are  being  planned. 

The  Geographical  Association. — The  annual  meeting  of  the 
Geographical  Association  was  held  at  the  London  School  of  Economics 
and  Political  Science  on  January  4.  The  annual  report  shows  that  the 
Association  is  steadily  increasing  its  membership,  there  being  now  535 
members  on  the  roll.  The  President  of  the  Association,  Mr.  Douglas 
Freshfield,  in  his  address  discussed  at  some  length  the  recent  action  of 
the  Civil  Service  Commissioners  in  excluding  the  subject  of  geography 
from  the  e.x;aminations  for  the  Foreign  Office  and  Diplomatic  Service, 
and  expressed  the  hope  that  the  recent  decision  would  be  soon  reversed. 
Subsequently  Dr.  W.  X.  Shaw  delivered  a  lecture  on  Atmospheric 
Circulation. 


GEOGRAPHICAL  NOTES.  101 

Ninth  International  Geographical  Congress. — We  have  received 
the  Invitation  Circular  together  with  the  preliminary  prograniine  of  this 
Congress,  which  is  to  be  held  at  Geneva  from  July  27  to  August  6,  1908. 
Copies  of  the  Circular,  together  with  forms  of  application  for  member- 
ship, may  be  obtained  from  the  Comity  d'  Organisation,  Atheuee,  Geneva, 
Switzerland,  while  subscriptions  should  be  paid  to  M.  Paul  Boma,  3, 
boulevard  du  Theatre,  Geneva.  The  preliminary  programme  is  of  a  very 
attractive  nature,  and  the  proceedings  are  expected  to  include  two  or  three 
excursions  to  the  Central  Alps,  so  readily  accessible  from  the  city.  The 
President  is  to  be  Dr.  Arthur  de  Claperede,  the  President  of  the 
Geographical  Society  of  Geneva. 


EDUCATIONAL. 


In  the  December  number  of  the  Geograjihical  JoxirnaJ  there  appears  in  full 
the  paper  on  Social  Geography  which  Professor  G.  W.  Hoke  read  at  the 
last  meeting  of  the  British  Association.     This  paper  may  be  strongly 
recommended  to  the  notice  of  teachers  because  of  its  fresh  and  interest- 
ing outlook.    Professor  Hoke  defines  social  geography  as  the  subject  which 
deals  with  the  distribution  in  space  of  social  phenomena,  the  object,  as 
in  the  case  of  any  other  science,  being  the  ultimate  acquisition  of  the 
power  of  predicting  the  future  distribution  of  similar  phenomena.     Now 
it  is,  of  course,  a  commonplace  of  geographers  that  the  characteristics  of  a 
social  group  are  in  a  large  measure  determined  by  the  surrounding  physical 
conditions — probably  no  lesson  on  the  people  of  Great  Britain  was  ever 
given  without  some  allusion  to  the  "  silver  sea  "  ;  but  man  is  a  migratory 
animal,  and  when  he  travels  to  a  new  environment  he  carries  with  him 
into  the  new  region  the  social  and  other  characteristics  produced  in  the 
old.     The  result  is  that  the  new  group  produced  cannot  be  explained 
simply  in  terms  of  the  new  physical  conditions.    Professor  Hoke  illustrates 
this   point  by  two  striking  examples.     The  American  Indian  in  the 
Mississippi    exemplified    man  as   hunter,   and  the    only    result    of  the 
impact  of  European  culture  was  to  make  him  hunter  more  than  ever 
by  giving  him  weapons  which  made  hunting  more  eflfective.     But  when 
the   European   migrants  poured   into   the   same   valley  their  traditions 
made  them  largely  agriculturists  before  pressure  of  space  made  this  a 
necessity  of  life.      A  remnant  by  social  atavism   swung  back  to  the 
hunter's  life,  and  became  much  like  the  Indians.     Still  another  portion 
with  the  migratory  instinct  which  had  brought  them  thither  predomin- 
ating, devoted  themselves  to  methods  of  transportation.     Thus  we  have 
an  example  of  one  type  of  physical  conditions  producing  three  types  of 
social  life.     On  the  other  hand,  as  the  stream  of  migrants  to  the  west 
pushed  through  the  Appalachian  barrier  on  their  way,  a  portion  of  them 
were  left  behind  in  the   mountains   and  remain  there  to  this  day  in 
almost  the  same  social  condition  as  that  in  which  they  reached  the  new 
continent.      Originating  from    the    Highlands    of  Scotland,   they  have 
preserved  in  the   Appalachians  almost  all  their  racial   characteristics, 


102  SCOTTISH    GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

while  their  brethren  of  the  west  haAe  segregated  into  hunters,  farmers^ 
and  commercial  men. 

The  other  example  is  the  changes  which  the  immigrant  Asiatic 
nomads  have  undergone  in  the  Balkans.  Pouring  in  upon  Europe 
through  the  Ural  Gap  some  of  these  found  themselves  in  their  southern 
course  penned  in  the  valleys  of  the  Balkans.  Retreat  was  impossible 
because  of  the  pressure  behind,  advance  by  the  relief  of  the  land,  hence 
a  forced  adaptation  had  to  take  place.  But  the  whole  social  life  was 
based  upon  the  free  life  of  the  steppe,  and  the  community  therefore 
split  into  two  sections.  The  most  adaptable  became  agriculturists  and 
modified  their  whole  organisation  to  suit,  the  other  section,  for  whom 
this  was  impossible,  naturally  became  robbers  and  brigands.  The  difter- 
ence  then  between  their  fate  and  that  of  the  Appalachian  Highlanders 
is  not  based  upon  any  geographical  difference  of  relief  but  upon  a 
difference  of  social  tradition. 

Geographers  have  often  shown  how  important  is  the  assistance  which 
their  science  can  lend  to  the  historian — a  point  which  is  emphasised 
below  ;  but  this  paper  of  Professor  Hoke's  is  interesting  as  showing  that 
the  converse  is  also  true,  that  the  geographer  requires  to  call  in  the  aid 
of  the  historian  before  he  can  fully  explain  the  reaction  of  man  to  his 
environment.  We  may  say  even  farther  that  the  new  and  as  yet 
despised  science  of  sociology  must  also  be  called  to  his  aid.  As  sug- 
gested above,  however,  we  might  say  that  what  Professor  Hoke  calls 
the  social  status  is  in  essence  merely  a  geographical  factor,  for  it  is  the 
product  of  the  previous  physical  surroundings  of  the  race. 

Another  interesting  paper  which  illustrates  a  second  way  in  which 
historical  and  geographical  teaching  may  be  correlated,  is  to  be  found  in 
the  Annales  dc  Geographie  for  November  15.  The  article  is  entitled  "  La 
Geographie  de  la  Circulation,  selon  Frederick  Ptatzel,"  and  the  author, 
M.  Hiickel,  aims  at  giving  a  general  critical  account  of  Ratzel's  views  on 
the  development  of  ways  of  communication,  as  these  views  are  set  forth 
in  the  last  edition  of  Political  Geography.  Incidentally  M.  Hiickel 
has  a  good  deal  to  say  himself  that  is  fresh  and  interesting. 

It  is  impossible  here  to  give  a  general  account  of  the  article,  which 
should  be  consulted  by  those  interested,  but  a  few  striking  points  may 
be  mentioned.  The  central  point  is  that  historically  the  means  of  com- 
munication have  shown  a  constant  tendency  to  evolve,  and  that  this 
evolution  affords  an  interesting  parallelism  in  development  with  the 
more  familiar  evolution  of  the  drainage  systems  of  the  earth's  surface,  as 
this  evolution  has  been  expounded  by  the  physical  geographer.  The 
tendency  has  always  been  to  shorten  the  line,  and  though  for  a  time 
trade  may  be  artificially  forced  to  take  a  certain  course,  in  the  long-run 
the  tendency  is  for  it  to  take  the  course  marked  out  by  the  physical 
features  of  the  earth.  Very  striking  in  its  relation  to  history  is  the 
dictum  that  the  tendency  is  always  for  the  trade  routes  to  pass  from  the 
surface  of  the  land  to  the  oceans  or  the  rivers.  This  tendency,  of  which 
there  are  many  examples,  has  had  a  very  important  bearing  on  the 
history  of  many  of  the  nations.     Thus  the  discovery  of  America  and  the 


EDUCATIONAL.  103 

utilisation  of  the  sea-route  to  India  ruined  the  Mediterranean  area  and 
the  countries  to  the  east  of  it  which  had  grown  rich  on  the  carrying 
trade  from  the  Far  East.  One  of  the  most  curious  examples  of  the 
reversal  of  a  historic  process  is  the  way  in  which  the  opening  of  the 
8uez  Canal  has  brought  back  wealth  and  prosperity  to  parts  of  that 
ruined  area.  Again,  the  vast  historical  importance,  in  their  different 
ways,  of  the  Semites,  the  Greeks,  the  Italians  of  the  Middle  Ages  and 
later,  is  geographically  to  be  explained  as  due  to  the  fact  that  these 
nations  were  the  middlemen  between  the  resources  of  the  East  and  the 
civilisation  of  the  West.  Once  more,  the  persistent  historical  error  which 
has  led  the  Westerns  to  greatly  overestimate  the  former  importance  of 
such  countries  as  Arabia  has  a  geographical  origin.  Arabia  was  never 
anything  but  an  entrepot,  a  country  on  the  great  trade  route  from  the 
East  to  the  West,  but  owing  to  the  vast  distance  which  in  the  days  of 
slow  transport  separated  the  Far  East  from  the  West  it  came  to  be 
erroneously  regarded  as  itself  the  region  of  origin  of  the  commercial 
products.  These  are  only  a  few  of  the  interesting  points  with  which  the 
paper  deals,  but  they  may  serve  to  show  other  ways  besides  that  men- 
tioned above  in  which  history  and  geography  may  be  correlated. 


NEW    BOOKS 

EUROPE. 

Spain  and  her  People.     By  J.  Zimmerman,  LL.D.     London  :  T.  Fisher  Unwin, 
1906.     Pp.  350.     Price  10s.  U.  net. 

While  Spain  has  for  many  years  been  one  of  the  favourite  resorts  of  British 
travellers,  the  author  informs  us  that  his  American  fellow-countrymen  have  been 
deterred  from  going  there  by  "blood-curdling  tales."  We  have  no  idea  whence 
these  tales  originated,  and,  like  the  author,  are  satisfied  that  there  was  no  founda- 
tion for  them.  Like  him,  too,  we  always  found  the  Spanish  people  courteous  and 
kind.  The  author  dwells  on  the  historic  depopulation  of  Spain,  pointing  out  that 
"from  a  population  of  70,000,000  in  the  days  of  the  Emperor  Augustus,  Spain  has 
dwindled  to  barely  18,000,000."  He  does  not  inform  us,  however,  how  he  obtained 
the  statistics  of  Spain  during  the  reign  of  Augustus  Cajsar.  He  remarks  that  her 
main  modern  disabilities  are  the  existence  of  70  per  cent,  of  illiterates,  lack 
of  individual  enterprise  and  patriotism,  absence  of  cohesion  among  her  different 
provinces,  constant  friction  from  various  quarters,  prevailing  poverty,  and  a 
depleted  treasury.  This  is  a  heavy  indictment  and  is  probably  true,  with  the 
exception  of  want  of  patriotism,  for  as  the  Spanish  guerilla  war  against  the 
French  proved  during  the  Peninsular  AVar,  the  Spaniards  could  fight  valiantly 
against  a  foreign  foe.  L^nfortunately,  the  Spaniards  are  their  own  worst 
enemies. 

Dr.  Zimmerman's  tour  carried  him  from  Algeciras  to  Grenada,  and  he  describes 
graphically  the  Alhambra.  Then  follow  Seville,  Cordova,  INIadrid,  The  Escorial, 
Segovia,  Toledo,  Saragossa,  and  Barcelona,  with  chapters  on  Spanish  Life  and 
Character,  the  Spanish  Inquisition,  the  Expulsion  of  the  Jews,  the  Moors  in 
Spain  and  their  expulsion.  Causes  of  the  Decline  of  Spain,  and  the  Future  of 
Spain.  He  found  travelling  in  Spain  agreeable,  the  hotels  comfortable,  and  tiie 
railway  trains  punctual  although  slow.     We  can  commend  his  descriptions  as  full 


104  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

and  accurate,  while  the  illustrations  are  well  selected  and  well  executed,  although 
a  map  might  have  been  added. 

As  a  British  princess  is  now  Queen  of  Spain,  great  interest  is  in  Britain 
naturally  taken  in  Spain's  future.  The  author  discusses  it  from  an  American  point 
of  view,  and  remarks  that  if  America  had  the  control  of  Spain,  "  it  would  be  easy 
enough  to  say  that  Spain  would  become  one  of  the  great  countries  of  Europe,  for 
all  the  natural  possibilities  remain,  and  there  is  no  reason  for  the  continuance  of 
bad  government,  with  ignorance,  intolerance,  and  poverty  that  stand  in  the  way 
of  progress."  He  points  out  that  the  rivers  of  Spain  do  not  help  her  like  those  of 
America,  the  Guadalquiver  being  the  only  really  navigable  one.  He  contends 
that  "  what  Spain  needs  is  a  radical  change  in  ideas  and  customs,  and  this  must 
come  from  without,"  and  advises  her  to  send  hundreds  of  her  young  men  to  the 
United  States  to  study  American  methods  of  progress,  declaring  "We  could 
make  a  new  and  great  country  out  of  Spain  within  twenty-five  years,'"  for  "  Spain 
is  rich  in  natural  resources,  and  by  proper  cultivation  the  productive  wealth  could 
be  increased  at  least  threefold,  and  this  is  not  overestimating  her  industrial 
capabilities." 

A  Scientific  Geography.     Book  II.,  The  British  Isles.     By  Ellis  W.  Heaton, 
B.Sc,  F.G.S.     London  :  Ealph  Holland  and  Co.,  1906.     Price  Is.  6cl. 

This  is  a  good  little  book,  the  first  published  of  a  series,  intended,  as  the 
preface  states,  rather  to  correlate  and  explain  the  facts  of  geography  than  to  set 
them  forth.  The  chief  fault  we  have  to  fiad  is  that  the  book  is  throughout  written 
with,  as  it  were,  one  eye  upon  the  examiner.  The  object  of  the  student — for  the 
book  is  not  intended  for  junior  pupils — is  supposed  to  be  to  get  through  his  ex- 
amination rather  than  to  realise  the  joy  of  knowing  and  of  reasoning.  From  the 
geographer's  point  of  view  this  is  a  grave  neglect,  if  not  an  unnatural  one.  But 
there  is  much  that  is  fresh  and  interesting  in  the  treatment,  and  the  teacher  will  get 
many  hints  from  the  perusal  of  the  book.  The  constant  insistence  upon  simple 
sketch-maps  is  a  valuable  feature,  though  those  actually  given  are  usually  rough. 

Baedelcer's  Rhine  from  Rotterdam  to  Constance.     With  52  Maps  and  29  Plans. 
Sixteenth  Revised  Edition.     1906.     Price  7  marks. 

"  The  Rhine  "  is  perhaps  one  of  the  most  popular  volumes  of  Baedeker's  Series, 
and  no  eft'ort  seems  to  be  spared  to  maintain  its  popularity.  The  fifteenth  edition 
was  issued  in  1903,  and  ia  the  revision  consequent  on  the  three  years'  interval  no 
less  than  7  new  maps  and  3  plans  have  been  added. 

Handy  Guide  to  Norway.     By  Thoma.s  B.  Willsox,  M.A.     With  7  3Iaps. 
Fifth  Edition.     London  :  Edward  Stanford,  1906.     Price  5s. 

New  routes  and  hotels  are  every  year  being  added  to  the  many  attractions  for 
the  tourist  in  Norway,  so  that  old  editions  of  guide-books  soon  become  obsolete. 
Mr.  Willson's  little  handbook  has  been  revised  and  augmented  in  the  present 
edition,  and  forms  a  most  useful  compendium  of  jn-actical  information  for 
travellers. 

Christian  Rome.     By  J.  W.  and  A.  M.  Crcikshank.     London  :  Grant  Richards, 
1906.     Price  3s.  6f/.  net. 

The  Eternal  City  offers  so  much  to  be  seen  that  special  hand-books  are 
necessary.  In  this  one  the  Rome  of  Christian  times  is  thoroughly  investigated, 
beginning  with  the  Early  Church  illustrated  by  the  Catacombs,  then  proceeding 
to  the  Bishopric  of  Rome  as  localised  in  St.  John  Lateran,  St.  Peter's,  and  the 


NEW   BOOKS.  105 

Vatican.  A  valuable  series  of  excursions  is  given  with  drives  about  the  city, 
also  a  summary  of  the  principal  examples  of  Early  Medifeval,  Gothic,  and 
Renaissance  art  in  Rome.  After  a  description  of  the  various  churches  and 
picture  galleries  in  Rome,  a  detailed  account  is  appended  of  Subiaco,  45  miles 
east  of  the  city,  for  the  compilers  consider  that  an  eSbrt  should  be  made  to 
visit  this  place  "  not  only  for  its  associations  as  the  cradle  of  Western  monasticism, 
but  also  as  affording  a  dramatic  contrast  to  the  effects  of  the  ecclesiasticism  of  the 
seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries  in  the  Roman  churches."  The  volume  is 
most  carefully  compiled,  practically  arranged,  and  of  a  form  suitable  for  the  pocket . 

A  Gruise  across  Europe.     By  Donald  Maxwell.     London  :  John  Lane,  1906. 

Price  10s.  Qd. 
This  amusing  book,  some  of  the  pages  of  which  recall  the  well-known  style  of 
Jerome  K.  Jerome,  is  a  "collection  of  notes  and  sketches,"  made  in  the  course  of 
a  cruise  across  Europe  by  a  route  probably  unknown  to  nine-tenths  of  our  readers 
or  even  to  many  experienced  yachtsmen.  The  Walru?,  crossed  from  an  unnamed 
seaport  near  Flushing  to  Willemstad  in  North  Brabant,  and  from  there  made  her 
way  to  the  Black  Sea  "  by  devious  windings  through  the  Continent  of  Europe,  by 
river  and  canal  and  across  the  Franconian  Jura  Mountains,  by  means  of  Charle- 
magne's ancient  and  almost  unknown  waterway  to  the  valley  of  the  Danube." 
Nothing  very  exciting  or  remarkable  occurred  in  the  course  of  the  cruise,  unless 
we  account  as  exciting  the  fact,  that  the  author  and  his  companion  were  twice 
supposed  to  be  spies,  first,  in  Holland,  and  again,  at  a  soaall  Hungarian  village 
near  Buda-Pestli,  and  were  detained  for  a  short  time  pending  receipt  of  official 
instructions  from  the  authorities.  On  another  occasion  they  found  themselves  on 
the  festival  of  St.  Mark  in  an  obscure  Hungarian  village,  where  the  populace 
mistook  them  for  holy  pilgrims  on  their  way  to  Palestine  and  liberally  regaled 
them  with  goods  and  presents.  Some  of  the  hundred  illustrations  are  clever  and 
amusing,  and  spacial  attention  is  invited  by  the  publisher  to  the  frontispiece 
"  which  has  been  specially  reproduced  under  the  direction  of  the  author." 

ASIA. 

Things  Seen  in  Japan.  By  Clive  Holland.  London:  Seeley  and  Co., 
1907.  Price  2s.  net. 
This  little  book  bears  out  its  title.  There  are  no  fewer  than  fifty  photographs 
which  reproduce  scenes  characteristically  Japanese,  while  the  book  itself  gives  a 
better  idea  of  Japanese  life  than  many  a  more  pretentious  volume.  It  will  be 
enjoyed  by  every  one  who  reads  it.  Mr.  Holland  cannot  altogether  disregard  the 
change  which  is  coming  over  the  country  through  its  assimilation  of  Western 
ideas,  but  his  object  is  clearly  to  preserve  for  us  the  Japan  of  tradition.  Pro- 
bably the  traveller  must  haste  if  he  is  to  find  everything  as  Mr.  Holland  describes 
it.  But  Japan  may  be  trusted  not  readily  to  part  with  customs  and  manners 
which  enter  so  largely  into  the  life  of  her  people.  From  this  point  of  view  the 
future  history  of  Japan  to  those  who,  like  Mr.  Holland,  have  known  the  country 
before  its  progressive  moment  must  be  intensely  interesting. 

India.     By  Pierre  Loti.     Translated  from  the  French  by  George  A.  F.  Manan. 

Edited  by  Robert  Harborough   Sherrard.     London  :   Werner  Laurie,  1906. 

Price  10s.  6d.  net. 
The  distinguished  writer  of  Madame  Chrijsanthomim,  does  not  leave  us  long  in 
doubt  as  to  why  he  went  to  India.     "  I  make  my  way  to  India,"  he  says  in  his 
Preface,  "the  cradle  of  human  faith  and  thought,  with  nameless  dread,  fearing  that 

VOL.  XXIII.  H 


106  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

I  may  find  nothing  but  a  cruel  and  final  deception.    I  have  not  come  here  to  make 
a  trifling  call,  but  to  ask  or  beg  the  keepers  of  the  Aryan  wisdom  to  give  me  their 
belief  in  the  lasting  duration  of  the  soul  in  place  of  the  ineffable  Christian  faith 
which  has  vanished  from  my  soul.''    After  a  few  days  in  Ceylon  he  crossed  the  "  ever- 
raging"  Gulf  of  Manar,  and  on  the  20th  December  1899  landed  on  the  Travancore 
coast.     Apparently  he  was  in  great  hopes  that  the  abstruse  question  of  the  lasting 
duration  of  the  soul  would  be  solved  for  him  within  a  week  of  his  arrival.     Still 
more  remarkable  was  it  that  he  should  imagine  his  difficulties  would  be  solved  by 
the  Maharajah  of  Travancore  of  all  the  people  in  India.     His  business  with  the 
Maharajah  was  to  convey  to  him  a  French  decoration,  which  he  did  on  Christmas 
Eve  ;  and  after  the  usual  conversation  about  anything  and   everything   except 
religion  Pierre  Loti  says,  "I  regret  that  I  have  been  unable  to  converse  on  more 
serious  subjects  with  this  amiable  prince,  whose  soul  must  be  so  different  from  our 
own.     My  first  interview  has  taught  me  that  the  mysteries  of  his  inmost  thoughts 
will  be  as  impenetrable  to  me  as  the  great  temple.     There  is  a  radical  difference 
of  race,  ancestry,  and  religion  between  us :  thus  we  do  not  speak  the  same  language, 
and  the  necessity   of  speaking  througli  a   third  person  forms   (in   spite   of  the 
affability  of  my  interpreter)  a  barrier  which  isolates  us  from  all   communion." 
From  Tinnevelli  he  passed  on  through  Malabar  to  Pondicherry,  and  of  course 
he  does  not  miss  the  opportunity  of  doleful  lamentations  over  the   departed 
glories  of  the  formerly  prosperous  French  settlement.     Here,  however,  probably 
to  dispel  his  patriotic  gloom,  a  nautch  was  given  in  his  honour,  which  so  far  as 
he  was   concerned  seems  to   have  been  an  unqualified  success.     Readers  of  his 
other  works  will  know  what  to  expect,  and  they  will  not  be  disappointed.     One 
particular  bayardere  had  "  come  from  afar  for  this  evening,  from  one  of  the  temples 
of  the  south,  where  she  is  in  the  service  of  Siva  ;  her  reputation  is  great,  and  her 
performances  are  costly."     But  it  was  worth  it,  "for  I  dreaded  the  moment  when 
it  (her  dance)  would  end  and  I  should  see  her  no  more.  .  .  What  thoughts  can 
there  be  in  the  soul  of  a  bayardere  of  the  old  race  and  the  pure  blood?"     To  this 
somewhat   indiscreet   question,   most  judiciously,   no   answer  is  given.       From 
Pondicherry  he  made  his  way  to  Haiderabad,  or,  as  he  repeatedly  and  quaintly  calls 
it  "  Nizam,"  where  apparently  he  first  encountered  the  famine.     His  description 
of  it  in  Haiderabad  and  Oodeypoor  is  lurid  enough,  but  it  is  not  till  he  gets  to 
the  country  of  Ragput  (sic)  and  "the  beautiful  rose-coloured  city,"  i.e.  Jaipur, 
that  he  lets  himself  go.    And  then  neither  in  the  pages  of  the  English  Defoe  nor  in 
those  of  his  own  countryman  Zola  do  we  find  such  triumphs  of  gruesome  realism 
as  we  find  in  this  volume.    One  passage,  and  that  by  no  means  above  the  average 
in  horrors,  will  suffice  for  quotation.     "A  French  stranger  alights  and  advances 
towards  one  of  these  dreadful,  inert  heaps  of  starving  human  beings,  and  stoops 
down  to  place  pieces  of  money  into  their  lifeless   hands.     Immediately  it  is  as 
though  a  horde  of  mummies  had  suddenly  risen  from  the  dead.     Hands  emerge 
from  the  rags  that  covered  the  heap,  and  withered  and  bony  forms  rise  slowly 
from  the  ground.    The  ghastly  resurrection  suddenly  extends  to  other  heaps  lying 
hidden  behind  the  piles   of  merchandise,  the   crowds  and  the  furnaces  of  the 
pastrycooks,  for  they  seethe  and  stir  and  grovel  on  the  ground.     Then  a  swarm 
of  phantoms  advances  with  faces  of  dead  men,  with  horrible,  grinning  teeth,  with 
eyes   whose   lids  have  been   eaten   away  by  the   flies,  with  breasts   that   hang 
like  empty  bags  on  their  hollow  chests,  and  with  bones  Avhich  rattle  as  they 
walk.    Instantly  the  stranger  is  encircled  by  those  spectres  of  the  charnel-house." 
From  Jaipur  he  of  course  visited  Amber,  where  he  casually  mentions  he  heard 
"the   melancholy,  flute-like  voice  of  wandering  jackals,"  a   description   of  the 
jackals'  hideous  yells  which  we  make  bold  to  say  has  never  occurred  to  any  one 


NEW    BOOKS.  107 

before  or  since.  From  Amber  he  went  on  to  Gwalior,  where  he  inspected  the 
fcimous  fortress  and  Lashkar  from  the  top  of  an  elephant,  "  so  tall  that  we  were  on  a 
level  with  the  first  floors  of  the  houses.  The  streets  were  so  narrow  that  we  could 
even  touch  the  delicate  traceries  of  the  sculptured  galleries  on  which  fair  ladies 
were  sitting,  who  saluted  us  as  we  jiassed  by,"  a  proceeding,  which  must  have 
greatly  amused  or  scandalised  the  mahout  and  attendants.  From  Grwalior  he 
paid  a  short  visit  to  Jagganath,  and  then  went  on  to  Agra  and  Delhi,  where  the 
magnificent  buildings  of  the  Moghals  seem  merely  to  have  filled  him  with  melan- 
choly and  gloom.  "The  land,"  he  says,  "in  which  the  Mogul  Emperors  lived  is 
now  but  a  winding  sheet  for  ruined  towns  and  palaces,"  a  description  calculated 
to  evoke  a  smile  from  those  who  have  seen  the  flourishing  cities  of  Delhi,  Agra, 
Cawnpore,  Lucknow,  and  many  others.  At  the  famous  Kutb  near  Delhi,  which 
by  the  way  he  c.ills  Kuth,  and  describes  as  built  of  pink  granite,  he  heard,  "the 
shepherds  play  on  muted  pipes,"  an  experience  certainly  unique  in  its  way. 

The  traveller's  goal  was  Benares.  He  had  been  assured  by  the  Theosophists  in 
Madras,  where  by  the  by  he  heard  "the  crows  intone  their  noisy  hymn  to  Death," 
that  at  Benares  he  would  have  all  his  distracting  doubts  resolved,  and  would  there 
certainly  find  the  peace  which  even  they  could  not  give  him.  To  the  suggested 
pilgrimage  to  Benares  accordingly  he  consented  gladly,  but  decided  to  "  defer  that 
last  test  as  long  as  possible,  for  I  still  hesitated  like  a  coward  whom  a  double  fear 
assails.  It  might  be  that  all  my  hopes  would  be  taken  away  from  me  for  ever  or 
I  might  Jind.  Then  perhaps  the  new  way  would  open  out  before  me  and  an  end 
would  come  to  all  these  earthly  joys,  mere  illusions  doubtless,  but  still  so  delight- 
ful." So  he  wended  his  way  to  Benares  ;  and  we  have  several  gruesome  and 
realistic  descriptions  of  the  Fakirs  and  cremation  of  the  dead,  and  of  the  filth  of 
the  streets,  temples  and  river.  At  last  he  found  himself  in  the  House  of  the 
Masters  who  "  work  or  meditate  the  whole  day,  together  or  alone.  The  plain 
tables  before  them  are  loaded  with  those  Sanscrit  books  containing  the  secrets  of 
that  Brahmanism  which  preceded  all  our  religions  and  philosophies  by  so  many 
thousand  years.  In  these  unfathomable  books  the  old  thinkers,  those  sages  who 
had  clearer  vision  than  any  men  of  our  race  or  age,  have  inscribed  the  sum  of  all 
human  knowledge.  To  them  the  inconceivable  was  almost  clear,  and  their  long- 
forgotten  works  now  pass  our  degenerate  understanding  ;  and  so,  to-day,  years  of 
initiation  are  required  merely  to  see,  hidden  dimly  amidst  the  obscurity  of  the 
words,  the  unfathomable  depths  beyond."  Among  the  masters  he  found  a  European 
woman — possibly  Mrs.  Annie  Besant — "her  face  still  beautiful  though  crowned 
with  silver  hair,  and  she  lives  here  barefooted  and  detached  from  earthly  strife, 
the  thrifty  and  austere  life  of  an  ascetic."  Guided  apparently  by  her,  he  took  the 
simple  oath  required  of  him  and  became  a  disciple  ;  but  happily  for  his  readers  he 
declines  to  attempt  to  repeat  what  the  Masters  commenced  to  teach  him.  We 
must  be  content  to  believe  on  the  traveller's  authority  that  the  ISIasters  at  Benares 
"alone  can  give  answers  which  will  satisfy  the  burning  questionings  of  the  human 
mind,  and  such  evidence  is  brought  before  you  that  it  is  impossible  to  doubt  the 
continuance  of  life  beyond  the  terrestrial  sphere."  And  so  the  traveller  seems  to 
have  had  his  doubts  resolved  and  to  have  found  the  peace  of  which  he  was  in  search. 
Our  readers,  and  especially  those  of  them  who  know  India  well,  will  find  this  a 
very  amusing  book. 

Life  and  Adventure  beyond  Jordan.    By  the  Rev.  S.  Robinson  Lees,  B.A.,  F.E.S.S. 
London  :  Charles  H.  Kellj^  1906.     Price  5s.  net. 

This  pretty,  well-written  volume  owes  its  value  very  largely  to  the  illustrations 
from  fine  photographs  by  the  author.     Eight  of  these  are  coloured  plates,  and  more 


108  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

than  a  hundred  reproduce  eflfectively  the  scenery,  the  ruins,  and  sometimes  the  people 
of  Eastern  Palestine,  from  the  cedar  of  Lebanon  south  through  El  Hauran,  Bashau, 
Gilead,  and  Moab.  The  book  is  popularly  written,  and  frequently  illustrates  the 
narratives  of  the  Bible  ;  but  it  is  not  scientific,  and  has  little  geographical  value. 

Indian  Life  in  Totvn  and  Conntry.     By  Herbert  Comptox.     London  :  George 
Newnes,  Limited,  1906.     Price  3s.  6d. 

This  little  volume  on  Indian  Life  in  Town  and  Country  is  the  latest  inblica- 
tion  of  "Our  Empire"  series.  In  the  short  compass  of  200  pages  Mr.  Compton, 
who  seems  to  have  been  a  tea-planter,  has  made  a  creditable  attempt  to  convey  to 
English  readers  his  impressions  of  ordinarylndianlife  and  manners,  both  among  the 
nativesand  among  the  Europeans.  And  we  have  little  doubt  but  that  Mi\  Compton 
intends  to  be  scrupulously  accur&te,  and  he  must  be  acquitted  of  any  charge  of 
conscious  malice  or  exaggeration.  But  Anglo-Indians  who  have  bad  quite  as  mrch 
exf  eiienceof  India  as  Mr.  Comjtcn  will  smile  at  such  statements  as  these,  "bribery 
and  corruption  are  the  rule,  not  the  exception,  in  the  East.  In  eveiy  transaction  of 
life  it  is  held  to  be  not  only  allowable  but  sensible  to  derive  some  advantage  over 
and  above  the  scheduled  amount."  "When  you  come  to  the  subordinate  judicial 
staff,  the  active  judge  s  and  magistrates,  with  restricted  powers  and  comparatively 
small  salaries,  you  may  take  it  as  an  axiom  that,  in  our  slang  phrase,  they  are  all 
'  on  the  make.'  Prudence  alone  puts  a  limit  to  their  harvest."  ",The  Indian 
native  official  is  a  currish-spirited  thirg  at  the  bottom  ...  a  consummate  actor 
and  Machiavellian  schemer,  who  seldom  fails  to  worm  himself  into  favour." 
"  Crime  is  safe  and  easy  in  the  zenana,  for  even  the  law  halts  on  the  threshold." 
Even  when  he  is  describing  Anglo-Indian  life  Mr.  Compton  cannot  be  accepted 
as  ordinarily  accurate,  when  he  says,  "  India  luxuriates  in  hermetically  sealed 
stores.  1  hese  are  the  dainties  of  Anglo-Indian  daily  life,  the  delicacies  of  the 
dinner-party."  "  Ladies  are  pedantically  jealous,  and  woe  betide  the  unhappy 
hostess  who  makes  some  quite  unintentional  error  in  the  order  in  which  she  sends 
her  guests  into  dinner."  "The  press  of  India  does  not  represent  public  opinion, 
but  the  views  of  Government ;  its  chief  subscribers  are  Government  officials,  and 
it  is  dependent  on  the  powers  that  be  for  news,  not  to  mention  fat  contracts  for 
advertising  and  printing.  The  non-official  is  without  a  vote,  without  representa- 
tion, without  privileges,  and  without  rights,  even  although  he  be  a  free-born 
Englishman."  But  enough  of  quotations.  We  are  inclined  to  suspect  that  Mr. 
Compton  is  atten)pting  to  describe  some  phases  of  India  of  at  least  a  generation 
ago.  Even  if  this  is  the  case  many  of  his  descriptions  will  not  be  accepted  as 
correct  by  those  who  knew  the  country  well  in  those  days,  any  more  than  they  can 
be  accepted  as  true  of  India  in  the  twentieth  century. 

AFRICA. 

Second  Report :  Wellcome  Research  Laboratories  at  the  Gordon  Memorial  College, 
Khartoum.  By  Andrew  Balfour,  M.D.,  B.Sc,  F.E.C.P.Edin.,  D.P.H. 
Camb.     Published  by  the  Department  of  Education,  Khartoum,  1906. 

This  valuable  volume  gives  the  results  of  the  work  done  at  the  Wellcome 
Research  Laboratories  at  the  Gordon  Memorial  College,  Khartoum.  To 
geographers  it  is  of  great  interest  on  account  of  the  work  it  is  doing  in  render- 
ing the  Sudan  more  healthy  and  thus  opening  it  up  for  possible  settlement. 
To  the  medical  profession  the  war  against  malaria  and  the  ascertaining  of 
the  causes  of  tropical  diseases  will  appeal.     The  success  of  the  measures  taken  to 


NEW   BOOKS.  109 

exterminate  mosquitoes  and  other  infection-bearing  insects  is  wonderful  and  most 
encouraging. 

The  book  contains  a  wealth  of  information  for  the  sanatarian,  doctor,  and 
naturalist  ;  it  is  exceedingly  well  produced,  and  reflects  the  greatest  credit  upon 
Dr.  Andrew  Balfour,  the  Director  of  the  Laboratories,  and  his  assistants. 

Being  of  an  entirely  technical  character,  it  is  not  a  book  for  detailed  review  by 
us,  but  we  very  warmly  commend  it  to  those  engaged  in  the  warfare  against 
tropical  disease.  We  are  glad  to  see  that  attention  is  now  to  be  paid  to  agricul- 
tural chemistry,  bacteriology,  etc. 

The  illustrations  are  excellent. 

Portuguese  East  Africa.     By  R.  C.  K  Maugham.     London  :  John  Murray, 
1906.     Price  15s.  net. 

This  interesting  work  on  Portuguese  East  Africa,  and  more  particularly  on  the 
districts  of  Maurica  and  Sofala  is  very  welcome,  as  it  supplies  a  distinct  want. 
^Ye  have  a  plethora  of  works  of  all  sorts  and  qualities  about  British  Africa  ;  we 
have  had  a  lurid  light  thrown  more  than  once  on  the  Congo  State  ;  and  we  know 
a  good  deal  about  French  and  Geiman  Africa.  A  trustworthy  work  from  an  able 
officer  of  sufficient  experience,  dealing  with  several  important  subjects  of  interest 
in  Portuguese  East  Africa  was  wanted,  and  is  found  in  the  volume  now  before  us 
by  Mr.  Maugham,  the  British  Consul  of  Mozambique  and  Zambesia.  A  perusal 
of  the  work  shows  that  Mr.  Maugham  has  many  peculiar  qualifications  for  the 
task.  He  very  modestly  observes  that  "this  book  is  intended  for  the  traveller, 
the  sportsman,  and  for  him  whose  delight  lies  in  those  scenes  of  natural  unem- 
bellished  beauty  and  grandeur  which  Africa  possesses  in  such  profusion  and 
variety '' ;  but  in  addition  to  these,  the  book  will  successfully  appeal  to  the  student 
of  history,  anthropology,  colonisation  and  administration,  and  to  the  ever- 
widening  circle  of  those  who  are  interested  in  "dark"  if  not  "darkest"  Africa. 
Mr.  Maugham  has  had  twelve  years'  experience  of  the  regions  which  he  describes, 
and  it  is  very  obvious,  that  he  has  not  only  made  excellent  use  of  his  exceptional 
opportunities,  but  that,  in  a  more  than  ordinarily  trying  climate,  he  has  had  the 
requisite  energy  and  ability  to  see  and  think  for  himself,  and  to  state  his  matured 
convictions  and  observations  with  eloquence  and  persuasive  force.  We  trust 
we  do  not  misrepresent  him,  when  we  say,  that,  apparently,  the  book  is  primarily 
intended  for  sportsmen,  and  in  this  respect  his  book  necessarily  challenges 
comparison  with  the  works  of  such  mighty  hunters  as  Selous,  Schillings,  Gibbons 
and  many  others.  Such  comparison,  however,  is  outside  the  scope  of  this  maga- 
zine, but  we  may  say  that  his  descriptions  and  stories  of  big  and  little  game  in 
Portuguese  East  Africa  will  be  found  by  all  his  readers  to  be  exceedingly 
interesting  and  instructive ;  and  the  record  of  his  experiences  and  his  advice  as 
to  outfit,  etc,  cannot  fail  to  be  most  useful  to  sportsmen.  He  has  many  interesting 
observations  to  make  on  the  habits,  customs,  character  and  language  of  the 
natives  of  these  regions,  which  well  deserve  the  attention  of  the  student  of 
anthropology  as  well  as  those  whose  duty  or  pleasure  induces  them  to  travel  or 
sojourn  there.  The  book  is  equipped  with  a  useful  map,  and  is  adorned  with 
many  excellent  illustrations. 

Un  Crepuscuh  d'Islam.     Par  Andrie  Chevillon.     Paris  :  Hachette,  1906. 
Price  3fr.  50c. 

The  author  describes  his  tour  through  Morocco  in  April  1905,  and  proves 
himself  a  master  in  observation  and  word-painting.      The  motif  of  his   work, 


110  SCOTTISH   GEOUKAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

however,  is  to  show  that  Morocco  is  one  of  the  darkest  of  the  many  dark  places 
of  Islam.  "  It  has  the  majesty  of  a  corpse,  and  at  first  the  artist  perceives  nothing 
but  this  majesty.  Before  we  know  the  truth  we  desire  ardently  that  neither  the 
artisans  nor  locomotives  of  Europe  should  come  to  violate  its  silence  and 
immemorial  tranquillity,  and  that  Fez  should  never  become  like  the  Tangier  of 
to-day,  with  its  Spanish,  Jewish,  and  Marseilles  hubbub,  its  fluring  advertisements, 
and  all  the  vulgar  uproar  from  which  the  true  Mussulmans  escape,  taking  refuge 
in  the  memory  of  past  ages  and  the  lofty  white  peace  of  their  Kasba.  I  had 
hoped  that  in  the  universal  disfigurement  of  our  planet  by  the  civilisation  of  the 
industrial  type  which  we  call  civilisation,  this  country  would  remain  untouched, 
and  that  there  Avould  be  miraculously  perpetuated  there  a  Mussulman  Middle 
Age,  with  its  faith  and  its  original  forms,  thus  dreaming  an  unfettered  dream  which 
no  foreign  determination  could  limit.  I  have  ended  with  the  conviction  that 
anything  would  be  better  than  the  present  corrupt  stagnation.  In  any  case, 
nothing  could  be  lost,  for  nothing  can  be  worse  than  death.  This  is  the  present 
state  of  Morocco.  It  is  not  enough  to  merely  glance  at  it,  for  appearances  still 
resemble  life.  We  must  look  below  the  surface.  We  must  witness  the  rapine  of 
viziers,  governors,  khalifas,  amels,  and  motasibs  in  connection  with  the  taxes  they 
impose  or  take  off  at  their  pleasure,  and  which  they  first  get  paid  in  cash  and 
afterwards  in  body  ;  we  must  see  their  extortions  by  bastinado  and  the  prison  ; 
we  must  note  the  misery  of  the  masses,  and,  as  a  consequence,  the  prostitution, 
which  is  not  only  universal,  but  which  the  authorities  encourage  because  they 
profit  by  it ;  vt'e  must  observe  the  male  vices,  Avhose  signs  are  conspicuous  in  the 
streets  ;  the  profound  degeneration  of  bodies,  which  only  look  well  because  they 
are  draped  ;  the  state  of  panic  in  which  the  inhabitants  of  towns  periodically  live 
behind  their  ruined  walls  ;  the  impotence  and  chronic  disorganisation  of  the  army, 
the  officers  stealing  the  rations  of  their  men,  and  the  men  selling  their  cartridges 
and  rifles  to  rebels,  and  deserting  whenever  they  please — to  recognise  all  this 
corruption  we  must  consult,  as  I  have  done,  not  merely  the  few  Europeans  born 
or  some  time  resident  in  the  country,  whether  merchants,  official  agents,  officer 
instructors,  or  physicians,  but  Algerian  Mussulmans  who  live  at  Tangier,  ElKsar 
or  Fez,  and  who  never  speak  of  what  they  see  except  with  a  contemptuous  smile.'" 

AMERICA. 

Canip-Fires  in  the  Canadian  liockies.   By  William  T.  Hornaday,  Sc.D.    London  : 
T.  Werner  Laurie,  1906.     Price  Ids.  net. 

This  volume  contains  the  record  of  a  month's  holiday  in  October  1905,  spent 
by  Dr.  Hornaday,  Director  of  the  New  York  Zoological  Park,  and  some  sportsmen 
friends  in  a  comparatively  little  known  tract  of  Britisli  Columbia,  vi?.,  the  east 
Kootenay  region,  between  the  Elk  River  and  Bull  River.  The  holiday  was 
devoted  for  the  most  part  to  the  pursuit  of  Mountain  Goat  and  grizzly  bears  ; 
but  the  mere  slaughter  of  these  animals  was  by  no  means  the  onlj-,  or  even  the 
principal,  object  of  the  expedition.  Indeed  the  sportsmen  seem  to  have  volun- 
tarily imposed  on  themselves  limitations,  which  to  many  will  seem  unnecessarily 
restricted,  even  if  their  moderation  is  pronounced  at  once  commendable  and 
worthy  of  imitation.  For  example,  devotees  of  Izaac  Walton  here  will  read 
with  mixed  feelings,  that  although  Dr.  Hornaday  carried  a  rod  and  reel 
twenty-five  hundred  miles  for  the  sake  of  one  day's  fishing  on  the  Fording  River, 
when  the  fateful  day  arrived,  he  and  his  two  friends  deliberately  limited  their 
take  to  fifteen  fish,  the  heaviest  of  them  weighing  2  lbs.  4  oz.,  on  the  ground 
that    the  party   could    not    eat    more    in  two  days,   although   they  were  lucky 


NEW   BOOKS.  Ill 

enough  to  find  the  Cut-Throat  or  Black-Spotted  trout  taking  freely.  The 
particular  quarry  of  which  Dr.  Hornaday  and  his  friends  were  in  quest  was,  as 
we  have  already  said,  the  mountain  goat,  of  which  they  secured  some  very  fine 
specimens  now  on  view  in  some  of  the  Zoological  museums  in  the  United  States. 
The  Director  also  succeeded  in  getting  some  fine  grizzly  bears.  But,  besides 
this,  one  of  the  party,  Mr.  Phillips,  succeeded  in  securing  some  excellent  photo- 
graphs of  mountain  goats  among  the  wild  rocks,  which  they  inhabit,  and  un- 
doubtedly while  getting  these  photographs,  he  was  again  and  again  inconsiderable 
personal  danger.  Dr.  Hornaday  claims  for  the  photographs  that  they  represent 
■what  he  believes  "the  most  daring,  and  also  the  most  successful,  feat  in  big-game 
photography  ever  accomplished,"  but  readers  of  the  well-known  work  of  Mr. 
Schillings,  which  we  reviewed  in  the  August  1906  number  of  this  magazine,  will 
hardly  acquiesce  in  this  estimate.  Nevertheless  we  can  cordially  admire  the 
extraordinary  nerve  and  endurance  on  the  part  of  Mr.  Phillips,  which  are 
abundantly  evinced  by  the  photographs  and  the  narrative  of  this  work.  In- 
cidentally we  learn  a  great  deal  about  the  orography  of  the  tract,  and  about  the 
habits  of  the  birds  and  animals  which  are  found  there.  There  are  also  several 
short  stories,  describing  exciting  incidents  and  adventures  in  the  sporting  career 
of  those  who  narrate  them,  which  will  not  fail  to  amuse  and  interest  the  reader. 
The  illustrations  by  Mr.  Phillips  are  unusually  good. 

AUSTRALASIA. 

Haicaii,  Ostmikronesien,  nnd  Samoa.  Meine  zweite  Siidseereise  (1897-99)  zimi 
Studium  der  Atolle  nnd  ihrer  Bewohner.  Von  Professor  Dr.  Augustin 
Kramer,  Marine  Oberstabsarzt.     Stuttgart :  Strecker  &  Schroder,  1906. 

This  lavishly  illustrated  work  describes  in  a  masterly  manner  many  of  the 
islands  of  the  inhabitants  of  Polynesia.  The  author  piirticularly  paid  attention 
to  the  growth  of  coral  reefs  and  distinctly  states  that  "an  atoll  as  described  by 
Dana  in  his  Coral  and  Coral  Islands,  and  also  in  Text  Books,  viz.  a  great  lake 
surrounded  by  an  unbroken  slender  coral  ring,  does  not  exist.  At  all  events,  it 
is  not  typical."  He  tells  how  first  Semper  of  Wiirzburg,  then  Rein  of  Bonn, 
then  Sir  John  Murray,  Guppy,  and  Alexander  Agassi  z,  disproved  the  subsidence 
theory  of  Darwin  which  Dana  upheld. 

Professor  Kramer  likewise  investigated  the  tatooing  common  among  the 
natives  of  Polynesia,  and  figures  definite  designs  followed,  being  similar  to  those 
on  mats.  Illustrations  are  given  showing  natives  with  their  backs  wholly  tatooed, 
while  others  have  their  arms  and  others  their  cheeks  and  necks.  A  choir  of 
women  sing  and  beat  drums  while  a  man  is  being  tatooed  and  thus  drown  his 
painftil  cries.  Special  songs  are  sung  during  tatooing,  and  in  them  the  choir  call 
down  from  heaven  power  to  the  tatooer  to  do  his  work  artistically.  Tatooing  is 
considered  in  Polynesia  the  most  noble  adornment  of  the  human  body,  and  is 
particularly  applied  to  those  parts  not  covered  by  clothing. 

GENERAL. 

Discoveries  and  Explorations  in  the  (.'entunj.  By  Charles  G.  D.  Roberts,  M.A. 
Nineteenth  Century  Series.  Edinburgh  :  W.  and  R.  Chambers,  1906. 
Price  5s.  net. 

In  this  book  we  have  a  very  compact,  and  for  the  most  part  a  clear,  account  of 
the  knowledge  obtained  of  all  parts  of  the  world  during  the  nineteenth  century. 

The  labour  entailed  by  the  production  of  such  a  volume  must  have  been — as 
the  author  says — very  considerable,  and  any  one  who  wants  a  bird's-eye  view  of  the 


112  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

geographical  discoveries  in  any  part  of  the  globe  during  the  time  dealt  with,  will 
find  it  here  with  suflBcient  fulness,  and  the  reader  or  student  will  find  also  in  this 
compendium  the  names  of  the  principal  explorers  and  a  brief  outline  of  the 
work  achieved  by  each. 

A  bibliography  would  have  been  of  great  use,  but  it  could  perhaps  be  hardlj 
expected  in  such  a  volume.  Of  course  in  such  a  compressed  account  as  the  scope 
of  this  volume  admits  of  there  are  bound  to  be  omissions,  but  we  think  the 
wonder  is  that  the  author  has  succeeded  in  getting  so  much  in,  not  that  he  has 
been  obliged  to  leave  some  out  The  perusal  of  his  pages  ought  to  stimulate  the 
student  to  turn  to  the  older  and  fuller  volumes  by  the  explorers  themselves. 


BOOKS  RECEIVED. 


The  Tourist's  India.  By  Eustace  Reynolds-Ball,  F.R.G.S.,  F.R.C.I. 
Demy  8vo.     Pp.  xii  +  355.     London  :  Swan  Sonnenschein  and  Co.,  Ltd.,  1907. 

Tra  Me::-Afriho :  A  Travers  I'Afrique  Centrale.  Conference  avec  projections 
donnee  au  2™*^  Congres  Universel  d'Esperanto  a  Geneve,  par  Le  Commaxdaxt 
Lemaire,  Ch.     Pp.  85.     Bruxelles.  1906. 

The  East  and  West  Indian  Mirror;  being  an  account  of  Joris  Van  Speil- 
bergen's  Voyage  Round  the  Woiid  (1614-1617)  and  the  Australian  Navigations 
of  Jacob  Le  Maire.  Translated,  with  Notes  and  an  Introduction,  by  J.  A.  J.  de 
Villiers.     (Hakluyt  Society.)     Demy  8vo.     Pp.  1x1  + 272.     London,  1906. 

A  Travers  la  Banquise  du  Spitzberg  axi  Gap  Philip})e,  Mai-Aoat,  1905.  Par 
Due  D'Orleans.      Pp.  350.     Paris  :  Plon  Nourrit  et  Cie.,  1907. 

The  Heart  of  Spain:  An  Artist's  Impressions  of  Toledo.  By  Stewart  Dick. 
Crown  8vo.     Pp.  xv  +  155.     Price3s.Gd.net.     Edinburgh  :  T.  N.  Foulis,  1907. 

Uganda  by  Pen  and  Camera.  By  C.  W.  Hattersley.  With  a  Preface 
by  T.  F.  Victoria  Buxton.  Crown  8vo.  Pp.  xviii.  Price  2s.  London  : 
Eeligious  Tract  Society,  1907. 

The  Harmsivorth  Encyclopmdia.  Vols,  vii.-viii.  London :  Thomas  Nelson 
and  Sons,  1907. 

Also  the  following  Reports,  etc. : — 

The  Irrigation  of  Mesopotamia.  By  Sir  William  Willcocks,  K.C.M.G., 
F.E.G.S.     Pp.  153.     Cairo,  1905. 

Report  on  the  Administration  of  Burma  for  the  Year  1905-1906.  Rangoon, 
1906. 

Report  on  the  Administration  of  Coorg  for  the  Year  1905-1906.  Mercaru, 
1906. 

Rainfall  of  India.     Fifteenth  Year,  1905.     Calcutta,  1906. 

Palmers  and  Reports  relating  to  Minerals  and  Mining  of  New  Zealand.  Wel- 
lington, 1906. 

Illustrated  Handbook  to  the  Perthshire  Natural  History  Museum,  and  Brief 
Guide  to  the  Animals,  Plants,  and  Rocks  of  the  County.  ^  Second  Edition.  Pp.  87. 
Price  3d.     Perth  :  Perthshire  Natural  History  Musem^,  1906. 

Willing's  Press  Guide  and  Advertiser's  Dvrectohj  and  Handbook,  1907. 
Pp.  457.     London,  W.C.  :  James  AVilling,  Jun.,  Ltd.,  1907. 

Sudan  Almanac,  1907.     Pp.  67.     Price  Is.     London,  1907. 

Report  concerning  Canadian  Archives  for  the  VeaV  1905.  Vol.  ii.  Ottawa, 
1906. 

Puhlishers  forwarding  books  for  review  will  greatly  oblige  by  marking  the  price  in 
clear  figures,  especially  in  the  case  of  foreign  books 


THE    SCOTTISH 

GEOGRAPHICAL 

MAGAZINE. 


METEOEOLOGICAL   EESEARCHES   IN   THE   HIGH 
ATMOSPHEEE.i 

By  H.S.H.  The  Prince  of  Monaco. 
{With  Illustrations.) 

Meteorology  is  a  science  which  is  much  less  advanced  than  many 
others.  This  is  due  to  two  principal  causes.  In  the  first  place,  it  is 
only  quite  recently  that  it  has  been  the  object  of  experimental 
research ;  and,  in  the  second  place,  the  field  of  this  research  has 
been  the  latitudes  of  Europe  and  Xorth  America,  in  the  so-called 
temperate  zone,  where  the  conditions  are  those  of  transition  from  the 
simple  conditions  obtaining  at  the  Equator  to  the  equally  simple,  but 
opposite,  conditions  obtaining  at  the  Poles.  It  is  a  fundamental  axiom 
in  scientific  research  to  attack  a  problem  first  in  its  simplest  form,  and 
to  introduce  complications,  one  at  a  time.  In  the  case  of  meteorology 
the  reverse  has  been  the  case.  The  meteorology  of  Northern  Europe, 
the  most  complicated  and  difficult  problem  in  the  science,  has  been 
attacked  first,  and  the  reason  of  this  is  obvious,  because  it  was  there 
that  the  means  of  attack  were  first  furnished. 

The  beginnings  of  meteorology  were  modest,  consisting  of  isolated 
observations  made  by  the  curious  in  natural  history,  with  imperfect  and 
often  rudimentary  instruments ;  and  it  was  only  after  these  had  become 
more  delicate  and  more  precise,  and  had  shown  themselves  capable  of 
throwing  light  on  the  mysteries  of  the  air,  that  true  meteorological  obser- 
vatories came  into  existence.  At  first  these  were  confined  to  the  centres 
of  population,  but  further  progress  soon  made  clear  the  necessity  of 
extending  the  researches  into  unpeopled  and  higher  strata,  with  the  result 

1  An  Address  delivered  before  the  Society  in  Edinburgh  on  January  17. 
VOL.  XXIII.  I 


114  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

that  observatories  were  installed  on  the  tops  of  many  mountains.  About 
the  same  time  aerostats  came  accidentally  to  be  used  for  the  same 
purpose.  Finally,  in  the  last  few  years,  the  improvements  effected  in 
the  manufacture  of  steel  have  made  it  possible  to  fly  kites  at  great 
heights,  carrying  self- registering  instruments  and  held  by  a  wire,  as 
light  as  it  is  strong.  Now,  the  india-rubber  industry  renders  it 
possible  to  send  to  altitudes  hitherto  inaccessible  by  any  other  means 
balloons  also  carrying  self-registering  meteorological  instruments. 

The  first  experimenters  Avho  used  kites  were  Americans.  Guided 
by  Edy  in  1891  and  by  Rotch  in  1894,  their  instruments  attained  a 
height  of  about  400  and  4000  meters.  Shortly  afterwards  the  French 
Hermite  and  Bezancon  in  1892  launched  the  first  hallons- sonde :  a  much 
more  independent  class  of  instruments  which  very  soon  attained  heights 
above  the  land  up  to  20,000  meters  (65,620  feet).  Quite  recently  the 
scientific  spirit  of  the  Germans,  supported  by  the  liberality  of  the 
Emperor  William,  has  created  at  Lindenberg,  in  Prussia,  a  magnificent 
establishment  where  meteorological  researches  in  the  higher  regions  of 
the  atmosphere  are  pursued  regularly  with  both  systems.  These  re- 
searches are  necessarily  restricted  to  the  air  over  the  land.  There 
remained  the  atmosphere  over  the  ocean,  a  much  greater  region,  and  its 
exploration  appeared  to  be  of  paramount  importance.  It  was  Professor 
Hergesell  of  Strasburg,  in  the  year  1904,  who  first  interested  me  in  the 
subject,  and  I  decided  at  once  to  attack  it. 

In  the  spring  of  the  same  year  I  was  able,  after  making  some  altera- 
tions in  the  sounding  machine  of  my  ship,  the  Princesse  Alice,  to  use  it 
for  sending  kites  to  a  height  of  4500  meters  in  the  northern  region  of 
the  trade  winds  between  Portugal  and  the  Canary  Islands. 

In  order  that  the  kite  which  carries  the  recording  instruments — a 
combination  of  barometer,  thermometer,  and  hygrometer,  weighing  600 
grams,  shall  ascend  to  any  great  height  it  is  necessary  to  attach  to 
the  line  or  wire  a  series  of  kites  at  intervals  varying  from  500  to  1500 
meters.  Each  of  these,  by  adding  its  effort  to  that  of  the  one  which 
precedes  it,  contributes  to  the  ascensional  force  of  the  system  at  the 
moment  when  the  weight  of  the  wire  in  the  air  would  stop  further 
upward  movement.  By  successive  relays  it  is  possible  to  send  a  kite 
with  instruments  to  a  very  great  height,  provided  that  no  layers  of 
calm  are  met  with,  or  if  they  exist,  that  the  speed  of  the  ship  is  such 
that  the  kite  can  be  towed  at  a  minimum  speed  of  seven  meters  per 
second  (15i  miles  per  hour). 

Theoretically,  if  the  dimensions  of  the  kites  and  the  diameter  of  the 
wire  were  progressively  increased,  it  would  be  possible  to  reach  heights 
limited  only  by  the  rarification  of  the  air.  In  practice,  however,  it  is 
found  that,  owing  to  the  difficulties  attending  the  dispatch  of  kites  on 
board  ship,  and  the  complications  which  arise  from  the  fact  that  the 
upper  currents  travel  in  directions  which  generally  vary  irregularly  from 
one  level  to  another,  a  height  of  6000  or  7000  meters  is  the  greatest 
that  can  be  reached.  In  a  recent  experiment  at  Lindenberg,  in  which  the 
kite  reached  a  height  of  6000  meters,  it  was  necessary  to  veer  17,000 
meters  of  cable,  and  the  final  strain  on  the  wire  was  85  kilograms. 


METEOROLOGICAL   RESEARCHES    IN    THE   HIGH   ATMOSPHERE.         115 

An  experiment,  using  kites  of  the  Hargrave  type,  is  conducted  as 
follows  : — After  having  made  sure  that  the  line  which  forms  the  upper 
section  of  the  flying  line  has  a  length  of  50  meters,  and  connects  the  kite 
with  the  wire,  exerts  a  normal  and  well-balanced  strain  on  the  apparatus, 
and  when  the  velocity  of  the  wind,  augmented  if  necessary  by  giving  a 
certain  speed  to  the  ship,  has  reached  at  least  seven  meters  per  second, 
the  kite  carrying  the  instruments  is  hoisted  by  a  line  from  the  mizzen- 
mast  head,  and  is  then  allowed  to  rise  gradually  and  attain  a  height  where 
the  dangerous  vortices  caused  by  the  ship  cease.  When  the  kite  sails 
tranquilly  at  the  end  of  its  line,  which  is  held  by  several  men,  whose 
hands  are  protected  by  stout  gloves,  the  masthead  block  is  brought 
down  on  deck  and  the  line  of  the  kite  is  joined  to  the  steel  wire,  which 
can  then  be  veered  from  the  steam  winch  on  which  it  is  wound. 
The  same  manoeuvres  have  to  be  repeated  as  each  addition  is  made  to 
the  system. 

A  girouette,^  from  which  the  wire  quits  the  ship,  carries  a 
dynamometer  which  indicates  the  tension  of  the  wire  and  at  the  same 
time  performs  the  function  of  a  regulator  of  the  strains  produced  by  the 
pitching  of  the  ship  or  by  squalls  in  the  atmosphere. 

The  kites  of  the  Hargrave  type  work  very  well,  and  the  steel  wire 
which  I  use  has  a  diameter  and  resistance  which  gradually  increase  as 
more  wire  is  paid  out.  This  is  the  principle  which  I  apply  to  my 
dredging  and  sounding  cables,  in  order  to  spare  useless  weight  in  the 
upper  section :  it  is  indispensable  in  kite  ascents,  in  order  to  attain 
great  heights  by  lightening  the  upper  section  of  the  wire. 

An  observer  stationed  at  the  girouette  conducts  the  whole  opera- 
tion, communicating  with  the  man  at  the  winch  by  means  of  an  electric 
bell.  He  records  regularly  by  means  of  the  sextant  the  heights  of  the  kite 
which  carries  the  instruments,  in  order  to  know  its  position  with  respect 
to  the  shij)  and  to  ascertain  approximately  the  influences  to  which  it  is 
exposed  in  the  successive  layers  thi'ough  which  it  passes. 

The  launching  of  a  kite  from  a  ship  is  always  a  delicate  operation, 
and  one  which  demands  experience  on  account  of  the  vortices  found  in 
the  aerial  wake  of  the  ship :  of  which  those  visible  in  the  aqueous  wake 
are  the  image.  Often  when  the  apparatus  has  reached  a  height  where 
it  appears  to  be  out  of  danger  it  may  be  caught  by  one  of  these  risky 
vortices  and  precipitated  into  the  sea.  In  stormy  weather  such  a  cata- 
strophe may  occur  even  after  the  kite  has  risen  to  a  height  of  several 
hundred  meters. 

When  the  wind  is  strong  enough  and  the  bridle  (the  object  of  which 
is  to  keep  the  face  of  the  kite  to  which  it  is  attached  horizontal)  is  not 
very  exactly  balanced,  the  kite  at  once  executes  plunging  zigzag  move- 
ments which  may  produce  such  a  strain  as  to  break  the  line. 

When  the  kites  have  reached  the  greatest  altitude  permitted  by 
the  circumstances,  the  paying  out  of  the  wire  is  stopped,  and,  either  by 
increasing  the  speed  of  the  ship,  or  by  heaving  in  the  wire  as  quickly 
as  possible,  a  little  final  augmentation  of  height  is  obtained. 


1  The  girouette  is  a  pivoted  wheel  free  to  revolve  with  the  wind  in  auy  direction. 


116  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINB. 

The  recovery  of  the  kites,  although  somewhat  delicate,  presents  less 
difficulty  than  their  dispatch.  As  at  the  launching  of  the  kite,  a  sub- 
sidiary line  is  used  which  is  run  alongside  of  the  bridle  as  soon  as  this 
is  got  hold  of,  so  as  to  limit  the  motions  of  the  kite. 

Unfortunately,  even  with  the  greatest  care  accidents  occur.  On 
one  occasion,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Canary  Islands,  the 
rupture  of  the  wire  occasioned  the  loss  of  five  kites  attached  to  6000 
meters  of  wire.  In  a  case  such  as  this,  the  Avhole  system  descends  until 
the  lowest  kite  touches  the  sea.  This  then  acts  as  a  drag,  which  causes 
the  others  to  ascend  again  until  a  condition  of  equilibrium  is  reached, 
when  the  whole  system  drifts  in  a  direction,  which  is  the  resultant  of 
the  separate  impulses  received  by  each  kite  on  the  wire.  The  velocity 
of  this  drift  has  almost  always  been  too  great  for  the  kites  to  be  over- 
taken by  my  ship.  The  system  has  certainly  di-ifted  so  far  and  as  long 
as  the  wind  has  lasted. 

One  can  imagine  the  astonishment  of  the  crew  of  a  vessel  which 
meets  and  gets  entangled  with  such  a  wire,  apparently  suspended  from  a 
point  invisible  in  space. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  curves  furnished  by  our  instru- 
ments can  resist  a  prolonged  immersion  without  suffering  damage  when 
they  meet  with  such  an  accident.  The  curve  is  a  line  traced  by  the 
pen  on  a  layer  of  lamp-black,  deposited  on  the  cylinder  by  the  smoky 
flame  of  a  petroleum  lamp.  In  a  case  of  immersion  the  carbonaceous 
particles  disappear,  but  an  excessively  thin  coating  of  grease,  deposited 
with  the  carbon  from  the  flame,  remains  and  the  line  traced  by  the  point 
of  the  pen  is  clearly  visible  in  it  with  a  magnifying  glass. 

A  notable  instance  occurred  during  one  of  my  earliest  experiments 
in  the  Mediterranean  in  1904.  An  instrument  was  lost  to  the  north- 
ward of  Corsica,  and  was  found  on  the  shore  of  Provence  fifteen  days 
later.  The  curves  traced  in  the  greasy  film  on  the  recording  drum  Avere 
still  perfectly  visible,  and  w-ere  utilised  with  the  others  in  Professor 
Hergesell's  laboratory. 

A  kite  operation,  at  a  height  of  3000  or  4000  meters,  lasts  almost 
the  whole  day,  and  the  ship,  which  must  at  times  steam  full  speed  in 
order  to  enable  the  kites  to  pass  through  zones  of  light  wind  or  of  calm, 
may  easily  cover  a  distance  of  50  or  60  miles  during  the  operation. 

I  have  made  use  of  these  instruments  in  the  investigation  of  the 
counter-trade  of  the  northern  hemisphere  and  with  the  following 
results.  The  kites  sent  to  a  height  of  4500  meters  have  not  furnished 
any  indication  which  permitted  Professor  Hergesell  to  recognise  the 
existence  of  the  counter-trades  in  the  regions  explored,  although  their 
existence  has  often  been  reported  by  observers.  As  to  the  observation  of 
Humboldt  of  a  south-west  wind  at  the  summit  of  the  Peak  of  Tenerife, 
it  is  to  be  explained  in  another  manner.  If  one  observes,  as  I  did  in  the 
summer  of  1904,  what  takes  place  among  the  Canary  Islands  during  the 
season  of  the  trade  winds,  one  sees  sometimes  that  the  region  of  the  sea, 
which  lies  to  the  southward  of  the  higher  islands,  as  far  as  a  distance  of 
20  or  30  miles  from  their  coast,  is  swept  by  a  strong  south-westerly 
wind.     According  to  Professor  Hergesell,  this  wind  is  due  to  a  purely 


METEOROLOGICAL   RESEARCHES    IN   THE   HIGH   ATMOSPHERE.         117 

local  cause.  The  southern  slopes  of  these  islands,  bearing  little  vegeta- 
tion, exposed  to  the  rays  of  a  powerful  sun  and  sheltered  from  the  trade 
wind,  produce  a  dilatation  of  the  atmosphere  in  the  neighbourhood, 
which  rises  along  the  slopes  and  overflows  at  the  summit,  overcoming 
and,  to  a  certain  extent,  reversing  the  trade  wind.  Humboldt  and 
others  have  been  led  by  this  phenomenon  to  believe  that  they  were  in 
presence  of  the  counter-trade. 

It  would  not  occur  to  any  one  to  pretend  that  the  counter-trade  does 
not  exist.  The  masses  of  air  drawn  into  the  tropical  regions  by  the 
trade  winds  of  both  hemispheres,  must  regain  the  regions  abandoned  by 
them,  but  the  path  which  they  follow  is  still  unexplored. 

After  a  season's  work  with  kites  in  the  Atlantic,  I  resolved  to  apply 
to  the  meteorological  research  of  the  atmosphere  at  great  altitudes  above 
the  ocean,  the  system  of  ballons-sonde  which  had  already  been  giving 
excellent  results  on  the  continents.  With  the  assistance  of  Professor 
Hergesell  I  made  several  tentative  experiments  in  the  Mediterranean  in 
the  spring  of  1905,  chiefly  with  the  view  of  making  myself  familiar 
with  the  difficulties  which  such  operations  present,  and  especially  with 
reference  to  the  recovery  of  the  balloon  when  it  has  descended  again  on 
the  sea.     The  final  method  of  procedure  was  the  following. 

Two  very  light  india-rubber  balloons  were  inflated,  one  to  a  slightly 
greater  extent  than  the  other,  with  hydrogen  of  which  a  supply  was 
carried  in  steel  cylinders.  The  less  inflated  balloon  carried  the  registering 
instrument,  enclosed  in  a  small  basket,  an  instrument  analogous  to  that 
used  with  the  kites,  but  more  complete,  as  well  as  a  float  suspended  at  the 
end  of  a  line  50  meters  long.  The  more  inflated  balloon  was  connected 
with  the  other  by  a  line  also  50  meters  in  length.  Its  function  was, 
first,  to  facilitate  the  ascent  by  rendering  the  necessary  assistance  to  the 
other  balloon  and,  afterwards,  to  facilitate  its  descent  with  the 
registering  instrument  by  quitting  it  at  the  altitude  determined  before- 
hand by  the  degree  of  inflation  given,  on  which  depends  the  height  at 
which  the  balloon  burst.  The  first  balloon,  now  become  a  simple 
parachute,  brought  the  instrument  back  towards  the  sea,  above  which  it 
remained  floating  so  soon  as  the  float  at  the  end  of  the  stray  line 
touched  the  surface  of  the  water.  In  this  way,  the  basket  containing 
the  instrument  was  kept  clear  of  the  waves,  and  the  balloon  remained 
visible  at  a  distance  of  8  to  10  miles.  During  the  ascent  it  was 
necessary  to  make  observations  as  often  as  possible  with  the  sextant  and 
the  compass  so  as  to  fix  the  altitude  and  azimuth  of  the  balloons  at 
diff"erent  instants  with  a  view  to  establishing  the  route  followed  through 
the  air,  and  thus  to  obtain  the  elements  for  arriving  at  a  knowledge  of 
the  strength  and  direction  of  the  aerial  currents  in  the  diff'erent  layers 
traversed.  It  must  be  understood  that  the  ship  was  following  the 
system  at  full  speed,  in  order  not  to  lose  sight  of  it,  a  result  which  was 
obtained,  thanks  not  only  to  the  excellent  prismatic  glasses  used,  but 
also  to  the  keenness  of  sight  of  some  of  the  observers.  An  operation 
of  this  kind  was  possible  only  in  very  clear  weather,  because  the 
disappearance  of  the  balloons  behind  a  cloud  would  have  made  very 
doubtful  the  discovery  of  the  place  where  they  fell. 


Fig.  1. — Filling  tlie  balloon  ami  stoijpiiig  up  small  holes. 


Fig.  2. — The  instruments  coming  safely  on  board. 


Fig.  3.— End  of  the  experiment,  the  balloon  returning  on  board 
with  the  baskets  for  the  instruments. 


A  BALLOON  EXPERIMENT. 


METEOROLOGICAL   RESEARCHES    IN    THE   HIGH   ATMOSPHERE,         119 

In  these  conditions  I  made  a  cruise  of  5500  miles  in  1905  in  the 
Atlantic,  during  which  eighteen  experiments  were  made  with  balloons 
up  to  a  height  of  14,000  meters,  of  which  most  were  successful,  and 
confirmed  the  conclusion  of  the  previous  year  with  regard  to  the 
counter  trade-wind,  arrived  at  with  kites  used  at  lesser  elevations. 

But  this  method  presented  various  grave  difficulties;  first,  the 
recovery  of  the  balloon  if  it  liad  been  sent  to  a  great  height,  and  second, 
the  exact  fixation  of  the  point  Avhere  the  ascent  of  the  balloon  would  be 
stopped  by  the  bursting  of  the  subsidiary  balloon.  In  fact,  any  fault  in 
the  india-rubber  of  which  the  balloon  was  made  might  advance  or 
retard  the  time  of  explosion.  From  the  year  1905  we  have  sought  to 
remedy  these  difficulties,  and  have  succeeded  as  follows. 

In  the  first  place,  we  can  now  recover  the  balloon  with  its  instrument, 
no  matter  what  may  be  the  distance  of  the  point  where  it  reaches  the 
sea.  Relying  on  the  fact  that,  from  its  culminating  point  down  to  the 
surface  of  the  sea,  the  system  passes  through  meteorological  conditions 
which  are  sensibly  similar  to  those  which  it  had  met  with  during  its 
ascent,  we  have  established  a  formula  which  permits  us,  if  we  have 
followed  the  balloons  during  the  greater  part  of  their  ascent,  to  trace 
rapidly  on  the  chart  the  route  which  the  ballon  parachute  will 
follow  during  its  descent,  and  consequently,  the  point  of  the  sea  where 
it  will  fall.  The  ship  can  now  be  steered  for  this  point  without  the 
necessity  of  following  the  balloon.  Our  formula  has  afforded  us  the 
means  of  finding  the  balloon  on  all  occasions  when  its  course  has  not 
been  disturbed  by  accidental  causes.  We  made  the  first  successful  use 
of  the  formula  in  the  summer  of  1905, 

In  the  second  place,  we  can  now  arrest  the  ascent  of  the  balloons  at 
the  desired  height.  The  bursting  of  the  subsidiary  balloon  is  no  longer 
used  on  my  ship  for  this  purpose.  It  presents  some  irregularities,  which 
however  do  not  affect  the  validity  of  the  results  obtained,  because  the 
barometer  indicates  with  precision  the  altitudes  traversed.  The  sub- 
sidiary balloon  is  now  detached  from  the  system  altogether  at  the  desired 
height  by  the  action  of  the  electric  current  furnished  by  a  small  dry 
cell  on  a  spring,  which  takes  effect  the  moment  the  pen  of  the  recording 
barometer  touches  a  conductor  set  for  the  desired  altitude.  In  order  to 
be  sure  that  the  cell  will  act  at  the  great  altitudes  where  the  cold  is 
intense,  it  is  surrounded  by  a  calorific  envelope,  Avhich  does  not  require 
to  be  very  powerful,  because  the  balloons,  having  a  velocity  of  ascent  of 
300  meters  per  minute,  attain  these  heights  very  rapidly.  We  made 
the  first  application  of  this  method  in  1905. 

But  the  baUons-sonde  are  not  the  only  apparatus  which  we  have 
employed,  along  with  kites,  for  investigating  the  phenomena  of  which 
the  high  atmosphere  is  the  seat.  In  certain  circumstances,  for  instance, 
when  the  sky  is  covered  with  clouds,  or  if  the  vicinity  of  inhospitable 
land  makes  it  unlikely  that  balloons  would  be  recovered,  we  have  used 
captive  balloons,  sent  to  moderate  heights.  A  ballon-sonde  was  fixed 
to  the  end  of  the  very  light  wire  of  the  kites,  and  when  it  had  reached 
the  greatest  elevation  which  its  ascensional  force,  diminished  by  the 
weight  of  the  wire,  permitted,  a  second  balloon  was  allowed  to  slip  up 


120  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

along  the  wire  which,  when  it  arrived  near  the  first,  gave  the  system  a 
fresh  charge  of  ascensional  force  and  permitted  it  to  rise  higher.  In 
this  way  we  sent  a  group  of  three  or  four  balloons,  selected  from  those 
which  had  served  as  baUons-sonde.  Having  already  been  exposed  to  very 
great  dilatation  in  the  high  atmosphere,  it  was  not  thought  safe  to  use 
them  for  this  purpose  again.  The  recording  instrument  was  attached 
to  the  last  balloon,  which  could  then  ascend  along  the  wire  with  a 
velocity  sufficient  to  afford  adequate  ventilation  for  the  thermometer. 
In  this  connection  I  may  observe  that  the  use  of  lallons-sonde 
offers  very  considerable  advantages  over  that  of  the  kites,  by  the 
exactness  of  the  temperatures  registered,  which  is  due  to  the  ventilation 
which  the  thermometer,  placed  in  a  sort  of  chimney,  receives  during  the 
ascent.     The  ascent  also  is  effected  at  a  much  higher  speed. 

We  have  also  launched  pilot  balloons,  which  sever  all  connection 
with  those  who  dispatch  them.  They  rise  to  prodigious  heights  and 
disappear  for  ever.  They  carry  no  instruments,  but  they,  furnish 
valuable  information  regarding  the  direction  and  the  violence  of  the 
aerial  currents  in  the  highest  regions  of  the  atmosphere.  The  following 
is  the  manner  of  their  employment. 

The  weather  being  clear  and  otherwise  favourable,  three  observers, 
— forming  a  triple  alliance — land  on  the  shore  of  a  continent  or  of  an 
island.  They  take  with  them  a  small  balloon  inflated  to  a  diameter  of 
not  more  than  one  meter,  and  a  theodolite,  the  telescope  of  which  is 
especially  powerful.  The  balloon  may,  however,  be  retained  on  board 
to  be  launched  at  a  given  signal  from  the  shore. 

The  theodolite  used  by  Professor  Hergesell,  if  established  on  solid 
ground,  permits  the  observer  to  follow  the  balloon  without  losing  sight 
of  it,  whilst  his  two  assistants  read  and  note,  every  half  minute,  the 
angles  furnished. 

Finally,  in  1906,  we  have  attempted,  and  with  success,  a  third 
method  which  allows  a  certain  amount  of  exploration  of  the  atmosphere, 
notwithstanding  the  presence  of  clouds,  but  with  a  clear  horizon.  It 
is  then  necessary  to  furnish  the  balloon  with  means  capable  only  of 
taking  it  to  such  an  altitude  that  it  can  regain  the  surface  of  the  sea  at 
a  distance  which  does  not  exceed  the  limits  of  visibility.  The  ship  is 
then  stopped  on  the  spot  where  the  balloon  was  started,  and  attentive 
observers  watch  all  directions  in  order  to  detect  its  return  from  above 
the  clouds.  The  only  experiment  of  this  kind  Avhich  we  have  made, 
succeeded  perfectly,  and  the  balloon,  which  had  reached  a  height  of 
4800  meters  on  a  day  when  the  sky  was  completely  covered  by  very 
low  clouds,  was  detected  and  recovered  at  a  distance  of  twelve 
miles. 

Now,  what  results  have  been  furnished  by  this  new  use  of  balloons 
over  the  sea  ]  It  is,  after  the  first  exploration  made  with  them  in  the 
region  of  the  trade  winds  during  the  cruise  of  1905,  towards  the  high 
atmosphere  of  the  arctic  regions  that  I  have  carried  on  my  investigations 
to  increase  these  results.  I  therefore  took  measures,  in  concert  with 
Professor  Hergesell,  so  as  to  be  able  to  make  the  best  use  of  the  oppor- 
tunities offered  by  my  cruise  of  1906.     The  balloons,  the  instruments, 


Terminal  ice-face  of  a  Spitsbergen  glacier. 


.^i-^^r^- 


Norwegian  party's  camp  on  Spitsbergen — Captain  Isacliseu  and 
Dr.  Louet  in  their  tent. 


iVL. 


mil 


Flying  a  kite. 


METEOROLOGICAL   RESEARCHES   IN   THE   HIGH   ATMOSPHERE.         121 

and  the  methods  afforded  a  better  guarantee  of  successful  results  than 
in  1905. 

But  I  was  much  hampered  in  the  execution  of  one  part  of  my 
programme  by  the  persistent  fogs  over  the  sea  to  the  westward  of 
Spitsbergen,  although  in  the  bays  and  on  land  the  Aveather  was 
magnificent.  Thus  the  dispatch  of  hallons-sonde  which  the  pre- 
liminary experiments  in  the  Mediterranean  had  rendered  perfect  of 
execution  was  stopped  by  this  unsurmountable  difficulty.  Twice  only 
was  it  possible  to  dispatch  them.  Nevertheless  the  information  received 
is  not  without  value,  since  our  registering  instruments  have  brought 
back  curves  from  an  altitude  of  7500  meters  in  latitude  78°  55'  N. 

In  presence  of  continual  fog  at  sea  and  the  impossibility  of  launching 
usefully  hallons-sonde  in  the  neighbourhood  of  inhabited  lands,  we 
have  frequently  employed  our  hallons-sonde  as  captive  balloons,  as  I 
have  already  explained. 

But  our  best  results  have  been  realised  with  pilot  balloons  :  these 
instruments,  which  are  small  enough  to  be  embraced  by  the  arms  of  a 
man,  have  been  followed  with  a  special  theodolite  to  the  extraordinary 
altitude  of  29,800  meters  (97,700  ft.),  if  it  is  assumed  that  their  velocity 
of  ascent  increased  a  little  with  the  change  of  density  of  the  atmosphere 
in  the  most  elevated  regions  ;  or  at  the  very  least  to  an  altitude  of 
25,000  meters  (82,000  ft.).  Further,  the  one  which  attained  this  height 
was,  at  the  moment  of  its  disappearance,  at  a  distance  of  80  kilometers 
(49i  miles)  from  the  observers.  So  remarkable  a  result  is  explained 
by  the  transparence  of  the  atmosphere  in  the  Arctic  regions,  a  trans- 
parence which  under  other  circumstances  permitted  us  to  follow  distinctly 
on  the  snow  of  a  glacier,  at  a  distance  of  40  kilometers,  the  movements 
of  a  party  of  four  persons  whom  I  had  sent  on  a  mission  of  exploration 
in  the  interior  of  Spitsbergen. 

The  information  furnished  by  the  pilot  balloons  which  carry  no 
instrument  because  they  are  sacrificed,  concerns  questions  of  capital 
importance  for  meteorology ;  the  direction  and  the  velocity  of  the  upper 
currents.  Now  our  pilot  balloons  of  1906  have  taught  us  that  there 
exists  in  the  Arctic  regions  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  80th  parallel, 
at  a  height  of  about  13,600  meters,  certain  winds  of  60  meters  per 
second  (132  miles  per  hour),  a  force  for  which  we  have  no  equivalent 
at  the  surface  of  the  globe.     Their  direction  was  S.  68°  W. 

The  theodolite  which  we  employ  permits  the  two  assistants  of  the 
one  who  observes  the  balloon  while  keeping  it  continually  in  the  axis  of 
the  telescope  to  note  at  every  moment  its  position  in  space,  its  altitude 
as  well  as  its  path,  and  the  velocity  of  the  currents  which  it  traverses 
from  its  departure  to  its  disappearance. 

We  made  thirty  explorations  of  the  high  atmosphere  in  the  arctic 
region  of  Spitsbergen  in  1906,  and  twenty-six  in  the  Atlantic  ocean  or  in 
the  Mediterranean  in  1905;  and  the  results  of  these  cruises  show  that 
if  the  principal  states  of  the  Av^orld  were  willing  to  diminish  a  little  the 
expense  of  international  quarrels  by  submitting  them  to  the  judgment 
of  a  tribunal  less  costly  than  that  of  war,  and  if  they  preserved  more  of 
their  resources   for  the   veritable  interests  of  humanity,  it  would   be 


122  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

possible  with  powerful  means,  very  soon  to  ascertain  the  laws  of 
meteorology,  the  key  of  which  seems  to  be  found  in  the  higher  atmo- 
spheric regions.  It  remains  only  to  add  that  Germany  has  just  sent  to 
the  Atlantic  and  the  Indian  oceans  a  special  ship,  the  Flanet,  to  con- 
tinue and  extend  my  aerial  explorations.  On  the  other  hand,  Messrs. 
Teisserenc  de  Bort  and  Rotch  have  fitted  out  and  used  during  1905  and 
1906  a  ship  of  their  own  for  this  purpose. 

I  am  also  very  pleased  to  mention  the  share  taken  in  my  three 
Arctic  expeditions  by  one  of  your  Scottish  meteorologists  who  has  become 
a  distinguished  oceanographer,  Mr.  W.  S.  Bruce,  the  leader  of  your  fine 
Antarctic  expedition  of  the  Scotia,  one  of  the  most  fruitful  of  those  which 
have  explored  that  region  in  the  last  few  years,  and  one  whose  success 
is  the  more  pleasing  to  your  country  because  it  was  carried  out  at  very 
moderate  financial  expense.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  future  will 
permit  him  to  continue  his  scientific  work.  This  year  Mr.  Bruce  again 
accompanied  nie  with  two  assistants  to  the  Arctic  regions  to  undertake 
the  exploration  of  a  large  island  off  Spitsbergen,  Prince  Charles  Foreland. 
He  carried  this  work  out  under  weather  conditions  as  unfavourable  for 
the  work  of  survey  as  for  navigation. 


THE   TRANSITION   OF   BRITISH   AFRICA.^ 

By  Major  A.  St.  H.  Gibbons,  F.R.G.S. 

{JFith  Illustrations.) 

My  first  endeavour  this  evening  will  be  to  give  a  general  description  of 
natural  Africa  as  it  appears  to  the  eye  of  the  average  observer  travelling 
from  the  extreme  south  of  the  continent  to  Egypt.  By  recalling  points 
and  places  of  interest  as  they  appeared  to  me,  I  shall  hope  to  convey  a 
tolerably  accurate  impression  of  each  successive  district  traversed,  the 
more  obvious  physical  and  climatic  changes  noticeable  as  the  journey 
progresses,  as  well  as  any  casual  point  of  interest  that  may  occur.  Since 
impressions  acquired,  as  well  as  impressions  conveyed,  are  so  largely 
subject  to  modification  or  exaggeration  in  proportion  to  the  degree  of 
imagination  influencing  all  the  temperaments  concerned,  I  cannot  hope  to 
be  universally  successful  in  this  respect,  but  where  I  fail  the  photographs 
you  will  be  shown  will  to  some  extent  have  a  corrective  influence.  On 
arrival  in  Egypt  we  will  pass  on  to  a  discussion  on  the  British  Colonies 
and  Protectorates  of  Africa,  most  of  which  lie  on  the  route  we  follow. 

The  Cape  Peninsula,  with  its  congenial  climate,  productive  soil,  and 
picturesque  scenery,  takes  a  high  place  amongst  the  more  favoured  spots 
of  this  world.  The  visitor  driving  through  the  suburbs  cannot  fail  to 
be  impressed  by  the  noble  avenues  of  oaks,  which  in  height  at  least 
would  dwarf  their  sires  of  Europe  if  placed  side  by  side  with  them,  or 
by  the  extensive  plantations  of  firs  and  pines  from  many  parts  of  the 
world  which  grace  the  slopes  of  Table  Mountain,  a  perfecting  touch 

1  An  Address  delivered  before  the  Society  in  Edinburgh  on  December  12,  1906. 


Scc_itti>l]  |iari\  lt':\.vmg  Frincesse  A/(i:v  lui  I'liuce  Lli.uka  i>Muiai..i. 


Scuttisli  Assistant!^.  Nuiwei-'iim  Assistciuts. 

A.  Fuhrmeister.        A.  Fabrienta.  L.  Tinavre.  H.S.H.  Lieut.  Staxeiuii. 

Captaiu       Dr.  Richard.        Dr.  Portier.  Dr.  Loiiet.        Capt.        The  Prince    AV.  S.  F.ruce.    t'aiit.  Cavr. 

Bouriie.  Prof.  Hergesell.      Isachsen.     of  Monaco. 


THE   TRANSITION   OF   BRITISH   AFRICA.  123 

added  by  mau,  but  unthought  of  by  nature  when  she  created  one  of  the 
grandest  and  most  beautiful  monuments  of  scenery  to  be  found  all  the 
world  over.  The  indigenous  tree-growth  of  the  Peninsula  is  both 
sparse  and  scrubby,  but  it  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  when  replaced  by 
imported  stock  these  thrive  much  more  luxuriantly  than  in  their  native 
soil.  The  older  trees,  especially  the  oaks,  owe  their  existence  to  the 
Dutch  governments  of  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries.  With 
admirable  forethought  an  "arbor  day"  was  instituted,  on  successive 
anniversaries  of  which  each  colonist  was  by  law  required  to  plant  at 
least  one  tree  for  himself  and  one  for  each  member  of  his  family. 

Both  soil  and  climate  are  particularly  well  adapted  to  the  cultivation 
of  the  grape.  The  government  takes  a  leading  interest  in  the  wine 
industry,  and  at  Constautia,  formerly  the  official  seat  of  the  Dutch 
governors,  the  grape  is  produced  and  wine  made  under  the  best  expert 
supervision.  If  all  wine  grown  at  the  Cape  was  up  to  the  government 
sample,  the  attempt  made  to  introduce  Cape  wines  into  England  a  few 
years  ago  would  not  have  failed.  Fruit  has  been  grown  for  many 
generations,  but  it  was  not  until  the  early  nineties  that  high-class  fruit 
was  introduced.  Pears  and  stone  fruits  of  the  very  best  quality  are  now 
being  successfully  cultivated  in  ever-increasing  quantities. 

Leaving  Cape  Town  by  rail,  a  few  hours  introduces  the  traveller  to 
the  bold,  rugged  scenery  of  the  Hex  River  Mountains.  These  rise  in 
what  appears  to  be  a  long  range  extending  out  of  view  to  east  and  west. 
In  reality  these  mountains,  which  are  about  4000  feet  in  altitude,  form 
the  escarpment  of  the  great  plateau  which  stretches  northwards  through 
the  heart  of  the  continent  to  within  a  short  march  of  the  Victoria  Nile, 
where  it  falls  away  to  the  level  of  the  Upper  Nile  basin  in  two  escarp- 
ments. The  Hex  River  Mountains,  as  one  would  expect,  separate  two 
very  different  climates.  To  the  south  rains  fall  practically  in  the  winter 
months  only.  At  this  season  on  the  plateau  a  bright,  clear  sky,  almost 
without  a  cloud,  is  the  invariable  rule.  In  June  and  July  night  frosts 
are  severe,  and  I  have  known  snow  to  lie  in  some  of  the  higher  altitudes 
for  several  days.  In  September — the  early  spring — the  wet  season  is 
heralded  by  occasional  heavy  thunderstorms,  which  increase  in  frequency 
as  the  summer  progresses.  As  far  as  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Orange 
River  this  plateau  land  is  remarkable  for  the  almost  total  absence  of 
grass,  but  a  very  useful  substitute  exists  in  the  growth  of  the  little 
karroo  bush,  a  small  plant  not  unlike  some  heathers  in  appearance,  which 
rivals  the  best  sheep  pastures  in  the  world.  Barren  and  monotonous  to 
the  eye  as  the  karroo  veldt  is  throughout  the  winter  months,  it  responds 
to  the  first  September  rains  with  remarkable  suddenness,  when  its  young 
green  shoots,  mingling  with  many-coloured  wildflowers,  convert  it  into  a 
great  natural  carpet  of  delicate  tints. 

In  Griqualand  West  and  Bechuanaland  proper  the  Karroo  is  replaced 
by  undulating  grass  downs,  and  here  sheep  give  place  to  cattle.  Until 
three  miles  beyond  Mafeking  scarce  anything  arboreal  more  shady  or 
imposing  than  our  own  gooseberry  bush  is  to  be  seen.  At  one  time 
stunted  acacias  were  not  uncommon  between  Vryburg  and  Kimberley, 
but  these  rapidly  disappeared  before  the  demand  for  wood  in  the  early 


124  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

life  of  the  latter  town.  From  this  point,  however,  forest  in  one  form  or 
another  is  general,  and  plain  land  quite  the  exception,  to  within  a  short 
distance  of  Khartum.  In  Bechuanaland  the  soil  is  largely  of  a  red 
laterite.  This  covers  a  far  greater  area  of  the  plateau  land  of  Africa 
than  all  other  soils.  In  South  Africa  it  is  patchy,  as  it  is  north  of  the 
Zambezi  until  within  a  couple  of  degrees  of  the  Congo-Zambezi  water- 
shed, from  which  point  it  is  general  right  throughout  the  high  ground  of 
the  Congo  Free  State,  British  and  German  East  Africa,  as  well  as 
Uganda.  The  savannah  forest  of  the  Bechuanaland  Protectorate  is 
mainly  composed  of  acacias  of  different  varieties,  but  in  the  north,  where 
the  red  soil  gives  place  to  a  yellow  loam,  as  also  in  the  yellov/  sand  of 
the  Kalahari,  considerable  patches  of  mopani  are  encountered.  This 
tree,  the  leaves  of  which  when  viewed  from  a  short  distance  remind  one 
of  the  English  beech,  and  which  like  the  beech  retains  many  dried  leaves 
after  the  green  shoots  have  burst,  is  a  hard,  useful  wood,  the  red  heart 
of  which  is  rendered  especially  valuable  on  account  of  its  being  imper- 
vious to  the  ravages  of  the  white  ant.  The  Bechuanaland  Protectorate 
is  the  poorest  province  of  British  Africa  through  which  my  wanderings 
have  led  me.  It  is  true  that  cattle  do  well  in  certain  districts,  but  even 
then  a  wide  acreage  is  necessary  to  support  a  small  herd.  The  rainfall 
is  small  and  uncertain,  and  there  is  evidence  that  it  is  less  than  it  was 
twenty-five  years  ago.     Droughts  are  of  frequent  occurrence. 

'Next  we  enter  the  Kalahari  Desert.  Though  the  rainfall  is  even 
less  than  in  the  Protectorate,  averaging  only  six  or  seven  inches,  the 
Kalahari  is  misnamed  a  desert.  The  sandy  undulations  are  covered 
with  savannah  forest  and  a  fair  admixture  of  good  cattle  pasture. 
"  "Wilderness  "  is  a  more  appropriate  descriptive  term  in  this  case,  and 
such  it  will  remain  until  the  population  of  South  Africa  has  so  far 
increased  as  to  extend  the  margin  of  cultivation  to  such  a  country  as 
this,  where  the  absence  of  surface  water  can  only  be  made  good  by  tap- 
ping the  hidden  reservoirs  below  ground.  So  porous  is  the  sandy  soil  of 
this  great  wilderness,  that  so  great  a  river  as  the  Okovango,  which  in 
19°  S.  lat.  is  a  strong,  deep  stream  two  or  three  hundred  yards  wide,  and 
at  flood  time  inundates  a  valley  20  miles  broad  with  an  average  of  c^uite 
3  feet  of  water,  is  60  miles  further  little  more  than  a  trickling  stream, 
and  in  the  dry  season  disappears  altogether.  That  this  was  not  always 
so  is  proved  by  the  existence  of  beds  leading  to  Lake  Ngami  which 
could  not  have  been  created  under  present  conditions.  The  rivers 
which  fed  the  lake  when  Livingstone  discovered  it  could  not  have  been 
larger  before  entering  the  sand  area  than  they  are  to-day.  Yet  then 
Ngami  was  a  wide  stretch  of  water  extending  beyond  view,  while  ten 
years  ago  it  was  but  a  small  reed  swamp.  It  is  said  that  the  lake  within 
the  last  few  years  has  shown  signs  of  refilling.  The  eastern  confines  of 
the  Kalahari  and  the  Avestern  boundary  of  Matabeleland  are  conterminous, 
and  here  the  conditions  alter  for  the  better,  the  country  becoming  for 
the  most  part  undulating,  well-watered  plateau.  More  striking,  however, 
is  the  change  experienced  on  crossing  the  Zambezi,  the  watershed  of 
which,  lying  only  a  few  miles  south  of  the  river,  marks  the  northern 
limit  of  the  Kalahari.     After  toiling  for  five  weeks  through  deep  sand. 


THE  TRANSITION   OF   BRITISH   AFRICA. 


125 


under  conditions  which  make  a  twelve-mile  day's  journey  a  most  satis- 
factory performance,  it  can  be  imagined  with  what  feelings  of  exhilaration 
the  eyes  first  rest  on  that  noble  stream  of  clear,  deep  water.  Here  we 
are  on  the  threshold  of  Central  Africa,  and  enter  a  sub- tropical  country 
differing  from  South  Africa  in  many  of  its  characteristics.  The  natives 
are  quite  distinct,  vegetation  has  undergone  a  considerable  change,  and 
the  shadeless,  thorny  acacia  is  replaced  by  comely  trees  from  25  to 
40  feet  high,  according  to  the  district  in  which  they  grow.  The 
northern  Zambezi's  affluents,  and  even  their  small  tributaries  in  the 
upper  river  basin,  i.e,  those  entering  above  the  Victoria  Falls,  unlike 
those  in  South  Africa,  carry  water  throughout  the  year.  The  Zambezi 
also  forms  a  limit  to  the  habitat  of  several  species  of  game.  The  giraffe, 
the  ostrich,  the  tsessebe,  the  gemsbuck,  the  South  African  waterbuck,  and 
the  red  hartebeest,  though  found  in  some  cases  in  large  numbers  near 
the  right  bank,  are  unknown  on  the  left.  On  the  other  hand  Crawshay's 
waterbuck  and  Lichenstein's  hartebeest  are  only  found  beyond  the 
Zambezi,  while  the  Pookoo,  Lechwe,  and  Situtunga,  being  river  animals 
and  consequently  not  limited  by  water  boundaries,  are  found  on  the 
western  tributaries,  and  have  followed  the  Okovango  to  Lake  Ngami. 
These  are  very  common  to  the  north  and  east  of  the  river,  and  essentially 
belong  to  that  country.  The  soil  of  the  Upper  Zambezi  basin  is,  I 
believe,  peculiar  to  itself.  It  is  a  white,  large-grained  sand,  which,  when 
washed  clear  of  alluvium,  is  snowlike  in  apjiearance.  Everlasting 
undulations  of  it  extend  from  about  17''  30'  to  12°  S.  lat.,  and,  roughly 
speaking,  from  the  western  water-parting  of  the  Kafue  system  to  beyond 
the  Kwito.  This  prac- 
tically embraces  the 
whole  of  the  Upper 
Zambezi  basin,  lying 
above  SOOOandbelow 
4000  feet  in  altitude, 
as  well  as  that  of  the 
Okovango,  which,  on 
evidence  I  published 
five  years  ago,  seems 
to  have  been  part  of 
the  Zambezi  system 
not  many  centuries 
past.  Just  as  the 
Barotse  Plain,  which 
undoubtedly  was 
once  the  basin  of 
a    large     lake,    was 

drained  dry  by  the  erosive  action  of  its  water  on  the  confining 
hills  below  the  Gonye  Falls,  so  is  there  evidence  that  at  a  still  earlier 
period  the  whole  of  this  white  sand  area  was  the  site  of  a  great  freshwater 
inland  sea,  until  centuries  of  erosion  had  gradually  eaten  a  way  through 
the  mountainous  region  extending  for  over  100  miles  eastwards  from  the 
Victoria  Falls,  and  in  doing  so  created  the  series  of  narrow  rocky  gorges 


Fig.  1. — The  L'uuslaacc,  the  first  steamer  placed  ou  the  Zambezi 
between  the  Kebrabasa  Rapids  and  the  Victoria  Falls. 


126  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

through  which  the  river  passes  to-day.  The  Batoka  Plateau  on  the 
east,  and  the  southern  slopes  on  the  long  ridge  which  divides  the  Congo 
and  Zambezi  systems,  is  the  commencement  of  the  great  northern 
expanse  of  red  loam  alluded  to  above.  From  the  west  of  the  line  of  the 
great  mountain  region  stretching  from  Lake  Mweru  to  Lake  Albert  until 
the  dense  forests  in  the  centre  of  the  Congo  basin  are  reached,  the 
general  character  of  the  vegetation  varies  but  little  from  that  of  Barotse- 
land.  The  same  undulating  ground  continues,  and  the  same  class  of  tree 
is  found  on  all  sides.  The  journey  northwards  from  Mweru  to  Tangan- 
yika, and  thence  through  Kivu,  Albert  Edward,  and  Victoria  to  Albert, 
is  particularly  interesting.  Of  these  lakes,  three  at  least  are  victims  of 
the  same  gradual  erosive  action  which  in  centuries  gone  by  deprived  the 
Zambezi  of  its  great  lakes.  Before  the  narrow  Luapula  outlet  from 
Lake  Mweru  had  commenced  to  eat  away  the  rocks  at  the  base  of  the 
valley  through  which  it  flows,  the  lake  must  have  been  at  least  four 
times  its  present  area,  and  at  a  still  earlier  period  was  probably  one 
with  Lake  Bengueulu.  On  Tanganyika  the  palm-tree  to  which,  accord- 
ing to  native  report,  Livingstone  tied  his  boat  on  his  journey  up  the 
lake,  now  stands  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  shore,  in  the  gardens  of 
the  Jesuit  Mission  Station  at  M'pala,  and,  so  far  as  I  could  judge,  25  feet 
above  water-level.  Tiiis  gives  an  annual  lowering  of  10  inches  in  the 
lake  surface.  The  Lukugu  outlet,  through  which  I  subsequently  waded 
knee-deep,  passes  over  a  sand-bar,  beyond  which  there  is  a  steep  decline, 
so  we  may  expect  the  same  lowering  process  to  continue  until  the  bed- 
rock is  reached.  Kivu,  by  thousands  of  years  the  youngest  of  all  these 
lakes,  seems  to  have  remained  much  the  same  in  this  respect  as  on  the 
day  when  Avater  first  filled  the  great  basin  erected  by  one  of  the  earth's 
mightiest  upheavals.  On  the  other  hand  Albert  Edward,  where  the 
Semliki  leaves  it,  has  been  subject  to  an  influence  similar  to  that  exerted 
on  Mweru.  In  general  appearance  each  lake  has  its  charm,  and  each  is 
in  character  distinct  from  the  rest.  Mweru  leaves  on  the  mind  an 
impression  of  peace.  The  southern  shores  are  low-lying  and  reed-girt, 
but  gradually  these  give  place  to  wooded  undulations,  and  later  to  larger 
hills  sloping  to  the  water's  edge.  The  north,  like  the  south,  lies  low, 
but  is  more  gravelly  and  consequently  less  swampy.  "  Grand  "  is  the 
word  that  best  describes  Tanganyika,  with  its  great  mountain  ranges 
rising  to  many  thousand  feet  skywards.  Kivu  is  perhaps  the  gem  of  all, 
with  a  water  surface  4900  feet  above  the  sf  a-level ;  its  serrated  shores,  as 
well  as  those  of  the  large  island  of  Kwijwi,  rise  in  steep  slopes,  which  on 
the  mainland  are  finally  merged  in  the  great  mountains  behind.  The 
land  is  rich  and  open,  the  air  fresh  and  bracing.  It  is  said  that  this 
district  contains  no  malarial  microbes,  and  certainly  the  water  harbours 
neither  hippopotami  nor  crocodile.  It  is  the  one  large  piece  of  African 
water  into  which  one  can  plunge  with  perfect  equanimity. 

Albert  Edward  has  a  certain  charm  of  its  own.  Though  the 
approach  from  the  south  into  the  reed-begirt  swamps  that  bound  the 
lake  gives  the  traveller  an  unfavourable  first  impression,  as  these  un- 
congenial surroundings  are  replaced  by  the  mountainous  Avails  of  the 
north  and  west  and  the  w^ooded  undulations  of  the  north-east,  his  earlier 


THE   TRANSITION   OF   BRITISH   AFRICA.  127 

disappointment  vanishes.  The  water  of  the  lake  is  slightly  brackish 
and  of  a  yellowish  tinge,  but  is  not  undrinkable.  The  southern  ex- 
tremity forms  a  rendezvous  for  innumerable  hippopotami,  which  find  an 
ideal  feeding  ground  close  by.  Lake  Albert,  extending  as  it  does  from 
the  base  of  the  Ruwenzori  Range — the  Mountains  of  the  Moon — and 
bordering  the  Torn  and  Unyoro  plateau,  which  falls  from  over  4000  to 
2400  feet  into  the  lake  itself,  is  a  noble  and  Avell-favoured  stretch  of 
water.  Compared  with  Tanganyika  it  might  be  said  that  Lake  Albert 
is  more  picturesque  than  grand. 

Lastly  we  have  Lake  Victoria,  which,  though  not  so  long  as  Tan- 
ganyika, has  a  greater  superficial  area,  and  by  virtue  of  its  more  basin- 
like shape  is  the  only  one  of  the  six  lakes  referred  to  which  can  be 
accurately  described  as  an  inland  sea.  On  Victoria  alone  is  it  possible 
to  be  in  such  a  position  as  to  be  quite  out  of  sight  of  land  even  on  a 
clear  day.  The  shores  of  the  lake,  with  its  innumerable  bays,  trees 
growing  to  the  water's  edge,  and  an  undulating  background,  are  very 
beautiful  in  places  and  are  sometimes  lashed  by  sealike  waves,  a  charac- 
teristic which  Victoria  shares  with  Tanganyika,  as  I  once  learned  very 
nearly  at  the  cost  of  my  life. 

From  Nyasa  there  is,  as  is  well  known,  a  valley  extending  along  the 
line  of  the  great  lakes.  As  one  passes  northwards  there  is  daily  evidence 
in  both  soil  and  other  physical  features  of  the  volcanic  origin  of  this 
great  lake  district,  and  between  Tanganyika  and  Albert  Edward  this  is 
particularly  evident,  especially  to  the  north  of  Kivu,  where  the  lava  from 
a  recent  eruption  of  one  of  the  Umfumbira  mountains  still  lies  black  and 
bare  over  what  within  the  memory  of  living  natives  was  inhabited  forest- 
land.  The  tree-growth  between  Tanganyika  and  Kivu  is  stunted  and 
scant.  In  the  bed  of  the  valley  the  thorny  shadeless  acacia  and  the  stiff 
symmetrical  euphorbia  are  alone  seen,  while  to  the  north  of  Kivu  the 
valley  is  practically  treeless  until  within  a  few  miles  of  Lake  Albert 
Edward  a  savannah,  which  smacks  of  South  Africa,  is  encountered.  The 
downs  round  Kivu  and  on  the  plateau  of  Torn  are  covered  with  elephant 
grass  which  stands  far  above  the  height  of  man,  and  through  which 
progress  would  be  almost  impossible  were  it  not  for  cleared  paths. 
Unyoro,  the  district  which  lies  in  the  angle  formed  by  the  eastern  banks 
of  Lake  Albert  and  the  Victoria  Nile,  is  identical  in  character  with  the 
Bechuanaland  Protectorate,  as  is  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Upper  Nile 
beyond  the  swamps  of  that  pestilential  and  unprepossessing  section  of 
the  great  river  which  lower  down  is  so  profoundly  interesting  and 
useful.  The  same  class  of  vegetation  reaches  to  within  a  feAv  miles  of 
Khartum,  Avhere  it  is  replaced  by  the  grassless  dry  desert  of  Egypt. 
Not  only  are  these  northern  latitudes  similar  to  the  south,  although 
separated  by  2000  miles  of  very  different  country,  but  there  is  also  a 
striking  resemblance  between  much  of  the  fauna  of  these  two  extremities 
of  the  continent.  The  Giraffe,  whose  habitat  in  the  south  is  limited  to 
the  Zambezi,  once  more  appears  here,  as  does  the  Secretary  Bird.  In 
the  north  and  south  the  Ostrich  is  identical,  though  a  different  species 
appears  in  the  intermediate  area.  Except  in  colour  the  red  hartebeest  of 
Khama's  country  closely  resembles  Jackson's  hartebeest  of  Unyoro  and 


128  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

neif^hbourhood,  and  the  White  Rhinoceros  (which  until  I  secured  his 
counterpart  on  the  Nile  six  years  ago,  was  not  known  north  of  the 
Zambezi)  apparently  does  not  exist  in  the  intermediate  area.  Many  of 
the  smaller  birds  seemed  to  take  my  mind  back  to  South  Africa,  though, 
as  I  shot  nothing  not  required  for  food,  I  can  only  record  this  fact 
as  an  impression. 

Such  in  the  main  is  a  general  summary  of  impressions  which  occur 
to  the  ordinary  observer  taking  a  walk  from  one  end  of  Africa  to  the 
other.  Up  to  1890,  and  even  later,  his  observations  would  have  been 
limited  to  the  Africa  described — the  Africa  of  all  past  ages — for  where 
his  footsteps  were  not  implanted  on  absolutely  unexplored  territory,  such 
Europeans  as  had  preceded  him  were  occasional  wanderers  like  himself 
who  had  come  and  gone  away  again. 

Xow — only  sixteen  years  later — how  changed  is  the  whole  aspect  of 
the  Continent !  This  grand  sanctuary  of  nature  is  being  rapidly  trans- 
formed. European  ideas,  experiments,  and  methods  are  permeating  the 
most  remote  regions.  In  Europe  one  has  heard  much  cant  on  the  lines 
of  the  substitution  for  barbarism  of  the  blessings  of  civilisation.  In 
Africa  the  curses  of  our  vaunted  social  progress  seem  in  places  to  loom 
so  large  as  to  almost  obscure  its  loftier  attributes.  In  pondering  over 
the  respect  and  simple  hospitality  of  which  one  was  wont  to  be  the 
recipient  at  the  hands  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  most  inaccessible  districts 

especially  those  that  had  never  previously  known  a  European — I  have 

wondered  what  those  natives  now  think  of  the  white  man  and  his 
methods ! 

But  amidst  all  this  confusion  of  ideas  my  mind  reverts  with  pride  to 
the  recollection  of  how  on  more  than  one  occasion  foes  became  friends 
on  discovering  my  British  nationality — for  from  Britishers  all  natives 
expect  and  usually  obtain  fair  play. 

To  the  same  cause  do  I  attribute  the  comparative  ease  with  which  I 
have  been  able  to  cover  long  distances — occasionally  through  districts 
by  no  means  peaceably  inclined  towards  Europeans  generally.  Since 
the  days  of  the  great  pioneer  of  modern  African  exploration,  of  whom 
Scotsmen  are  so  justly  proud,  I  believe  I  may  claim  to  be  the  first 
traveller  who  has  never  had  an  askari  or  armed  native  in  his  employ. 
My  caravans  have  seldom  exceeded  tw^euty  in  number,  and  on  no  single 
ni»ht  has  a  watch  been  kept  over  my  camp ;  and  yet  in  some  countries 
through  which  I  have  passed  the  European  officials  will  not  leave  their 
stations  without  armed  escort. 

Yet  another  memory  rises  before  me.  Early  in  1900  I  entered 
TJcranda  after  nearly  two  years  of  daily  marching.  Since  quitting  British 
territory  in  the  south  I  had  grown  so  accustomed  to  the  sight  of  women 
and  children  flying  on  my  approach,  that  the  sense  of  security  evinced 
by  the  natives  of  the  Protectorate,  and  the  respectful  manner  in  which 
both  sexes  stood  aside  and  saluted  as  I  passed  on,  were  especially 
gratifying  to  my  British  pride. 

Such  experiences  suggest,  if  they  do  not  prove,  that  no  matter  how 
disappointing  the  existing  process  of  civilising  Africa  may  be,  our  own 
system — and  what  is  still  more  important,  the  spirit  in  Avhich  effect  is 


THE   TRANSITION    OF   BRITISH   AFRICA.  129 

given  to  it — is  at  least  sympathetically  considerate  of  the  rights  and 
interests  of  the  weaker  races. 

Of  African  Crown  Colonies  and  Protectorates,  i.e.  of  British  posses- 
sions in  the  earlier  stages  of  development — there  are  three  great  groups 
—  west,  east,  and  south  central.  With  the  exception  of  very  small 
possessions  on  the  West  Coast;  a  flimsy  Foreign  Oflice  Protectorate  over 
part  of  Somaliland  proclaimed  in  1884;  and  the  granting  at  the  end  of 
1888  of  a  Royal  Charter  affecting  certain  territories  in  East  Africa 
leased  from  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar,  the  whole  of  this  new  soil,  amounting 
in  the  aggregate  to  over  2,000,000  square  miles,  has  been  broken  since 
1890.  By  the  annexation  in  1902  of  the  Transvaal  and  Orange  River 
Colonies  a  further  167,000  square  miles  fell  under  British  control. 

Though  my  travels  have  given  me  some  experience  of  every  other 
colony  in  British  Africa,  they  have  never  led  me  into  the  West  Coast 
group.  I  will  therefore  content  myself  here  by  merely  giving  one  or 
two  historical  and  economic  facts  bearing  on  their  prospects  as  a  whole. 

The  West  African  Colonies  cannot,  as  is  well  known,  be  accurately 
described  as  health  resorts,  though  the  new  acquisitions,  lying  as  they 
do  well  back  from  the  coastline,  are  by  no  means  as  unhealthy  as  the 
term  "  West  Coast  "  implies.  In  places  the  land  rises  to  eight  or  nine 
hundred  feet  above  the  sea-level,  which  though  far  below  the  altitude 
necessary  to  convert  the  tropics  into  a  climate  suitable  for  European 
colonisation  in  the  sense  of  permanent  settlement  under  conditions  of 
family  life,  is  none  the  less  sufliciently  high  to  ensure  the  existence  of 
well-drained  and  open  sites  for  government  and  other  stations. 

The  first  active  attempt  made  by  England  to  establish  a  footing  in 
Africa  took  place  as  early  as  the  year  1618,  when  English  merchants, 
having  failed  to  open  the  Gambia  to  their  trade,  landed  on  the  Gold 
Coast  and  there  erected  a  fort.  This  was  the  first  of  several  forts  and 
trading  stations  and  of  a  growing  trade.  A  trading  company  obtained 
a  charter  in  1662,  to  be  succeeded  ten  years  later  by  the  Royal  African 
Company,  and  this  in  1750  gave  place  to  the  African  Company  of 
Merchants,  which  by  Act  of  Parliament  obtained  more  extended  rights. 
In  1S21  the  settlements  of  the  Gold  Coast  were  taken  over  by  the 
Crown  and  placed  under  the  administration  of  Sierra  Leone.  In  187-4 
the  Crown  Colony  of  the  Gold  Coast  Avas  constituted  as  a  separate 
administration.  Until  1872  the  Dutch  retained  certain  territorial  and 
trading  rights,  but  were  bought  out  in  that  year,  the  Dutch  having  with- 
drawn twenty-two  years  earlier. 

In  Gambia  the  first  English  fort  was  built  on  an  island  in  the 
estuary  of  that  river  in  1686.  The  subsequent  century  was  dis- 
tinguished by  a  keen  commercial  struggle  between  the  Portuguese,  the 
French,  and  ourselves,  and  it  was  not  until  1783  that,  by  the  Treaty  of 
Versailles,  British  sovereignty  was  secured  over  the  islands  in  the 
estuary  and  a  small  mileage  on  the  mainland.  In  the  earlier  part  of 
the  seventeenth  century  the  Gold  Coast  and  Gambia  derived  their  chief 
commercial  importance  as  slave-collecting  depots  from  which  the  planta- 
tions of  America  and  the  West  Indies  were  largely  supplied.  With  the 
crusade  of  Wilberforce  a  generous  reaction  in  feeling  took  possession  of 

VOL.  XXIII.  K 


130 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 


the  people  of  these  islands,  and  many  thousands  of  slaves  were  liberated. 
In  1787  Sierra  Leone  was  acquired  by  arrangement  with  native  chiefs 
for  the  express  purpose  of  supplying  a  free  home  on  their  native  con- 
tinent for  the  very  slaves  we  had  been  so  active  until  recently  in 
forcibly  deporting  across  the  seas.  The  result  is  that  Sierra  Leone  has 
become  a  polyglot  little  black  colony,  of  which  about  45,000  of  the 
inhabitants  are  descended  from  liberated  slaves  gathered  from  diflPerent 
parts  of  the  continent,  as  against  30,000  local  natives. 

Among  these  earlier  colonies  we  must  also  include  Lagos,  which 
lies  between  Southern  Nigeria  and  French  territory.  These,  with  small  in- 
terests in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Lower  Niger,  represent  British  terri- 
torial rights  as  inherited  from  earlier  generations  of  Englishmen.  For 
a  century  our  territorial  possessions  on  the  coast  had  ranged  between 
10,000  to  15,000  square  miles,  and  it  was  not  until  a  very  few  years  ago 
that  we  commenced  to  realise  that,  if  we  did  not  look  after  our  interests 
with  intelligence  and  activity,  our  prosperous  little  West  Coast  Colonies 
would  be  deprived  of  the  free  exercise  of  trade  with  the  interior.  Even 
then,  as  in  so  many  parallel  cases,  the  situation  was  not  to  be  saved  by 
the  elected  representatives  of  the  nation,  but  by  the  individual  and 
collective  foresight  of  a  chartered  company  under  the  direction  of  great 
administrative  ability.  Commercially  so  successful,  and  politically  so 
active  was  the  Royal  Niger  Company  under  tlie  direction  of  Sir  George 
T.  Goldie,  that  when  the  government  bought  out  the  company  in  1900 
the  direct  effect  of  thirteen  years'  work  was  that  upwards  of  300,000 
square  miles  had  been  acquired  for  the  Empire,  and  scope  for  future 
prosperity  was  assured.  The  material  position  of  these  colonies  is 
most  satisfactory,  for,  with  the  exception  of  the  newly  acquired 
territories  of  Northern  Nigeria,  each  colony  not  only  pays  its  own  way, 
but  steadily  improves  its  position  from  year  to  year.  Southern  Nigeria, 
formerly  the  heart  of  the  Royal  Niger  Company,  already  heads  the  list, 
partly  no  doubt  owing  to  the  business-like  organisation  inherited  from 
the  Company,  and  partly  through  having  the  run  in  Northern  Nigeria 
of  an  extensive  British  Hinterland.  Southern  Nigeria  was  this  year 
wisely  amalgamated  with  Lagos  for  administrative  purposes. 

The  total  revenue  of  all  these  colonies  was  : — 


In  1900  . 
In  1904  . 
Increase  of 


1900 
1904 
Increase  of 


1900 
1904 
Increase  of 


Total  Imports. 

£4,258,477 
.  5,790,088 
.    1,531,611 

ToTAi-  Exports. 

.£3,868,710 
.  5,067,228 
.    1,198,516 


.    £1,143,473 

1,937,329 

793,856 

Imports  from 
United  Kingdom, 

.     £3,070,021 

.       5,120,589 

2,050,568 

Exports  to 
United  Kingdom. 

.   £1,778,727 

.       2,449,169 

670,442 


THE   TRANSITION    OF   BRITISH   AFRICA.  131 

Among  the  produce  exported  from  the  coast  are  rubber,  beeswax, 
palm  oil  and  kernels,  gold,  ivory,  skins,  ginger,  gum-copal  and  ebony. 

Just  as  the  Royal  Charter  in  1887  intrusted  the  Eoyal  Niger 
Company  with  the  exercise  of  sovereign  rights  with  results  so  satisfactory 
both  from  an  Imperial  and  commercial  standpoint,  so  in  the  following 
year  a  charter  granted  to  Sir  William  Mackinnonand  his  co-directors  was 
destined  to  increase  the  area  of  the  British  Empire  by  a  further  million 
of  square  miles,  of  which  a  large  portion  is  capable  of  useful  economic 
development.  The  Imperial  British  East  African  Company  acquired  its 
first  territorial  rights  by  lease  from  the  Sultan  of  Zanzibar,  and  later 
supplemented  these  by  means  of  treaties  with  native  chiefs  in  the 
interior.  The  most  important  inland  territories  affected  was  the  native 
kingdom  of  Uganda,  in  which  the  work  of  administration  commenced 
in  1890. 

Unfortunately  the  Company  was  not  a  commercial  success.  In  1893 
the  Imperial  Government  took  over  the  administration  of  Uganda,  to 
which  were  added  in  1894-95  the  districts  of  Unyoro,  Usoga,  Nandi  and 
Kavirondo.  In  1895  the  remainder  of  the  Company's  territory  was 
placed  under  the  control  of  the  Foreign  Office,  this  latter  to  be 
administered  by  the  Zanzibar  Consul-General  as  Commissioner  of  what 
had  now  become  the  British  East  Africa  Protectorate,  the  former  under 
a  separate  Commissioner  being  already  known  as  the  Uganda  Pro- 
tectorate. In  1902  Naivasha  and  Kisumu,  the  latter  of  which  includes 
the  Nandi  country,  were  transferred  to  the  East  African  administration. 

Thus  the  British  East  African  Company  died  in  its  infancy,  but  like 
the  proverbial  grain  of  seed  wheat  its  short  existence  will,  I  feel  sure, 
prove  to  have  been  the  germ  of  a  great  economic  development,  and  it 
certainly  was  the  direct  means  of  opening  out  to  future  British  settle- 
ment one  of  the  healthiest  and  most  interesting  plateau-lands  of  the 
world.  When  I  visited  East  Africa  two  years  ago,  I  confess  I  was  not 
impressed  by  the  progress  so  promising  a  country  had  made  during  the 
first  fifteen  years  of  its  existence  under  British  administration,  whereas  in 
Uganda  at  the  commencement  of  1900  the  net  result  of  a  decade  of 
Foreign  Office  rule  seemed  to  be  the  introduction  into  the  country  of  a 
few  officials  and  missionaries,  who  appeared  to  have  played  their  part 
with  every  credit  to  themselves  as  organisers  in  the  one  case  and 
educators  in  the  other  (for  the  bearing  and  conduct  of  the  natives  were 
such  as  are  only  to  be  found  under  administrations  conducted  on  high 
principles).  But  trade  and  industry,  w^iich  are  the  raison  cTetre  of 
the  acquirement  of  colonial  possessions,  were  as  a  principle — and  I 
contend  as  a  had  principle — not  only  discouraged,  but  practically  pro- 
hibited so  far  as  British  settlers  were  concerned.  The  effect  of  this  was 
that  necessary  trade  was  in  the  hands  of  a  few  Indians,  and  enterprising 
Germans  domiciled  in  German  East  Africa,  while  the  Englishman  who 
wished  to  acquire  interests  in  the  Protectorate,  even  when  his  claims 
were  locally  supported,  was  told  that  the  Foreign  Office  did  n(  t  con- 
sider that  the  country  was  yet  ripe  for  settlement.  To  one  whose 
earliest  experience  had  fallen  in  the  south  the  policy  thus  proclaimed 
seemed  a  strange  one  indeed,  for  surely  from  the  very  moment  property 


132 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   ISIAGAZINE. 


and  the  person  can  be  declared  safe,  the  trader  and  settler  should  be 
encouraged,  and  the  government  should  at  once  turn  its  active  attention 
towards  the  development  of  trade  routes  and  cheap  lines  of  communica- 
tion. Uganda  was  booming  in  those  days  under  the  direction  of  a 
progressive  and  able  administrator — Sir  Harry  Johnston,  one  of  your 
gold-medallists.  When  a  country  is  what  is  termed  "  before  the  public  " 
jiioneer  settlers  are  always  forthcoming.  Uganda  in  due  course  fell 
asleep  under  more  placid  auspices,  and  still  sleeps.  An  opportunity  was 
lost.  There  is  no  longer  any  manifest  desire  among  pioneer  settlers  to 
try  their  luck  in  Uganda.     They  go  elsewhere. 

In  1892  a  preliminary  survey  for  a  railway  to  connect  Mombasa 
with  Lake  Victoria  was  commenced,  the  government  having  wisely 
recognised  the  strategic  importance  of  such  a  railway  in  view  of  certain 

probable  eventualities 
connected  with  the 
Dervish  occupation  of 
the  Upper  Nile  spread- 
ing as  it  did  to  the 
very  borders  of  the 
Uganda  Protectorate. 
As  a  matter  of  course 
the  economic  advantages 
of  such  a  line  to  the 
Protectorate  through 
which  it  passed  must 
have  strengthened  the 
government  in  coming 
to  a  decision  in  the 
matter.  Persistent  op- 
position to  the  scheme 
was  offered,  but  for- 
a  substantial  majority 
of  the  scheme.     Thus 


Fig.  2.— Mediteval  Portuguese  Fort  at  Mombasa. 


tunately  the  whole  of  the  Opposition  and 
of  the  party  then  in  power  were  in  favour 
the  accession  to  power  in  July  1895  of  Lord  Salisbury's  government 
in  no  way  interfered  with  the  project,  and  at  the  end  of  that  year 
the  first  rail  was  laid.  It  was  not,  however,  till  six  years  later 
that  the  first  engine  made  the  journey  from  Mombasa  to  the  lake. 
The  cost  of  the  railwaj^— £6,000,000— has  been  strongly  criticised, 
and  contracting  engineers  have  asserted  that  they  could  have  com- 
pleted the  line  in  half  the  time,  and  at  little  more  than  half  the 
cost.  This  may  or  may  not  be  the  case,  but  experience  in  South 
Africa  would  seem  to  point  to  the  conclusion  that  the  railway 
contractor  limited  to  time  is  more  expeditious  in  his  methods  than  the 
appointed  government  official  on  an  annual  salary ;  and  in  railway  work 
more  than  in  most  other  departments  of  industry  the  saying  "Time  is 
money  "  has  its  full  significance.  Though  most  of  the  country  traversed 
by  these  584  miles  of  rail  admits  of  an  easy  gradient  and  rapid  work, 
two  great  physical  obstacles  had  to  be  faced.  The  Straits  separating  the 
island  of  Mombasa  from  the  mainland  necessitated  the  construction  of  a 


THE   TRANSITION   OF   BRITISH   AFRICA.  133 

bridge  1732  feet  in  length;  also  the  Great  Kift  Valley  had  to  be 
traversed.  From  the  highest  altitude — about  7400  feet — at  the  western 
face  of  the  Kikuyu  plateau  the  drop  is  1440  ft.  (of  which  1000  ft.  is 
very  abrupt)  in  85  miles,  while  the  summit  of  the  Man  escarpment,  on 
the  further  confines  of  the  valley,  is  nearly  100  feet  higher.  It  is 
satisfactory  to  know  that  the  railway  has  already,  in  spite  of  its  great 
cost,  justified  its  existence,  for  not  only  was  it  paying  its  own  working 
expenses  five  years  after  being  open  to  traffic,  but  it  has  been  the  means 
of  attracting  to  its  precincts  those  who  are  destined  to  form  the  basis  of 
a  considerable  colonial  community.  With  a  view  to  giving  a  general 
impression  of  the  country  through  which  this  railway  passes  in  parti- 
cular, and  of  that  part  of  British  East  Africa  already  under  control  in 
general,  I  do  not  think  I  can  do  better  than  reproduce  a  short  extract 
from  a  paper  I  read  in  January  1906  before  the  Royal  Geogx'aphical 
Society. 

Leaving  the  coast  late  in  the  afternoon  of  one  day,  daylight  on  the  next 
"  found  us  some  200  miles  from  Mombasa,  and  at  an  altitude  of  about  3000 
feet  above  the  sea-level.  To  the  explorer,  sportsman  or  naturalist,  this 
journey  along  the  Uganda  Railway  is  of  supreme  interest.  The  physical 
features  of  the  country  are  continually  changing — savannah,  scrub,  and 
open  plain  are  passed  in  turn ;  undulating  downs  and  wide  flats  succeed 
one  another  as  the  train  slowly  climbs  to  Nairobi  at  an  altitude  of 
5450  feet — an  average  gradient  from  the  coast  of  20  feet  in  the  mile. 
The  scenery  throughout  is  eminently  African.  In  spite  of  its  varying 
characteristics  I  saw  nothing  new  to  me,  merely  so  many  samples  of 
what  I  had  passed  through  in  other  parts  of  the  continent,  though  for 
the  most  part  these  are  samples  of  the  best.  At  one  time  or  another 
one  could  imagine  oneself  on  the  grass  downs  or  plains  of  Griqualand 
West  or  the  Transvaal,  in  the  acacia  scrub  of  the  Bechuanaland  Pro- 
tectorate or  Unyoro,  or  among  the  brighter  savannahs  of  Barotseland  and 
Katanga. 

"During  the  latter  part  of  the  journey  game  is  never  out  of  sight. 
The  zebra,  the  hartebeest.  Grant's  gazelle  and  Thomson's  gazelle  are 
numerous,  while  waterbuck,  wildebeest,  ostrich,  palla,  and  the  smaller 
antelopes  are  fairly  common.  Before  the  rinderpest  swept  the  Upper 
Zambezi  basin  in  1896,  Barotseland  probably  equalled  East  Africa  in 
quantity  and  was  richer  in  variety.  Since  those  days  I  have  never  seen 
anything  to  equal  the  sight  which  now  is  within  reach  of  any  one 
travelling  to  Nairobi  by  rail.  One  fact  was  particularly  noticeable  when 
we  made  the  journey.  The  Athi  plains  were  bereft  of  everything 
green — every  blade  of  grass.  It  transpired  that  a  few  days  earlier 
myriads  of  caterpillars  had  made  their  appearance  in  a  single  night,  and 
extending  for  miles  to  right  and  left,  these  writhed  themselves  onwards 
in  a  living  mass  so  dense  as  to  obscure  the  very  earth.  So  thick  were 
they  that  their  crushed  bodies  on  the  rails  denied  the  flywheels  of  the 
up-country  engines  their  grip,  and  the  trains  were  continually  brought 
to  a  standstill,  and,  in  fact,  were  only  set  in  motion  again  by  a  frequent 
application  of  sand  to  the  rails.  .  .  .  The  journey  to  Nakuru — the 
station   in   the  bed    of  the    Rift    Valley  ...   is    remarkable   for  the 


134  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

magnificence  of  the  view  as  seen  from  the  train  during  its  descent  from 
the  Kilcuyu  escarpment  into  the  Eift  Valley.  The  train  winds  its  way 
through  a  cutting  in  dense  primaeval  forest.  Through  the  clearing  and 
from  occasional  open  patches,  a  most  comprehensive  view  is  obtained  of 
the  red-brown  valley  1500  feet  below,  and  of  the  purple  hills  behind, 
which  culminate  in  the  blue  outline  of  the  Mau  escarpment.  One  looks 
down  on  the  summits  of  considerable  hills,  and  can  almost  see  into  the 
crater  of  the  extinct  volcano  Longonot."  One  of  the  great  features  of 
the  western  provinces  of  British  East  Africa  is  the  magnificent  plateau 
land  which  rises  on  either  side  of  the  Rift  Valley  to  altitudes  reaching 
to  8500  feet  above  sea-level.  These  plateaus  are  largely  made  up  of 
open  grass  downs  between  6500  and  7500  feet,  while  below  6500 — 
and  above  where  the  ground  is  stony — the  type  of  small  savannah  found 
in  many  parts  of  Africa  prevails.  The  downs  supply  first-class  cattle 
pasture,  capable  of  supporting  immense  herds.  The  prime  condition  of 
the  cattle  and  donkeys  fed  on  it  gives  practical  proof  of  its  high  quality. 
On  the  highest  levels,  i.e.  between  7500  and  8500,  there  exist  extensive 
belts  and  patches  of  magnificent  virgin  forest.  Mighty  trees  rising  to 
nearly  200  feet  are  matted  together  with  jungle  so  dense  as  to  make 
progress  among  them  very  slow  and  tedious.  So  dense  is  the  matted 
undergrowth  of  ropelike  creepers,  giant  thistles  and  other  entanglements 
which  dispute  every  step,  that  progress  is  impossible  Avithout  the  help 
of  much  cutting  and  slashing.  The  forest  edge  is  so  well  defined  that 
it  is  impossible  to  say  whether  yards  or  miles  separate  the  traveller 
from  the  plains  beyond.  So  easy  is  concealment  from  the  eye  of  man 
that  game  is  rarely  seen  or  even  heard,  and  yet  the  foot  spoor  bears 
evidence  of  its  existence.  The  giant  bushbuck  or  bongo,  standing  over 
4  feet  6  inches  at  the  shoulders,  has  never  yet  been  so  much  as  seen  by 
European  eyes,  and  would  be  entirely  unknown  Avere  it  not  for  the 
existence  of  something  less  than  half-a-dozen  skins  and  horns  taken  in 
pitfalls  by  natives.  The  case  of  the  bongo  is  in  fact  identical  with  that 
of  the  okapi,  known  to  exist  under  similar  conditions  a  few  hundred 
miles  further  west.  A  skeleton,  said  to  be  that  of  a  giant  pig  standing 
as  high  as  an  ox,  has  been  found  in  one  of  these  forests.  However, 
without  appearing  to  be  incredulous,  I  think  we  may  wait  for  more 
definite  evidence  before  giving  him  a  name.  Nevertheless,  that  many 
facts  of  undiscovered  interest  lurk  within  the  sunless  gloom  of  these 
great  relics  of  centuries  long  since  passed  is  not  to  be  doubted. 

Among  the  trees  there  is  to  be  found  a  sprinkling  of  first-class 
timbers,  and  of  course,  as  usual,  a  still  larger  proportion  of  wood  of 
inferior  quality.  The  podocarpus  and  juniper  are  well  represented,  but 
perhaps  the  most  striking  of  all  is  a  giant  cedar  which  towers  upwards 
in  a  thick  straight  stem.  The  industrialisation  of  these  forests  has 
already  commenced,  and  in  the  future  this  trafiic  in  timber  should 
become  a  great  commercial  asset  when  once  the  railway  management 
have  accepted  the  principle  that  cheap  rates  to  the  coast  not  only  fill 
trucks  which  would  otherwise  return  empty,  but,  in  offering  substantial 
encouragement  to  the  settler  and  thereby  fostering  enterprise,  increase 
the  up-country  traffic  also.     From  an  agricultural  standpoint  these  high 


THE  TRANSITION   OF  BRITISH  AFRICA. 


135 


plateaus,  though  admirable  for  stock-rearing  purposes,  do  not  offer  as 
good  prospects  as  do  the  five  to  six  thousand  feet  levels  which  are  not 
subject  to  the  night  frosts  and  high  winds  of  the  invigorating  uplands. 
Potatoes  are  grown  with  such  success  that  already  considerable  con- 
signments have  been  shipped  to  South  Africa.  Tree-growth  is  abnormally- 
rapid,  and  agriculture  generally  should  play  a  most  important  part 
in  the  development  both  of  East  Africa  and  Uganda.  A  certain 
amount  of  ivory  and  rubber  finds  its  way  to  the  coast,  and  experiments 
are  being  made  in  the  cultivation  of  cotton,  but  as  yet  with  no  very 
definite  results.  The  revenue  is  principally  derived  from  customs, 
duties  and  game  licences,  and  does  not  half  cover  the  expenditure. 
The  imports  in  1900  stood  at  £193,438  as  against  £741,785  in 
1904 — a  very  substantial  increase  of  £548,347.  The  exports  in  1900 
were  £113,205 ;  in  1904  they  had  rather  more  than  doubled  this  figure. 
Uganda  may  be  said  to  be  in  a  stagnant  condition  mainly  owing  to  the 
absence  of  cheap  lines  of  communication.  The  Nile  is  the  natural 
outlet  to  Uganda,  and  until — at  a  small  cost  as  compared  with  the  great 
interests  involved — the  one  bar  to  free  navigation  is  removed,  Uganda 
cannot  progress  satisfactorily. 

Twenty  years  ago  it  transpired  that  Great  Britain  was  in  imminent 
danger  of  becoming  seriously  embarrassed  in  South  Africa.  Information, 
said  to  be  supported  by  more  than  circumstantial  evidence,  came  to  the 
notice  of  the  Cape  Government  to  the  effect  that  Germany  was  pre- 
paring to  expand  her  Damaraland  Colony  eastwards  as  far  as  the 
Transvaal  border.  This  accomplished,  the  partition  of  the  country 
northwards  between  Boer  and  Teuton  would  be  an  easy  matter.  Those 
who  recollect  the  history  of  the  German  acquisition  of  Damaraland — 
a  country  at  the  time  considered  the  natural  hinterland  of  the  Walfisch 
Bay  settlement — will  not  marvel  that  such  a  design  should  have  been 
fostered  with  quite  a  reasonable  hope  of  success;  and  after  all  said  and 
done  we  had  less  claim  to  Khama's  country,  contiguous  as  it  was  to  the 
Boer  Republic,  than  to  the  aforesaid  hinterland.  Fortunately  for  the 
material  and  political  prospects 
of  British  South  Africa  there 
sprang  to  the  front  one  of  those 
powerful  personalities  which  at 
rare  intervals  flutter  as  it  were 
across  a  page  of  history,  accom- 
plish the  purpose  for  which  they 
seem  to  have  been  created,  then 
returning  whence  they  came,  leave 
behind  them  an  influence  which 
moulds  the  course  of  history  for 
generations  yet  unborn.  To  specu- 
late on  the  course  events  may  take 
in  South  Africa  in  the  light 
of  the  extraordinary  political 
situation  recently  created  would  be  to  play  with  hypothetical  uncer- 
tainties, but  what  man  not  utterly  devoid  of  the  virtue  of  patriotism 


Fig.  3. — Pemba  Station  on  the  African  Trans- 
continental Railway,  NW.  Rhodesia. 


136  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINH. 

can  ponder  with  equanimity  on  the  course  destiny  was  following  in  the 
eiglities  had  it  not  been  arrested  and  remoulded  by  the  strong  hand 
and  courageous  policy  of  the  late  Cecil  J.  Rhodes, 

In  February  1888  the  first  sign  of  coming  events  showed  itself  in  the 
conclusion  of  a  treaty  between  Great  Britain  and  Lobengula,  which 
placed  Matabelelaud  within  the  sphere  of  British  influence.  The  Mata- 
bele  Chief  by  this  instrument  undertook  to  refrain  from  entering  into 
any  correspondence  or  treaty  with  any  state  or  power  other  than 
ourselves. 

In  October  of  the  same  year,  Mr.  Rudd,  on  behalf  of  a  syndicate 
which  included  Mr.  Rhodes  and  Mr.  Beit,  obtained  a  concession  of 
mineral  rights  over  the  whole  of  Lobengula's  dominions,  in  exchange 
for  a  monthly  payment  of  £100  and  1000  Martini-Henry  rifles. 

Shortly  afterwards  a  second  expedition  arrived  at  Bulawayo  on  a 
similar  errand.  It  was  led  by  Mr.  E.  A.  Maund  on  behalf  of  "The 
Exploring  Company,  Limited,"  of  which  Mr.  George  Cawston  and  Lord 
Gifford  were  the  moving  spirits.  Though  anticipated  in  its  designs, 
the  latter  group  successfully  entered  into  negotiations  with  their  more 
fortunate  competitors,  which  led  to  an  agreement  to  co-operate  on  the 
basis  of  a  quarter-interest.  This  amalgamation  of  interests  was  suffi- 
ciently powerful  to  command  consideration  both  at  home  and  in  South 
Africa. 

A  year  later  a  Royal  Charter,  bearing  the  date  of  October  29,  1889, 
was  granted  conferring  on  what  now  became  the  British  South  Africa 
Chartered  Company  administrative  and  other  functions  in  the  country 
concerned.  The  first  board  was  presided  over  by  the  Duke  of  Abercorn, 
who  has  retained  the  position  ever  since,  and  contained,  among  other 
well-known  noblemen  and  gentlemen,  Mr.  Cecil  Rhodes  as  managing 
director.  Under  the  influence  of  such  a  man  an  active  and  progressive 
policy  was  assured  to  the  new  enterprise,  but  the  rapidity  of  the  first 
steps  towards  the  consummation  of  the  ideal  in  view  opened  the  eyes  of 
the  most  sanguine.  At  the  time  the  railway  terminus  stood  at  Kimberley, 
and  that  of  the  telegraph  at  Mafeking.  Within  six  months  a  special 
force  of  military  police  had  not  merely  been  recruited,  organised  and 
equipped,  but  with  all  necessary  wagon  transport  had  marched  650 
miles  from  Kimberley  and  were  on  duty  at  Macloutsi,  which  had  been 
selected  as  a  base  of  operations.  On  July  5th  the  first  troop  moved 
northwards  as  escort  to  the  pioneer  force.  At  Tuli  River,  on  the 
borders  of  Mashonaland,  a  fort  was  constructed  and  garrisoned  by  one 
troop,  and  on  the  arrival  of  two  further  troops  from  the  south,  the 
force,  in  all  380  strong,  continued  its  march,  with  the  result  that  the 
British  flag  was  hoisted  with  due  ceremony  at  Fort  Salisbury  on  Sep- 
tember 12,  1890,  i.e.  inside  of  eleven  months  from  the  date  of  the  granting 
of  the  Charter.  In  the  meantime  the  telegraph  wires  were  opened  to 
Palapye  (320  miles  onward),  and  the  extension  of  the  railway  to 
Vryburg — 120  miles — was  all  but  completed.  Great  were  the  hardships 
experienced  by  these  early  pioneers.  Scarcely  were  they  established  in 
their  new  quarters  than  the  wettest  season  within  memory  of  man 
before  or  since  broke  over  the  country.     The  rivers  flooded  and  remained 


THE   TRANSITION   OF   BRITISH   AFRICA.  137 

impassable  for  months,  and  thus  cut  off  from  supplies  they  were  com- 
pelled to  subsist  largely  on  native  corn,  and  many  good  men,  weakened 
by  lack  of  proper  nutriment,  succumbed  to  fever  and  dysentery.  From 
that  day  to  this  exceptional  obstacles  have  been  met  and  overcome. 
The  Matabele  War  in  1893  was  not  only  costly,  but  acted  as  a  brake  to 
progress.  Annual  visitations  of  locusts  followed.  Early  in  1896,  after 
leaving  Barotseland  in  a  state  of  plenty,  I  emerged  from  the  Kalahari  to 
find  a  second  native  rising  by  which  over  two  hundred  white  men,  women 
and  children  had  already  lost  their  lives.  Added  to  this,  drought  was 
already  creating  a  famine,  and  locusts  were  making  that  famine  more 
complete,  and  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  land  the 
rinderpest  had  swept  off  whole  teams  of  oxen.  To  meet  these  un- 
expected troubles  special  measures  were  being  taken,  and  railway 
construction  was  being  pressed  forward.  On  the  top  of  all  this  the 
grave  situation  in  the  Transvaal  continued  to  create  such  a  sense  of 
anxiety  and  insecurity  as  to  impose  a  heavy  drag  on  industry  and 
enterprise  throughout  the  sub-continent.  In  1899  the  South  African 
War  sent  things  from  bad  to  worse. 

In  spite  of  all  this  Rhodesia  as  a  colonising  concern  has  out- 
stripped all  her  compeers.  From  Tuli  to  the  Congo  State,  and  as  far 
as  the  southern  shores  of  Tanganyika,  the  country  is  effectively  under 
control  of  administrations  of  which  the  remotest  districts  have  their 
executive  officers.  There  are  2148  miles  of  railway — more  than 
double  the  sum  total  of  the  railway  systems  of  all  the  other  colonies 
discussed  in  this  paper ;  and  while  the  combined  European  population 
of  these  latter  is  roughly  estimated  at  3000,  that  of  Rhodesia  already 
exceeds  13,500.  The  telegraph  system  embraces  a  mileage  of  3984 
miles,  including  the  transcontinental  lines.  The  imports  of  Southern 
and  North-AVestern  Rhodesia  combined  amounted  to  £1,290,750 
in  the  year  ending  31st  December  1905,  and  the  exports  from  the 
former  to  £1,892,488.  Thus  this  youngest  of  British  African  Colonies 
easily  heads  the  list  under  the  headings  of  communication  and  white 
population  and  trade,  and  that  in  the  face  of  abnormal  obstacles  which 
there  is  every  reason  to  hope  have  run  their  course  and  will  not  long 
continue  to  check  progress.  As  regards  revenue,  the  receipts  in  Southern 
Rhodesia  from  all  sources  in  the  financial  year  ending  March  31st,  1905, 
amounted  to  £523,669,  and  expenditure  for  administrative  purposes 
£499,768— a  surplus  of  nearly  £24,000.  In  the  case  of  the  two 
northern  administrations,  which  are  some  ten  years  younger  than 
Southern  Rhodesia,  the  revenue  stood  at  £48,030,  and  the  expenditure  at 
£150,177,  leaving  a  deficit  on  the  whole  of  £78,246.  It  is  hoped  that 
this  will  be  reduced  to  vanishing  point  this  year.  Space  will  not  allow 
of  my  going  more  fully  into  the  material  prospects  of  this  most  promising 
colonial  enterprise.  Suffice  it  to  say  that,  mineralogically  speaking,  there 
is  probably  no  country  so  rich.  The  gold  output  in  Southern  Rhodesia 
shows  a  steady  annual  increase,  and  up  to  October  the  figure  for  this 
year  was  already  considerably  in  excess  of  last  year's  output.  By  the 
time  the  railway,  already  under  construction,  which  is  to  connect  Lobita 
Bay  on  the  West  Coast  with  the  northern  goldfields  is  completed,  we  may 


138 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 


Fig.  4. — Settler's  lirst  Residence. 


expect  a  great  development  in  the  north  in  this  as  in  many  other 
industries.  Besides  gold,  copper,  zinc,  lead,  silver,  coal  and  other 
minerals  are  being  worked.     One  result  of  the  railway  extension  opened 

in  Sei^tember  to  the 
Rhodesia  Broken  Hill 
mines,  374  miles  beyond 
the  Victoria  Falls,  is  that 
already  a  large  quantity 
of  zinc  ore  is  being  ex- 
ported. More  important 
still  do  I  consider  the 
prospects  of  planting, 
agriculture  and  cattle 
ranching,  especially  in 
North  -  West  Rhodesia, 
for  without  land  settle- 
ment no  colony  can  ever 
fulfil  its  functions  success- 
fully. Minerals  attract  to 
a  country  a  floating  and  active  population,  most  members  of  which 
go  out  not  to  settle  but  to  return  Avhence  they  came  either  as 
wealthy  men  or  as  paupers.  On  the  land  surface  is  established 
not  only  a  settled  population  but  the  hundred-and-one  industries  and 
manufactories  deriving  their  raw  material  from  husbandry,  as  well 
as  i^rofessions  and  trades  supported  by  such  a  community.  From 
the  time  Avhen  I  was  the  only  European  in  a  position  to  discuss  the 
then  unmapped  districts  of  Barotseland,  or,  as  we  now  call  it,  North- 
West  Rhodesia,  I  have  held  the  country  up  as  one  of  the  gems  of 
British  Africa.  As  my  experience  has  widened  nothing  has  occurred  to 
modify  this  opinion.  In  addition  to  most  favourable  land  conditions,  the 
rainfall  since  first  gauged  has  shown  extraordinary  stability ;  so  unlike 
South  Africa,  where  droughts  are  frequent.  Lung-sickness  and  "  tick  " 
fever,  so  decimating  to  cattle  from  the  Zambezi  southward,  have  been 
kept  out  of  the  country,  and  as  there  is  a  good  stamp  of  native  beast  in 
the  country  it  is  to  be  hoped  the  present  wise  policy  of  prohibiting 
importation  will  be  continued  indefinitely, 

I  will  now  compare  the  administrative  conditions  of  settlement 
which  I  noted  in  British  East  Africa  last  year  with  those  I  found  in 
North- West  Rhodesia  this  year.  I  have  always  been  an  advocate  of  an 
intelligently  progressive  colonial  policy  as  being  by  far  the  most 
profitable ;  and  here  we  have,  it  would  seem,  an  admirable  example  of 
wisdom  and  error  personified  in  those  on  whom  has  fallen  the  grave 
responsibility  of  guiding  the  destinies  of  two  young  colonies. 

In  East  Africa  and  Uganda  the  government  price  of  land  is 
2  rupees,  i.e.  2s.  8d,  per  acre — about  five  times  its  value,  and  thus  at 
the  outset  a  stone  is  tied  about  the  neck  of  the  settler.  The  railway, 
a  government  concern,  makes  no  special  terms  for  him  and  his  family  on 
entering  the  country.  He  is  tolerated  but  not  encouraged.  In  North- West 
Rhodesia  the  settler  pays  8d.  per  acre  for  agricultural  and  3d.  for  cattle 


THE   TRANSITION   OF   BRITISH   AFRICA.  139 

grazing  land.  He  enters  as  an  occupying  tenant  for  five  years,  paying  as 
rent  5  per  cent,  per  annum  on  the  purchase  price,  and  having  proved 
his  bona  fides  he  obtains  his  title  on  payment  of  the  capital  sum.  The 
administration  when  required  will  loan  to  him  government  oxen,  which 
at  the  end  of  twelve  months  he  may  return  or  purchase,  and  will  make 
him  a  loan  at  5  per  cent,  interest  towards  the  expense  of  fencing.  The 
railway  not  only  conveys  him  and  his  family  at  a  75  per  cent,  reduction, 
but  gives  a  like  rebate  on  all  goods,  furniture,  implements,  etc.,  he 
imports  during  the  first  tw^elve  months.  Now  both  these  countries  are  of 
the  highest  intrinsic  value,  though  East  Africa  has  the  advantage  of 
being  on  the  seaboard,  while  North-West  Rhodesia  is  1000  miles  away. 
The  Foreign  Ofiice  took  the  former  over  sixteen  years  ago  ;  Mr.  Coryndon 
was  appointed  first  administrator  of  the  latter  six  years  ago.  It  will  be 
interesting  to  note  the  relative  position  of  these  colonies  in  1916,  to 
compare  their  revenues  for  that  year  as  well  as  the  total  of  the  ten 
intermediate  revenues,  including  sale  of  land  at  2s.  8d.  and  8d.  or  3d.  per 
acre  respectively ;  or  in  other  words,  to  compare  the  policy  of  straining 
revenue  sources  to  catch  the  eye  of  the  taxpayer  with  more  liberal  and 
far-seeing  methods. 

The  British  Central  African  Protectorate,  formerly  and  more  correctly 
known  as  Nyasaland,  represents  some  68,000  of  the  half-million  of 
square  miles  of  what  may  be  best  described  as  British  South  Central 
Africa,  the  remainder  being  absorbed  by  NE.  and  NW.  Rhodesia.  The 
Protectorate  was  proclaimed  on  May  14,  1891 — rather  more  than 
eighteen  months  subsequent  to  the  Rhodesian  Charter — and  is  therefore 
the  youngest  of  our  young  colonies  with  the  single  exception  of  Northern 
Nigeria,  part  of  which  Avas,  however,  as  we  have  seen,  exploited  by  the 
Royal  Niger  Company  at  an  earlier  date.  As  was  the  case  with  the  eastern 
and  western  protectorates,  British  Central  Africa  spent  its  earliest  infancy 
tinder  Foreign  Office  auspices,  and  with  them  ^was  taken  over  by  the 
Colonial  Office  on  April  1st  of  last  year.  A  few  years  ago  the  Protectorate 
promised  to  harbour  a  prosperous  coffee  growing  community,  its  coffee 
for  a  time  realising  the  highest  price  in  the  European  market.  Un- 
fortunately a  scanty  labour  supply  and  the  appearance  of  the  coffee  bug 
has  checked,  though  not  extinguished,  the  industry.  Cotton  and  tobacco 
are  being  grown  with  some  success,  and  chillies,  ground  nuts,  and  small 
quantities  of  ivory  are  also  exported.  The  railway  connecting  Blantyre 
with  Chiromo  is  approaching  completion,  and  a  branch  line  from  the 
latter  place  to  Port  Herald  is  open  to  traffic.  On  Lake  Nyasa  there  are 
seven  steamers,  and  on  the  Shire  about  three  times  that  number. 
During  the  last  three  years  the  European  population  has  increased  from 
450  to  600. 

In  1901-2  the  imports  stood  at  £135,842  and  exports  at  £21,739, 
and  in  1904-5  at  £220,697  and  £48,463  respectively. 

Of  the  old  self-governing  South  African  Colonies  I  will  say  but  little. 
I  was  in  South  Africa  only  a  few  months  ago  and  saw  and  heard  enough 
to  fill  me  with  despondency.  Though  racial,  political  and  economic 
rivalries  may  cause  irritation  and  bitterness,  these  are  temporary  evils 
capable  of  self-adjustment  if  only  allowed  to  run  their  natural  course. 


140  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

What  hurts,  irritates,  and  prevents  such  sores  from  healing  is  the  know- 
ledge that  South  African  interests  are  being  made  the  cat's-paw  of 
political  vote-catchers  at  home,  and  too  often  are  misconstrued  and  dis- 
cussed in  a  hostile  spirit  by  politicians  whose  experience  of  the  Empire 
may  be  said  to  be  limited  by  the  boundaries  of  their  own  parishes. 
Eead  the  history  of  South  Africa  since  it  fell  under  British  domination  a 
century  ago  and  you  will  marvel  at  the  strange  inconsistencies  and 
unsettling  reversals  of  policy  emanating  from  Downing  Street.  You  may 
even  marvel  what  spell  has  retained  the  loyalty  of  a  large  minority.  My 
endeavour  has  been — so  far  as  time  has  allowed — to  give  a  general 
account  of  our  young  African  Colonies  as  well  as  a  description  of  the 
main  surface  characteristics  of  the  continent  being  so  rapidly  transformed 
into  administrative  systems  from  which  will  be  evolved  states  destined 
to  assist  in  the  completion  of  the  destruction  of  Europe's  monopoly  in 
progressive  civilisation  so  forcibly  commenced  by  the  United  States  and 
Japan.  The  growth  of  these  embryo  states  has  been  phenomenal  from 
the  point  of  view  of  space.  Thirty  years  ago  British  Africa  represented 
but  274,380  square  miles,  fifteen  years  back  it  had  grown  to  1,904,660, 
and  to-day  it  stands  at  2,536,900,  or  if  we  may  include  Egypt,  whose 
destinies  are  equally  in  our  hands,  to  a  round  three  and  a  half  millions  of 
square  miles,  or  29  times  the  area  of  the  British  Isles.  From  the  borders 
of  the  Transvaal  northwards,  all  our  colonies  and  protectorates  are  within 
the  tropical  zone,  from  which  the  manufacturer  draws  probably  four-fifths 
of  his  raw  material.  Owing  to  the  leading  part  our  countrymen  have 
taken  in  the  work  of  original  geographical  work,  we  have  been  able 
to  monopolise  a  preponderating  share  of  Africa's  plateau-land,  on 
which  Europeans  may  settle  without  prejudice  to  health.  Thus  quantity 
combines  with  quality. 

An  interesting  point  in  this  page  of  Empire  has  been  the  extraordinary 
reluctance  of  successive  governments,  as  compared  with  foreign  govern- 
ments, to  assume  responsibility.  Wellnigh  every  mile  has  been  earned 
by  private  initiative,  individual  and  collective.  I  fear  Ave  cannot  credit 
this  traditional  governmental  apathy  with  better  intentions  than  the 
mere  shirking  of  responsibility,  but  it  has  none  the  less  had,  on  the 
whole,  a  most  desirable  effect,  for  expansion  under  such  conditions,  no 
matter  how  wide  in  its  effect,  cannot  be  over-expansion  nor  yet  artificial, 
but  is  in  fact  a  demonstration  of  a  degree  of  national  vigour  auguring 
well  for  the  destinies  of  the  race  capable  of  its  accomplishment.  Thank 
Heaven,  Great  Britain  takes  a  much  Avider  interest  in  her  world-wide  in- 
heritance than  was  her  wont  ten  years  ago  !  May  she  rise  still  more  to  a 
sense  of  her  greatness  and  her  responsibilities  !  Those  three  and  a  half 
million  miles  impose  a  sacred  duty  on  each  one  of  us,  and  each  should  take 
his  share  in  spreading  the  Imperial  spirit — I  use  the  term  in  no  jingoistic 
sense — until  it  has  permeated  every  class  of  society.  Patriotism  because 
unselfish,  is  one  of  the  highest  of  virtues,  and  as  such  ennobles  the  mind 
and  endows  it  with  a  cleaner  judgment — a  judgment  less  tarnished  with 
mere  personal  considerations.  AVith  a  more  thoroughly  Imperial-minded 
electorate,  no  government  would  dare  to  perpetrate  any  such  act  of  folly 
as  lost  us  our  American  Colonies,  and  the  dread  of  possible  disintegration 


THE   TRANSITION    OF   BRITISH   AFRICA.  HI 

would  no  longer  be  felt  as  it  unhappily  is  to-day.  To  suggest  that  our 
oversea  fellow-countrymen  will  ever  willingly  expatriate  themselves  is 
to  disclaim  all  knowledge  of  the  sentiments  dominating  them  as  a  whole. 
Their  blood  is  our  blood,  all  our  glorious  traditions  of  the  past  are  theirs 
also,  and  with  us  they  share  the  right  to  a  common  heritage.  There  is 
no  reason  why,  by  an  ill-conceived  policy,  the  work  of  generations  of 
British  manhood  should  be  lost  to  them  and  us,  but  there  will  be  no 
security  against  the  repetition  of  such  a  folly  until  we  admit  that  our 
great  self-governing  colonies  are  already  ripe  to  assist  in  the  government 
of  the  Empire  they  adorn. 

Let  those  who  dream  of  universal  peace  through  the  medium  of 
international  arbitration  abandon  their  impractical  and  delusive  hopes  and 
workfor  a  consolidated  Empire,  through  which  means  alone  this  high  object 
is  in  practice  possible.  To  my  mind  universal  peace  is  impossible  until 
one  nation  not  merely  occupies  so  powerful  a  position  as  to  command 
deference,  but  by  its  liberality  and  disinterested  world-policy  compels 
the  respect  of  the  universe.  Break  up  the  British  Empire,  and  with  the 
increase  in  the  number  of  independent  states  there  will  be  greater  scope  for 
avidity  and  a  consequent  increased  risk  of  war.  Foster  its  growth  and 
retain  it  in  its  integrity,  and  the  peace  ideal  is  not  unattainable. 


PRINCE  CHAELES  FORELAND,  i 
By  William  S.  Bruce,  F.R.S.E. 

{With  Illustrations  and  Map.) 

On  June  the  17th,  1596,  Willem  Barents-zoon  (or  Barents)  and 
Heemskerke  Hendickszoon  discovered  Spitsbergen  after  approaching  it 
from  the  north-east,  probably  sighting  in  the  first  place  the  island  of 
Cloven  Clift'..  Steering  southward  along  the  west  coast  Barents  and 
Heemskerke  sighted  a  steep  point  on  June  25th,  and  on  the  26  th 
anchored  between  it  and  the  mainland.  This  steep  point  Barents  named 
"  Vogelhoeck  "  because  of  the  large  number  of  birds  there.  AYe  may 
therefore  quite  definitely  state  that  Prince  Charles  Foreland  was 
discovered  on  the  25th  of  June  1596,  only  eight  days  after  the  sighting 
of  Spitsbergen. 

There  appears  to  be  some  doubt  as  to  the  exact  time  when  this 
island  was  named  Prince  Charles  Foreland,  but  already,  in  1612,  the 
British  called  it  so,  while  the  Dutch  called  it  Kijn  Island,  after  a  Dutch- 
man who  broke  his  neck  there  that  year.  The  name  Prince  Charles 
Foreland  therefore  seems  to  have  full  historical  priority,  the  island 
having  been  named  after  the  son  of  James  vi.  of  Scotland.  Hudson 
possibly  may  have  given  this  name  to  the  island,  since  he  visited  this 
part  of  the  Spitsbergen  archipelago  in  1607.  In  1610  the  Muscovy 
Company  dispatched  Jonas  Poole  in  the  Amitie  to  Bear  Island,  and 
missing   Bear  Island,  Poole  sighted  the   south   end   of  Spitsbergen   on 

1  Outlook  Tower  and  Scottish  Oceauograijliical  Lectures,  February  13,  1907. 


U2 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


6th  May.  On  the  21st  of  May  Poole  was  off  the  south  point  of  Prince 
Charles  Foreland,  which  he  named  Black  Point,  and  landed  at  Vogel  Hook 
on  the  26th  of  May.  From  this  time  until  1775  the  Foreland  Avas 
frequently  sighted  and  doubtlessly  landed  upon,  but  still  little  more  was 
known  of  it  than  in  the  days  of  Barents.  In  1775  Phipps  was  sent  out 
on  a  North  Polar  Expedition  by  George  iir,  on  the  recommendation  of 
the  Royal  Society  of  London,  and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  Horatio 
Nelson  was  a  midshipman  on  board  the  Carcass,  one  of  Phipps's  ships. 
The  Foreland  was  sighted  and  a  peak  measured  estimated  to  have  an 
altitude  of  4509  feet.'-  Almost  every  ship  cruising  along  the  west  coast 
of  Spitsbergen   has   sighted  the  Foreland,  and  frequent   landings   and 


winterings  have  certainly  been  made  (as  I  know  by  my  sojourn  there 
last  year),  but  the  curious  fact  remains  that  up  till  last  year  no  serious 
attempt  had  ever  been  made  to  survey  this  large  island,  and  thus 
practically  all  the  accounts  are  from  navigators  who  have  only  seen  the 
island  from  a  distance,  and  are  therefore  very  far  from  accurate. 

Scoresljy's  first  landing  in  an  arctic  country  was  on  Prince  Charles 
Foreland  at  Yogel  Hook,  but  on  account  of  bad  weather  he  was  obliged 
to  put  off  with  haste,  and  had  difficulty  in  regaining  his  ship.  He  says 
that  "the  number  of  birds  seen  in  the  precipices  and  rocks  adjoining  the 
sea  was  immense  ;  and  the  noise  they  made  on  our  approach  was  quite 
deafening." 

He  was  also  ashore  several  times  in  1818  at  Milre  Cape,  a  prominent 
point  on  the  mainland  opposite  Vogel  Hook,  probably  having  connection 

1  See  p.  153. 


PRINCE   CHARLES   FORELAND.  143 

with  it  by  a  submarine  ridge.  He  rightly  describes  this  as  being  "  a 
remarkable  point,  and  dangerous  to  shipping  going  into  King's  Bay  or 
Cross  Bay,  being  surrounded  by  blind  rocks." 

"  The  middle  of  Charles'  Island,"  says  Scoresby,  "  is  occupied  by  a 
mountain  chain  of  about  thirty  miles  in  length,  rising  on  the  west  side 
from  the  sea,  and  on  the  east  from  a  small  strip  of  table-land,  only  a  few 
feet  above  the  level  of  the  ocean.  In  some  parts  of  the  coast,  indeed, 
the  table-land,  from  which  the  mountains  take  their  rise,  is  even  below 
the  level  of  the  high-water  mark,  and  is  only  prevented  from  being 
covered  by  a  natural  sea-bank  of  shingle,  thrown  up  in  many  places  to 
the  height  of  ten  or  fifteen  feet." 

Scoresby  gives  further  descriptions  of  Prince  Charles  Foreland, 
emphasising  particularly  the  strange  hill  named  the  "  Devil's  Thumb  "  ; 
but  his  description  saying  that  "  the  highest  mountains  take  their  rise 
at  the  water's  edge,"  is  scarcely  correct,  for  a  series  of  raised  beaches 
intervene  between  them  and  the  sea.  But  this  further  description  is 
good,  where  he  says,  "  The  points  formed  by  two  or  three  of  them  are  so 
fine,  that  the  imagination  is  at  a  loss  to  conceive  of  a  place,  on  which  an 
adventurer,  attempting  the  hazardous  exploit  of  climbing  one  of  the 
summits,  might  rest.  Were  such  an  undertaking  practicable,  it  is 
evident  it  could  not  be  effected  without  imminent  danger.  Besides 
extraordinary  courage  and  strength  requisite  in  the  adventurer,  such  an 
attempt  would  need  the  utmost  powers  of  exertion,  as  well  as  the  most 
irresistible  perseverance."  But  probably  easier  ascents,  by  way  of  the 
great  eastern  glaciers,  could  be  made  than  by  the  precipitous  western 
crags.^ 

One  of  the  best  general  descriptions  of  the  island  is  Lament's,-  where 
he  says,  "  Prince  Charles  Foreland  is  a  long  narrow  island  separated  from 
the  mainland  by  a  shallow  sound.  Although  Spitsbergen  is  eminently  a 
mountainous  country  it  is  more  properly  regarded  from  a  geological 
point  of  view  as  an  elevated  plateau,  whose  sides  have  been  broken  and 
cut  through  by  glacier  action,  to  form  isolated  ridges  and  pinnacles. 
It  has  no  great  mountain  range  or  backbone.  In  Prince  Charles  Fore- 
land we  find  the  nearest  approach  to  such  a  regular  arrangement  of  hills. 
And  it  constitutes  a  sufficiently  striking  mountain-range  occupying 
nearly  the  whole  sixty  miles'  length  of  the  island.  On  the  west  side  the 
rise  from  the  sea  is  abrupt  and  precipitous,  but  on  the  east  the  descent 
is  more  gradual  to  low  ground  a  few  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 
On  the  latter  side  the  glaciers  have  considerably  encroached.  The  chain 
of  mountains  is  broken  towards  the  southern  extremity,  and  gives  place 
to  a  low,  sandy  flat,  where  numbers  of  sea-birds  congregate  in  summer. 
With  the  telescope  we  could  make  out  the  wreck  of  a  timber-vessel, 
which  came  from  the  Petchora  river  five  years  ago,  had  been  abandoned 
at  sea  by  the  crew,  and  was  cast  up  on  this  shore.  About  the  middle  of 
the  island  a  singular  black  rock — or  rather  mountain,  for  it  is  2000  feet 
high — ^jutting  out  into  the  sea  has  been  termed  the  '  Devil's  Thumb.' 

1  An  Account  of  the  Arctic  Regions.  By  W.  Scoresb)',  Jud.,  F.R.S.E.,  pp.  97,  98  ;  aud 
118,  119.     Edinburgh,  1820. 

-  yachting  in  Arctic  Seas,  by  James  Lamont.     1876.     Section  iir. ,  pp.  229,  230. 


144  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

Some  of  these  mountains  rear  their  needle-like  shafts  to  an  elevation  of 
from  3000  to  4000  feet." 

Baron  Xordenskjold  explored  Foreland  Sound  in  a  boat  in  1868,  and 
sailed  through  it  with  his  ship  in  1872  ;  while  Lamont  navigated  it  with 
his  yacht  the  Diana  in  1869;  Conway  in  1898  and  the  Prince  of 
Monaco  in  1899  also  ran  through  with  steam  launches. 

Dr.  A.  G.  Nathorst  was  the  first  in  1898  to  attempt  anything 
like  a  systematic  investigation  of  the  island,  but  these  observations  were 
only  over  a  period  of  two  or  three  hours  during  a  summer  night  when 
he  sent  a  small  party  ashore  from  his  ship  the  Antarctic}  Nevertheless 
he  was  able  to  give  us  a  more  concrete  idea  of  this  unknown  land  than 
any  of  his  predecessors.  Here  is  his  description  of  the  discoveries  of 
his  party  -  : — 

"  ^Uh  July  1898. — In  the  afternoon  we  were  sounding  to  the  south- 
west of  Prince  Charles  Foreland  where  the  depth  was  240  metres,  and 
afterwards  I  headed  for  this  land  to  effect  a  lauding.  The  south  part 
of  the  Foreland  greatly  resembles  the  north  point  of  Duck  Island  (Ando, 
Tromso).  Here  there  is  an  isolated  set  of  mountains,  and  after  that  a  low 
plain,  whilst  to  the  north  of  this  begins  a  veritable  land  of  mountains. 
This  is  indeed  a  fine  range  of  peaks  with  glaciers  between  them.  We 
headed  for  a  bay  situated  between  two  peaks  called  '  Sommet  Fourelin ' 
and  'Sommet  Rond '  by  the  French  Expedition  in  La  Manche  in  1892. 
I  think  it  is  appropriate  to  call  this  bay  after  that  vessel.  At  11.30  P.M. 
our  ship  was  headed  into  the  harbour  and  one  of  the  large  boats  was 
sent  ashore  with  Haslam  aft  and  four  oars,  together  with  G.  Anderson, 
Hesselman,  and  J.  G.  Anderson.  Of  course  no  extended  exploration 
could  be  made  as  the  whole  landing  lasted  only  a  couple  of  hours,  but 
from  a  geological  point  of  view  I  thought  it  was  desirable  to  get  to 
know  if  the  Hecla-Hook  formation  was  on  the  west  coast  of  the  Fore- 
land too.  I  remained  on  the  bridge  until  the  party  had  landed  at  one 
o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  25th,  and  then  I  went  to  bed.  At  3.30 
A.M.  I  was  awakened  by  the  captain  saying  that  the  landing  party  had 
returned.  The  geological  observations  were  in  accordance  with  what  w^e 
had  expected,  and  the  botanists  had  made  a  rich  collection,  which  we 
had  not  expected.  Up  to  this  time  the  Foreland  has  been  said  to  have 
very  little  vegetation,  two  phanerogams  only  having  been  known  on  the 
island.  It  was  therefore  surprising  that  G.  Anderson  and  Hesselman  in 
these  three  hours  had  found  no  fewer  than  twenty-nine  species.  Of 
birds,  the  eiders  were  common  and  the  lumnefaglar  were  very  numerous. 

"  Then  we  headed  for  the  west  and  took  a  sounding  at  noon  of 
1474  fathoms  about  28  miles  outside  the  Foreland." 

Garwood,  who  visited  Spitsbergen  with  Gregory  on  Conway's  Expedi- 
tion, writing  to  me  on  June  18,  1906,  says,  as  far  as  he  remembers, 
"Prince   Charles  Foreland  is   composed   of  Hecla-Hoek  beds.      Those 

1  Forinerlj'  called  Cnp  Xor,  and  renamed  Antarctic,  1893,  by  Svend  Foyn  previous  to 
her  first  Antarctic  cruise  1894-1895  ;  afterwards  Dr.  Otto  Nordenskj old's  iU-fated  ship 
during  his  memorable  Antarctic  Expedition  1901-1903. 

-  Translation  from  Tva  Smirar  Norra  Ischafvet,  etc.,  by  A.  G.  Nathorst.  Stockliolm, 
1900.     Vol.  i.  pp.  187-188. 


PRINCE   CHARLES   FORELAND.  145 

horribly  uncompromising  slates,  quartz  bands,  and  schists  in  which  I  was 
never  able  to  get  anything  definite,  though  I  have  found  curious  oolitic 
beds  from  these  rocks  in  Hornsund  Bay.  I  know  that  the  rocks  of  the 
main  island  opposite  are  Hecla-Hoek,  and  although  I  never  landed  on 
Prince  Charles  Foreland  (except  when  we  touched  bottom  in  our  launch), 
I  have  notes  that  the  rocks  coming  down  to  the  water  on  the  east  side 
are  almost  certainly  Hecla-Hoek  beds.  I  only  state  this  for  what  it  is 
worth." 

Last  summer  His  Serene  Highness  the  Prince  of  Monaco  invited  me 
to  accompany  him  now  for  the  third  time  on  a  voyage  to  Spitsbergen. 
I  gladly  accepted  His  Highiiess's  invitation,  but  pointed  out  that  1 
would  like  to  be  associated  with  some  definite  work,  and  suggested, 
among  other  alternatives,  that  he  should  land  me  with  two  assistants  on 
Prince  Charles  Foreland  in  order  to  make  a  thorough  investigation  of 
that  practically  unknown  island.  The  Prince  at  once  accepted  my 
suggestion,  and  having  chosen  two  assistants  I  set  about  making  pre- 
parations, in  the  first  place  for  a  systematic  geodetic  survey  of  a  definite 
portion  of  the  island,  and  secondly  for  acquiring  a  more  exact  knowledge 
about  its  geology  and  natural  history.  My  assistants  were  Mr.  Gilbert 
Kerr,  lately  piper  and  taxidermist  to  the  Scotia,  and  Mr.  Ernest  A.  Miller, 
a  young  electrical  engineer.  On  27th  of  June  the  Princesse  Alice 
steamed  into  Granton,  and  on  the  28th  took  her  departure  with  the 
Scottish  party  on  board. 

After  a  somewhat  cold,  bleak,  and  choppy  passage — typical  of  the 
North  Sea — the  Princesse  Alice  reached  Bergen  on  30th  of  June.  Here 
the  Prince  took  on  board  another  exploring  party,  Norwegians,  headed 
by  Captain  Isachsen  of  the  Norwegian  cavalry,  who  had  previously  seen 
arctic  service  with  Captain  Sverdrup  ;  and  Lieutenant  Staxerud,  a  young 
Norwegian  infantry  oflEicer,  employed  in  the  geodetic  service  of  the 
Geographical  Society  of  Christiania.  In  all  the  Norwegian  party  con- 
sisted of  ten  men,  who  were  to  take  up  the  exploration  of  the  north- 
western corner  of  Spitsbergen,  lying  between  Close  Cove,i  Smerenburg 
Sound,  Red  and  Liefde  Bays.  Tromso  was  reached  on  the  9th  of  July, 
and  at  L30  P.M.  on  11th  July  the  south  end  of  Prince  Charles  Foreland 
was  sighted.  From  our  noon  position  we  steered  for  the  north  end  of  the 
Foreland,  Vogel  Hook  (or  Fair  Foreland),  and  between  six  and  seven  in 
the  evening  were  running  fairly  close  to  the  shore  north  of  Cape  Sietoe. 
At  7.15  P.M.  we  were  off  the  north-west  point  of  the  Foreland,  which  bore 
S.  40°  W.  about  two  miles,  and  on  sounding  obtained  ten  fathoms,  having 
had  eight  fathoms  just  previously  closer  to  the  land.  About  8.30  p.m.  we 
were  off  Quade  Hook,  and  finally,  after  some  difficulty  on  account  of  the 
rapidly  shelving  bottom,  anchored  in  Coal  Haven,  King's  Bay,  about 
11.30  P.M.  Just  after  anchoring  there  were  several  white  M'hales  near 
the  ship,  and  the  Prince  lowered  a  whale  boat  with  Wedderburn  in  charge 
to  try  to  secure  one.  Next  day  Isachsen  and  his  party  left  by  the  Kred- 
fjord  (a  small  steamer  chartered  by  His  Highness)  for  Close  Cove  while 


1  Close  Cove,  so  Darned  by  Pool,  1610,  and  Ebeltoft's  Harbour,  named  by  him  Cross 
Road.  British  Admiralty  Chart  and  other  modern  charts  call  Close  Cove,  Cross  Bay.  Vide 
Ifo  Man's  Land,  by  Sir  Martin  Conway.     Cambridge  University  Press,  1906. 

VOL.  XXIII.  T, 


146  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

Captain  Carr,  Professor  Hergesell,  and  I  went  ashore  to  make  observa- 
tions with  the  theodolite  for  the  ascent  of  a  pilot  balloon  which  had  been 
liberated  from  the  ship.^  Afterwards  I  made  a  short  excursion  towards 
a  rather  I'emarkable  waterfall,  which  fell  over  the  edge  of  a  glacier  ice- 
clifF  about  two  miles  from  the  shore ;  and  it  is  interesting  to  note  that 
although  a  very  large  volume  of  water  was  coming  over  the  ice  at  this 
time,  that  at  about  midnight,  when  I  was  in  the  crow's-nest  and  could 
get  a  good  view  of  the  same  place  from  that  elevated  position,  no  water 
at  all  was  coming  over  the  cliff.  The  small  river  from  this  source,  that 
ran  into  Coal  Haven,  was  also  practically  dry.  Some  doubt  may  exist 
as  to  the  cause  of  this  sudden  stoppage  of  the  flow  of  water,  but  it  may 
be  sufficiently  accounted  for  by  a  touch  of  frost,  which  had  stopped  the 
surface  thawing  of  the  glacier  caused  by  the  brilliant  sun  during  the 
day.  On  July  14th  the  Frincesse  Alice  left  King's  Bay  for  Close  Cove, 
and  at  about  1  P.M.  the  Scottish  party  left  on  board  the  Kvedfjord  for 
Prince  Charles  Foreland. 

The  Foreland  being  practically  unknown,  it  was  with  some  difficulty, 
especiall}^  in  view  of  the  soundings  obtained,  that  Ave  found  a  suitable 
landing-place.  A  suitable  place  was,  however,  eventually  found  on  the 
east  coast  about  three  miles  from  the  north  end  of  the  island.  By  about 
2  A.M.  we  had  succeeded  in  landing  all  our  equipment  from  the  Kvedfjord, 
and  she  steamed  back  to  the  Prmcesse  Alice  in  Close  Cove,  leaving  Kerr, 
Miller,  and  myself  to  set  up  camp.  Next  day  was  spent  mostly  in 
arranging  our  stores  and  in  making  plans  for  excursions  for  the  purpose 
of  surveying  the  island.  One  excursion  was  made  that  evening  north- 
ward along  the  shore  for  a  distance  of  about  two  miles,  and  a  start 
was  made  at  the  survey.  On  the  next  two  days  other  excursions  were 
made  westward,  and  we  reached  the  highest  point  between  the  two  sides 
of  the  island,  in  a  narrow  gorge,  which  we  called  "Windy  Gowl,"  on 
account  of  its  resemblance  as  a  wind  funnel  to  the  place  of  the  same  name 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Edinburgh.  On  the  17th  we  set  to  work  more 
seriously,  and  shifted  camp  from  the  east  coast  to  the  neighbourhood  of 
Windy  Gowl.  We  carried  no  tent,  because  the  extraordinarily  rough 
nature  of  the  ground  prevented  us  taking  more  than  our  instruments,  a 
few  provisions,  and  sleeping  sacks.  The  country  over  which  we  passed 
was  almost  absolutely  barren,  there  being  hardly  a  plant  along  the  whole 
route,  and  only  two  birds  were  seen,  namely,  one  purple  sandpiper  and 
one  Arctic  skua.  On  settling  down  for  the  night  we  had  three  other 
visitors,  namely,  two  skuas  and  one  fulmar  petrel. 

The  journey  was  a  somewhat  laborious  one,  the  distance  of  three 
or  four  miles  having  taken  us  over  seven  hours.  The  weather  was 
brilliantly  fine  and  the  sun  scorchingly  hot,  so  that  we  divested  ourselves 
of  as  much  clothing  as  possible,  and  even  then  sweated  it  out.  There 
was  bright  sun  all  night,  with  a  cloudless  sky  and  a  light  westerly  air. 
The  scene  from  Windy  Gowl  was  a  striking  one.  To  the  eastward  we 
looked  back  over  the  dreary  stony  plains  we  had  crossed,  and  beyond 

1   Vidf  H.S. H.  tlie  Prince  of  Monaco's  lecture  on  "Meteorological  Researches  in  the  High 
Atmosphere,"  Edinburgh,  17th  January  1907,  printed  in  the  present  issue,  p.  113. 


PRINCE   CHARLES   FORELAND.  147 

the  Foreland  Sound  over  the  picturesque  glacier-clad  mainland  of  Spits- 
bergen in  the  neighbourhood  of  King's  Bay.  To  the  westward,  beyond 
a  less  extensive  but  more  fertile  plain  broken  by  several  lagoons  along 
the  shore,  stretched  the  calm  western  ocean,  with  no  laud  between  us 
and  Greenland,  and  I  may  say  at  this  time  with  no  ice  in  sight.  On 
18th  July  I  sent  Kerr  and  Miller  back  to  the  base  camp  for  more  stores, 
while  I  descended  to  the  west  coast  and  explored  northward  for  some 
distance,  making  many  preliminary  observations  and  securing  a  fox  and 
a  pink-footed  gosling.  The  west  coast  was  evidently  very  much  more 
inhabited  than  the  east,  for  I  came  across  several  gaggles  of  pink-footed 
geese,  as  well  as  eiders,  purple  sandpipers,  and  snow  buntings.  I  got 
back  to  camp  about  11  P.M.  in  cold  and  misty  weather,  and  Windy 
Gowl  keeping  up  its  reputation,  compelled  us  to  shift  camp  about  mid- 
night and  go  down  to  the  plain  below.  Even  there,  sheltered  as  we  were, 
we  found  the  night  cold  enough  without  a  tent. 

Having  taken  longitude  observations  at  this  third  camp  on  20th  July  at 
about  9  A.M.,  we  started  back  again  unloaded  at  10  A.M.  for  the  base  camp, 
doing  the  homeward  journey,  which  had  taken  us  seven  hours  when 
loaded,  in  about  two  hours.  With  all  possible  haste  we  launched  our 
boat,  carrying  with  us  a  tent,  and  loading  her  well  up  with  sufficient 
provisions  for  a  week.  Then  putting  out  to  sea,  we  steered  northward 
in  order  to  reach  the  west  coast  of  the  island  in  the  vicinity  of  the  camp 
we  had  left  in  the  morning.  At  Vogel  Hook  we  were  compelled  to  run 
for  shelter  into  a  cove,  on  account  of  a  heavy  sea  and  wind  which  got  up 
from  the  westward.  We  were  ashore  for  about  two  hours,  investigating 
the  wonderful  bird  rookeries,  first  discovered  by  Barents  in  1596. 

The  vegetation  was  luxuriant  with  rich  mosses,  scurvy  grass,  and 
many  Arctic  plants.  Birds  were  countless — Bruennich's  guillemots, 
puffins,  little  auks,  dovekeis,  kittiwake  gulls,  burgomaster  gulls,  skuas, 
fulmar  petrels,  pink-footed  geese,  purple  sandpipers,  and  snow  buntings. 
The  sea  and  wind  subsiding  somewhat,  we  continued  our  course  round 
Vogel  Hook  to  the  westward,  and  with  some  difficulty  effected  a  landing 
about  one  mile  south  of  Vogel  Hook  on  the  west  coast,  as  there  was  too 
much  sea  for  us  to  continue  our  voyage  southward.  It  became  necessary 
therefore  to  push  southward  overland,  that  we  might  reach  the  camp 
gear  which  we  had  left  in  the  morning  and  bring  it  back  to  this  new 
camp  further  to  the  north.  It  was  fortunate  that  we  had  our  tent  this 
night,  for  it  began  to  rain,  a  rain  which  was  to  continue  almost  without 
halting  for  the  next  fortnight. 

The  camp  was  a  most  picturesque  one,  lying  near  the  rugged,  rock- 
bound,  reefy  shore,  on  which  the  wild  western  sea  broke  furiously, 
threatening  our  boats  and  gear,  which  we  had  to  haul  well  up  on  shore 
that  they  might  not  be  carried  away.  Eising  at  the  back  of  us  was  a 
short  and  sharp  talus,  surmounted  by  a  precipitous  cliff  of  hard  old  sand- 
stone, probably  belonging  to  the  Hekla  Hook  series.  The  innumerable 
birds  in  these  cliffs  gave  us  a  continual  concert  with  their  myriad  voices, 
while  the  barking  of  foxes,  curious  at  our  intrusion,  resounded  from  the 
caverned  taluses  of  massive  fallen  rocks ;  every  now  and  then  one  more 
curious   than    the    rest  would   approach   us,  though   with  the  greatest 


148 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


caution.  We  discovered  two  lairs  of  foxes  in  the  talus,  and  attempted 
to  dig  them  out,  following  their  position  by  their  continuous  growling 
and  barking.  It  was  soon  obvious,  however,  that  this  attempt  was 
absolutely  futile,  for  the  lairs  communicated  with  one  another  by  endless 
galleries  between  the  interstices  of  the  large  loose  rocks. 

We  had  now  been  ashore  for  a  week,  and  even  in  this  short  time  had 
recorded  more  definite  information  of  Prince  Charles  Foreland  than  we 


Scottish  party's  camp  on  west  coast  one  mile  soutli  of  Vogel  Hook. 


had  been  able  to  gather  together  from  the  books  and  records  of  more  than 
three  centuries.  We  had  made  a  survey  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Vogel 
Hook  ;  we  had  some  more  exact  idea  of  the  nature  of  the  rocks ;  we 
knew  definitely  many  of  the  mammals  and  birds  that  inhabited  the 
island  ;  and  had  collected  up  to  this  time  twenty-four  species  of  flower- 
ing plants. 

AVe  remained  at  this  camp  until  the  1st  of  August,  during  which 
time  the  weather  was  continuousl}-  bad.  Gale  followed  gale  and  heavy 
seas  broke  on  the  reefy  shore,  blowing  the  sj^ray  right  over  the  lower 
land.     Fog  and  mist  prevailed  almost  continuously,  and  heavy  rain  was 


PRINCE   CHARLES   FORELAND.  149 

the  order  of  the  day.  Occasionally  for  au  hour  there  might  be  a  blink 
of  sunshine,  only  to  be  followed  again  by  thick,  wet,  stormy  weather. 
An  idea  of  the  stormy  weather  may  be  had  from  the  fact  that  we  Avere 
never  able  during  this  fortnight  even  to  think  of  launching  the  boat. 
On  the  31st  of  July,  however,  we  actually  had  a  chance  of  attempting 
it,  but  after  trying  twice  found  it  impossible  owing  to  the  heavy  seas. 
If  it  was  at  all  possible,  we  were  due  at  the  base  camp  that  night,  as 
the  Prince  had  arranged  to  call  there  on  the  1st  of  August  to  see  how  we 
were  getting  on.  We  were  preparing  to  walk  across  when  the  weather 
got  worse  and  we  had  to  abandon  all  thought  even  of  this  landward 
march.  Although  we  were  able  to  do  little  in  the  way  of  survey,  we 
made  a  number  of  local  excursions  and  got  to  know  intimately  the  whole 
of  the  north  end  of  the  Foreland.  We  collected  plants  and,  cramped  up 
in  our  tent,  pressed  quite  a  number.^  We  also  made  a  complete  collection 
of  the  rocks-  of  the  neighbourhood,  and  searched  long  but  vainly  for 
fossils,  thus  confirming  the  records  of  Xathorst  and  Garwood  as  to  the 
sterility  of  these  beds.  Several  foxes  were  shot,  for  they  became  more 
daring  day  by  day  as  their  young  grew  more  mature  and  able  to  look 
after  themselves.  Altogether  we  saw  fully  a  hundred  foxes  in  the 
course  of  this  fortnight. 

There  are  two  kinds  of  foxes  in  Prince  Charles  Foreland  as  in 
the  rest  of  Spitsbergen,  where  there  may  also  be  a  third.  The  two 
on  the  Foreland  are  probably  dimorphic  forms  of  the  same  species. 
One  is  a  bluish-grey  colour  all  over,  while  the  other  appears  to  be  what 
is  known  in  Russia  as  the  Cross  Fox.  On  its  under  parts  it  is  Avhite, 
but  down  the  back  from  the  tip  of  the  nose  to  the  end  of  the  tail  runs 
a  broad  pale  brownish  band,  which  is  crossed  by  two  similar  bands  in 
the  limb  regions.  From  the  many  adults  and  young  that  Ave  saw  it 
would  appear  at  least  to  be  the  rule  that  the  uniformly  dark-coloured 
fox  breeds  more  or  less  separately  from  the  lighter  cross  form.  We 
haA^e  at  least  no  record  of  having  seen  mixed  parents  or  litters.  This 
may  even  point  to  their  being  separate  varieties.  Towards  the  end  of 
August  several  very  light  cross  foxes  were  seen,  and  one  was  shot. 

Foxes  were  the  only  mammals  Ave  had  seen  on  the  island  till  noAv,  but 
Ave  met  Avith  the  bones  of  reindeer  and  bears,  and  saw  an  occasional  seal 
in  the  water,  but  later  on  I  saw  two  reindeer.  Birds  were,  as  I  have  said, 
plentiful,  and  Ave  had  many  opportunities  in  this  veritable  Bird-land  of 
recording  the  species  to  be  found  and  of  Avatching  their  habits.  On  the 
25th  of  July  the  young  guillemots,  Avho  were  for  the  most  part  already 
hatched  Avhen  Ave  arrived,  began  to  take  to  the  water,  and  by  midnight 
several  hundreds,  perhaps  thousands,  were  swimming  about  Avith  their 
parents  who  came  doAvn  Avith  them.  Those  Avhich  dropped  on  the  land 
Avere  at  once  seized  by  burgomaster  gulls  or  foxes,  both  of  Avhich  lay 
constantly  in  Avait  for  a  dainty  meal  of  young  loom.  The  burgies  also 
attacked  the  young  loom  in  the  water,  but  here  the  parents  made  a 
vigorous  defence  and  drove  them  off.     Kittiwake  and  burgomaster  gulls, 


1  The  plants  are  being  examined  and  described  by  Mr.  R.  N.  Rudmose  Brown,  B.Sc. 
-  The  rocks  and  fossils  are  being  examined  and  described  by  Mr.  Campbell. 


150  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

black  guillemots,  little  auks,  razorbills  and  puffins  were  all  breeding  on 
these  cliffs  at  Vogel  Hook  and  for  two  miles  southward  along  the  west 
coast  of  the  island.  Eider  ducks  and  pink-footed  geese,  both  adults  and 
young,  were  very  numerous  along  the  shores,  but  curiously  enough  we 
never  found  the  nests  or  eggs  of  either,  except  on  one  occasion  when  we 
came  upon  a  single  deserted  duck's  egg.  Arctic  skuas  bred  on  the 
plains,  where  we  found  their  nests,  and  snow  buntings'  nests  with  eggs 
or  young  were  frequentlj'^  found  in  crannies.  We  found  the  young,  but 
not  the  egg,  of  the  purple  sandpiper.^ 

There  are  many  graves  on  this  and  other  parts  of  the  island ;  the 
remains  of  boiling  stations  and  huts  ;  abandoned  boats  and  wreckage — all 
relics  of  the  former  great  whaling  industry,  when  Dutch,  French,  and 
British  settlers  lived  and  died  on  this  island  as  on  many  parts  of  the 
mainland  of  Spitsbergen.  Most  of  these  graves  have  been  burrowed 
out  by  foxes,  and  the  skeletons  lie  exposed  in  rude  lidless  coffins, 
weathered  and  worn.  Here  and  there  is  a  board  or  a  solitary  cross, 
whose  inscription  indicates  the  name  and  nationality  of  the  dead  and  the 
time  at  which  he  lived  on  the  Foreland.  I  have  in  some  cases  read 
dates  back  to  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century,  and  this  well 
accords  with  what  we  know  of  the  activity  of  the  whaling  industry  in 
these  parts  three  hundred  years  ago. 

Like  many  other  Arctic  lands  there  is  an  abundance  of  driftwood, 
especially  on  the  west  coast,  and  one  notable  feature  is  that  a  very  large 
proportion  is  from  the  wreckage  of  wooden  boats,  possibly  mostly 
Avrecked  walrus  sloops.  This,  with  the  invaluable  though  scattered 
supply  of  birch  bark,  is  excellent  fuel,  and  was  always  used  by  us  when- 
ever possible. 

On  the  1st  August,  leaving  our  camp  as  it  stood  and  only  securing 
it  against  weather  and  the  ravages  of  foxes,  we  marched  over  to  the  base 
camp,  and  in  the  afternoon,  as  neither  the  Princesse  Alice  nor  the 
Kvedfjord  had  arrived,  walked  three  miles  to  the  southward,  where  we 
discovered  eight  Dutch  graves.  We  also  saw  two  great  northern 
divers — a  new  record  for  Spitsbergen.  At  9.30  P.M.  we  sighted  the  two 
ships,  curiously  miraged,  and  they  anchored  fully  two  miles  from  the  land 
in  5i  fathoms  at  11.30  P.M.  Xext  day  the  weather  was  very  fine,  and 
at  7  A.M.  we  were  awakened  by  Wedderburn's  welcome  Scottish  voice 
outside  the  tent.  He  had  come  ashore  with  letters  and  parcels.  We 
were  on  board  about  9  A.M.  The  Prince  was  at  the  gangway  to  meet 
us  and  gave  us  a  hearty  greeting.  He  had  visited  Wiide  Bay  and 
Danes  Gat  and  had  met  Isachsen's  party  and  Wellman's  Expedition. 
We  enjoyed  the  luxury  of  a  hot  bath,  and  then,  after  having  gathered 
some  necessaries,  such  as  ropes,  canvas,  etc.,  we  lunched  on  board  at  11 
and  left  for  the  shore  soon  after  noon.  The  Prince  took  his  departure 
at  1  o'clock  to  the  NW.  to  make  a  balloon  ascent.  This  was  the  last 
we  saw  of  the  ships  until  the  26th  of  August.  In  the  afternoon  I  got 
good  sights  for  longitude,  having  compared  my  chronometers  with  those 


1  Proc.  Roy.  Phys.  Soc,   "The  Mammals  and  Birds  of  Prince  Charles  Forelaud,"  liy 
Wm.  S.  Bruce,  F.R.S.E.,  read  November  2C,  1906. 


PRINCE   CHARLES   FORELAND.  151 

on  board  the  yacht.  The  rest  of  the  time  was  spent  in  continuing  the 
geodetic  work,  first  of  all  round  the  north  end  of  the  island  joining  our 
eastern  with  our  western  survey.  We  extended  the  eastern  survey  to  a 
point  about  8  miles  southward  from  the  Vogel  Hook  and  the  western 
to  a  distance  southward  of  over  20  miles.  In  all  we  mapped  in  great 
detail  an  area  of  about  120  square  miles,  that  being,  roughly,  the 
northernmost  third  of  the  island.^ 

The  topographical  features  of  Prince  Charles  Foreland  are  striking, 
and  as  there  is  no  accurate  description  given  in  any  publication,  it  may 
be  well  to  give  a  general  account  of  these  features  as  far  as  we  know 
them  at  the  present  date. 

The  British  Admiralty  Chart  of  Spitsbergen,  No.  2751,  published  in 
1865  under  the  superintendence  of  the  late  Captain  G.  H.  Eichards, 
with  corrections  up  to  1901,  gives  our  present-day  standard  map  of 
Prince  Charles  Foreland.  This  map  is  far  from  correct,  and  in  many 
ways  much  less  accurate  than  some  of  the  older  maps.  Edge's  map  of 
Spitsbergen,  published  in  1625,  reveals  details  which  I  know  to  exist 
and  which  have  been  obliterated  in  the  British  Admiralty  chart.  Edge's 
map  has  been  recently  emphasised  by  Sir  Martin  Conway.^ 

Prince  Charles  Foreland  is  a  long  island  lying  off  the  west  coast  of 
Spitsbergen  between  King's  Bay  and  Ice  Fjord ;  it  is  separated  from 
the  mainland  by  a  channel  known  as  Foreland  Sound,  of  which  we  know 
very  little.  This  channel  is,  however,  certainly  so  shallow  that  in  parts 
it  may,  as  has  been  supposed,  present  a  complete  bar  to  all  vessels  from 
10  or  12  feet  of  draught.  But  this  is  not  altogether  so  certain  as 
has  been  believed  up  to  the  present  day,  for  the  series  of  rough  sound- 
ings which  I  took  on  board  the  Kvedfjord  indicate  that  we  may  have 
3  or  4  fathoms  of  water  as  the  least  depth  of  the  navigable  channel. 
The  water  appears  on  the  whole  to  deepen  towards  the  east  coast  of  the 
Foreland,  but  it  is  dangerous  to  make  many  statements,  for  as  yet  the 
channel  is  entirely  unsurveyed.  The  Prince  of  Monaco's  work  in 
Close  Cove  and  between  Close  Cove  and  Vogel  Hook,  and  some 
soundings  I  have  taken,  throw  preliminary  light  on  the  conformation  of 
sea  bottom  at  the  northern  end  of  the  Sound. 

Making  the  usual  approach  to  the  island  from  the  southward,  or 
probably  from  a  little  to  the  west  of  south,  one's  first  impression  is 
that  there  are  two  islands,  and  one  has  to  be  very  close  to  the  coast 
before  one  can  see  that  there  is  actually  continuous  land  where  at  first 
sight  a  channel  appears  to  exist.  The  Foreland  stretches  from  about 
78°  10' N.  to  almost  79°  N.,and  lies  roughly  between  the  longitudes  of  10" 
and  13°  E.  It  is  divided  into  three  regions,  the  small  hilly  portion 
occupying  6  or  8  miles  of  its  southern  extremity,  and  the  extensive 
flat-lying  portion,  probably  nowhere  more  than  20  feet  above  the  sea, 
occupying  roughly  the  next  8  or  10  miles  of  its  length,  while  the 
remaining  three-quarters  of  the  island  consist  of  an  almost  continuous 


1  This  uiap  is  iu  the  course  of  coustructiou,  and  will  be  published  later.     [Meantime  a 
reproduction  of  the  latest  British  Admiralty  chart  is  given. 

2  No  Man's  Land.     Sir  Martin  Conway.     Cambridge  University  Press.     Pp.  334-335. 


152 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


range  of  mountains,  extending  right  up  to  A'ogel  Hook — the  northern 
point  of  the  Foreland,  This  range  of  mountains,  it  is  interesting  to 
note,  contains  some   of   the  highest  peaks  of   the   Spitsbergen  archi- 


Prince  Charles  Forelaml  and  part  of  West  Spitsbergen. 
(From  tlie  Admiralty  Chart,  1901.) 


pelago.  la  all  the  Foreland  measures  about  50  to  55  miles  in  length, 
and  has  an  average  breadth  of  about  6  miles.  The  mountains  forming 
its  backbone  rise  almost  always  precipitously,  and  the  ridge  is  only 
broken  here  and  there  by  a  rough  pass  from  east  to  west.  They  do 
not,  however,  as  a  rule  rise  straight  up  from  the  sea,  as  they  have  been 


>l 


PRINCE   CHARLES   FORELAND.  153 

said  to  do.  There  is  almost  invariably  along  the  whole  of  the  west 
coast  a  low-lying  terraced  plain  (old  raised  beaches),  the  highest  terraces 
of  which  do  not  reach  a  height  of  more  than  50  or  60  feet,  and  this  plain 
is  for  the  most  part  half  a  mile  to  two  miles  broad.  At  the  back  of 
the  plain  rise  the  mountains  with  steep  taluses  and  precipitous  cliffs. 
In  the  middle  portion  of  the  Foreland,  towards  the  southern  extremity 
of  the  mountain  range  which  we  are  at  present  dealing  with,  a  number 
of  glaciers  find  an  exit,  but  none  of  them  reach  the  sea  as  they  appear 
to  do,  to  any  one  sailing  along  the  coast,  but  terminate  on  the  landward 
side  of  these  raised  beaches.  There  are  no  glaciers  at  all  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  island.  The  east  coast  presents  the  same  features  as  the 
west  coast  AA'ith  regard  to  raised  beaches,  but  they  are  more  exten- 
sive, the  foot  of  the  mountains  being  sometimes  three  miles  from  the 
sea.  The  slopes  of  the  mountains  also  are  less  precipitous  on  the 
eastern  than  on  the  western  side  of  the  land.  The  middle  third  of 
the  Foreland  along  the  east  coast  is  most  fully  glaciated,  and  for  about 
12  miles  there  is  an  almost  continuous  ice-face  entering  the  sea.  These 
great  glaciers  have  their  gathering  ground  amongst  the  highest  of  the 
mountains  that  exist  in  the  island.  The  altitude  of  the  highest 
hill  has  been  estimated  by  various  people,  but  from  exact  observa- 
tions made  on  the  island  I  was  able  to  measure  its  height  as  being 
3850  feet. 

These  terraced  raised  beaches,  which  form  such  a  marked  characteristic, 
are  dotted  over  with  innumerable  shallow  fresh-water  lakes,  and  brackish 
or  sea-water  lagoons  which  stretch  along  the  shore.  Some  of  the  lagoons 
are  very  large,  and  there  is  one  notable  one  which  appears  on  Edge's 
chart,  which  has  been  wiped  out  by  more  modern  cartographers.  This 
lagoon  lies  on  the  east  coast  at  the  head  of  a  bay  opposite  English  Bay, 
and  is  obliterated  on  all  recent  maps.  It  has  an  excellent  entrance 
from  the  sea  through  which  a  boat,  of  considerable  draught,  can  enter 
at  high  tide.  The  breadth  of  this  lagoon  is  fully  a  mile,  while  its  length 
is  from  3  to  4  miles,  and  inside  the  water  is  of  considerable  depth.  It 
appeared  to  me  an  interesting  place  for  the  naturalist :  for  here,  with 
a  good  supply  of  fresh  sea-water,  protected  from  the  violence  of  the 
waves  and  the  rending  of  driving  ice,  many  forms  of  animal  life  find  a 
quiet  home.  These  lagoons,  and  some  of  the  fresh-water  lakes  also,  are 
the  resort  of  pink-footed  and  brent  geese,  of  eider  ducks,  and  innumer- 
able red-throated  divers.  Purple  sandpipers  dart  along  their  shores,  and 
occasionally  a  rarer  bird,  as  for  instance  the  sanderling  and  its  young, 
which  we  discovered  breeding  here,  and  which  is  a  new  record  for 
Spitsbergen.  Kittiwake  and  burgomaster  gulls  also,  especially  after 
the  breeding  season,  make  their  resting  place  here,  Avhile  arctic  terns  are 
to  be  found  flitting  across,  and  nesting  in  the  neighbourhood  of,  almost 
every  lagoon. 

The  plains  are,  moreover,  crossed  at  right  angles  by  a  number  of 
burns  and  rivers  which  are  fed  from  the  snows  and  glaciers  of  the 
higher  land.  The  amount  of  water  present  varies  considerably  in  accord- 
ance with  the  time  of  year.  In  the  early  summer  there  is  a  very  full 
supply  ;  but  as  the  store  of  snow  becomes  diminished  later  on,  and  as 


154  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

frost  binds  the  land  the  water  which  flows  from  this  snow,  n6ve,  or  even 
glacier  also  diminishes,  and  in  autumn  it  may  be  difficult  to  find  a 
suitable  camping-place,  through  lack  of  even  a  small  spring  to  furnish 
necessary  water. 

There  is  a  marked  difference  in  the  vegetation  of  the  east  and  of  the 
west,  the  west  being  very  much  more  luxuriant  than  the  east,  which  is 
often  absolutely  barren  for  miles.  More  of  the  big  bird  rookeries  also 
are  to  be  found  on  the  west  coast,  and  in  their  neighbourhood  the  soil 
is  always  considerably  fertilised,  and  vegetation  consequently  more 
abundant.  Mosses,  scurvy  grass,  tall  sulphur  buttercups,  many  saxi- 
frages, small  rosaceous  plants  and  the  arctic  willow  carpet  and  beautify 
the  land.  But  even  on  the  west  coast  there  are  sterile  parts,  and  one 
not  unfrequently  passes  abruptly  from  the  flowery  region  into  a  veritable 
desert.  A  sign  of  luxuriant  vegetation  in  the  past  in  certain  places  is 
shown  by  considerable  deposits  of  peat,  which  we  used  for  fuel. 

Nathorst  was  probably  correct  in  referring  to  the  rocks  at  the  place 
he  visited  south  of  Cape  Cold  as  silurian  rocks  of  the  Hecla  Hook 
series,  but,  like  all  others,  even  this  eminent  geologist  was  unable  to  find 
any  fossiliferous  remains.  Garwood  was  probably  only  partially  correct, 
for,  as  far  as  I  have  been  able  to  judge,  the  rocks  of  the  Hecla  Hook 
series  form  the  east  coast  of  Prince  Charles  Foreland  except  towards  the 
northern  portion.  I  am  further  inclined  to  this  opinion  by  the  fact  that 
at  our  base  camp  I  was  fortunate  enough  to  discover  remains  of  fossil 
plants.  Many  of  these  are  indeterminable,  but  I  obtained  good  examples 
of  dicotyledonous  leaves  and,  probably,  stems  :  and  also  what  Dr.  Peach 
on  rough  examination  considers  may  be  worm-casts.  Mr.  Campbell, 
of  the  Geological  Department  of  the  University,  has  been  good  enough 
to  undertake  to  work  through  the  material  and  report  ujion  it.  Moreover, 
our  chairman  Prof.  Gregory,  one  of  our  few  geologists  who  has  actually 
visited  Spitsbergen  and  seen  the  land  over  which  the  Scottish  party 
worked  last  year,  promises  to  inspect  the  collections,  and  will  doubtless 
be  able  to  help  in  making  a  good  report  of  the  geology  of  the  Foreland. 
Roughly  speaking,  however,  I  think  I  may  safely  predict  that  the  beds 
on  the  northern  part  of  the  east  coast  of  the  Foreland  are  tertiary  rather 
than  silurian,  and  are  of  the  same  series  as  exist  in  King's  Bay.  Half- 
way between  Yogel  Hook  and  Cape  Sitoe  are  very  coarse  conglomerates, 
which  are  probably  arch?ean  and  allied  to  those  I  have  previously  met 
with  in  Eed  Bay. 

During  our  stay  on  the  island  we  made  continuous  meteorological 
observations  by  means  of  recording  instruments,  checked  by  eye  observa- 
tions, at  as  frequent  intervals  as  other  work  would  allow.  We  also 
made  a  number  of  astronomical  observations  at  tlie  eight  camps  which 
formed  the  centres  of  our  work  in  the  northern  third  of  the  island. 
These  observations  have  been  revised,  and  I  have  to  thank  j\Ir.  Thomas 
Heath,  of  the  Royal  Observatory,  Blackford  Hill,  for  working  up  and 
classifying  the  results. 

On  the  30th  August  we  finally  left  the  Foreland,  but  with  difficulty, 
on  account  of  four  days'  very  stormy  weather,  which  made  it  impossible 
for  boats  to   approach   the  shore.     Even  on  the   30th    we    had    great 


"•"PP"!^ 


PKINCE   CHARLES   FORELAND.  155 

difficulty,  having  to  run  the  boats  through  surf,  greatly  endangering  the 
re-shipping  of  our  scientific  instruments  and  other  gear.  On  the  night 
of  the  30th  we  anchored  in  a  sheltered  bay  with  the  Kvedfjord  ofi' 
the  large  lagoon  previously  referred  to,  and  during  the  strong  gale 
and  snowstorm  recovered  one  of  our  boats  which  we  had  left  in  the 
lagoon  a  week  previously.  At  8.30  A.M.  on  the  31st  we  heaved  up 
anchor  and  steamed  southward  towards  Ice  Fjord,  and,  sounding 
frequently,  I  obtained  as  our  least  depth  4  fathoms  :  but  mostly  the 
soundings  were  over  10  fathoms.  We  looked  into  Safe  Harbour,  and 
not  finding  the  yacht  there,  steamed  across  to  Green  Harbour,  coming 
alongside  Frincesse  Alice  at  4.30  P.M.  Fortunately  the  morning  cleared 
up,  and  I  took  some  photographs  and  sketches  of  the  east  coast  of 
the  Foreland,  identifying  several  peaks  I  had  seen  from  the  northward. 
I  found  that  several  of  the  peaks  seen  from  the  Scottish  standard  at  the 
south  end  of  the  "  Base  Line  "  were  the  furthest  south  on  the  island. 
Consequently,  with  angles  taken  at  some  future  time  from  another 
suitable  point,  the  position  of  these  peaks  will  ultimately  be  very  well 
fixed.  On  September  2nd  we  heaved  up  anchor  and  steamed  across  to 
Safe  Harbour,  in  spite  of  very  dull  weather  and  a  fresh  north-westerly 
breeze.  On  approaching  the  bay  so  much  ice  from  the  glaciers  was 
streaming  out  of  it,  that  the  Prince  was  compelled  to  abandon  his 
intention  of  going  in,  and  heading  out  of  Ice  Fjord  steamed  towards 
Tromso.  At  noon  on  3rd  September  we  were  30  miles  west  of  Bear 
Island,  sailing  with  the  fresh  north-westerly  breeze.  Dr.  Richard 
found  the  temperature  of  the  water  much  cooler  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Bear  Island  than  either  to  the  north  or  south  of  it.  During  the 
evening  the  foreyard  carried  away,  but  so  coolly  and  systematically  was 
this  accident  taken  in  hand  that  none  of  us  aft  knew  anything  about  it 
until  on  going  up  we  found  the  men  stowing  away  and  lashing  up  the 
yard  on  deck.  On  the  4th  we  sighted  the  northern  coast  of  Norway, 
and  in  sight  of  the  land  the  Prince  made  a  meteorological  balloon  ascent 
to  the  height  of  about  15,000  feet.  We  anchored  at  Karlso  half  an  hour 
after  midnight  on  September  5th.  In  the  morning  we  took  in  the 
trammel  net,  which  had  been  set  after  our  arrival  at  Karlso,  and  got  a 
good  haul  of  fish,  and  also  a  number  of  other  interesting  zoological 
specimens.  We  reached  Tromso  at  about  2  P.M.,  and  spent  most  of  the 
afternoon  going  over  our  letters  which  were  awaiting  us  there.  At 
6  P.M.  Captain  Bouree  took  a  photograph  of  all  those  who  had  specially 
helped  in  the  exploration  work,  and  afterwards  the  Prince  entertained 
Isachsen's  and  my  men  in  the  cabin,  toasting  us  all,  and  thanking  us  for 
the  work  we  had  done.  He  also  told  us  he  would  have  a  special  medal 
struck  to  commemorate  the  accomplishment  of  the  scientific  work  that 
had  been  carried  through  on  his  yacht  during  the  cruise. 

Our  party  on  board  the  yacht,  which  included  representatives  from 
no  less  than  seven  nations — a  Babel  of  tongues — was,  however,  destined 
to  have  a  gloom  cast  over  it  next  morning,  when  Captain  Henry  Carr, 
R.N.R.,  who  had  sailed  for  long  years  with  His  Highness  as  shipmaster, 
was  found  lying  on  the  floor  of  his  cabin  unconscious  and  paralysed. 
Fortunately  both    the  Prince  himself  and  Captain    Bouree   were    ex- 


156  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

perieuced  navigators,  and  there  was  no  difficulty  in  carrying  on  properly 
the  conduct  of  the  ship. 

On  the  10th  September  we  put  in  at  Trondjhem,  and  next  day 
the  Princesse  Alice  left  for  Havre,  instead  of  for  Leith  as  was  at  first 
intended,  on  account  of  the  illness  of  Captain  Carr.  Thus  terminated 
the  happy  connection  of  the  Scottish  party  with  the  Princesse  Alice, 
Kerr,  Miller,  and  myself  returning  to  Scotland  by  way  of  Bergen, 
Newcastle  and  Leith. 

This  is  the  sum  and  substance  of  the  Scottish  exploration  of  Prince 
Charles  Foreland,  and  the  summary  of  our  knowledge  with  regard  to  it 
up  to  the  present  day.  It  will  be  seen  that  much  work  still  remains 
to  be  done,  and  it  is  not  unlikely  that  an  opportunity  may  be  afforded 
me,  with  a  larger  party,  including  scientific  men,  of  completing  the  survey 
of  Prince  Charles  Foreland  under  the  auspices  of  that  spirited  inter- 
national scientist,  His  Serene  Highness,  Albert,  Prince  of  Monaco. 


PROCEEDINGS    OF   THE   ROYAL   SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL 

SOCIETY. 

Meeting  of  Council. 

At  a  Meeting  of  Council,  held  on  Monday,  January  28th,  The  Hon. 
Lord  Guthrie  was  elected  a  Vice-President  of  the  Society.  The  following 
ladies  and  gentlemen  were  elected  Members  of  the  Society  : — 

Hume  Brodie.  George  Watson.  Sir  Wm.  Willcocks,  K.C.M.G. 

Mrs.  K.  L.  Beilby.  Miss  Elizabeth  Rodger.  Miss  M.  H.  L.  Clark. 

James  S.  Davidson.  Joha  M'Leaii,  M.A.  Mrs.  Pringle  of  Whytbank. 

Dr.  William  Paterson.  Robert  T.  Morrison.  Miss  Elizabeth  R.  Barty,  M.A. 

Alexander  Hutcheson,  M.A.  James  Wilson.  Miss  Margaret  P.  D.  Stewart. 

A.  T.  Graham.  Rev.  W.  A.  Heard,  M.A.,  LL.D.  Belpin  Behari  Ghosal,  M.A. 

Robert  Campbell,  M.A.,  B.Sc.  Mrs.  Lon  Henry  Hoover.  Stuart  Foulis. 

Miss  Esther  Hope  Day.  James  Mathieson.  Fred.  J.  Pack. 

The  following  ladies  and  gentlemen  were  elected  "  Teacher  Associate  " 
Members  of  the  Society  : — 

Mrs.  A.  C.  Buchanan.  Walter  Burt,  M.A.  George  Elder. 

Miss  Ethel  M.  Lett.  Hugh  J.  C.  Kinghorn,  M.A.  Horace  F.  M.  Munro,  M.A. 

Miss  Isabella  Goodlet.  Neil  Eraser,  M.A.  Miss  Hannah  Watson. 

H.  J.  Findlav.  Miss  Annie  A.  Dow.  Miss  C.  J.  B.  Birrell. 

J.  B   lunes,  M.A.,  F.E.I. S.  John    Miller   Nisbet,    M.A.,  Frederick  Mort,  M.A.,  B.Sc, 

Duncan  Brown,  CM.  B.Sc.  F.G.S. 

Thomas  W.  Paterson.  James  Graham,  M.A.  Miss  E.  P.  Taylor. 

John  Grant.  John  Amlirose,  M.A.  John  Frew,  M.A.,  B.Sc. 

Alexander  C.  S.  Scrimgeour,  Donald  Maclean,  M.A.  J.  C'orrie. 

M.A.  Miss  Christina  A.  Cameron,  Miss     Margaret     Johnston, 
Alexander  Sutherland.                  M.A.  A.L.C.M. 

Miss  Margaret  F.  Anderson. 

Lectures  in  March. 

At  Dundee,  on  the  5th  March,  Mr.  T.  G.  LongstafF,  ]\I.D.,  F.R.G.S., 
will  deliver  a  lecture  entitled  "  Tours  in  Central  Himalayas  and  Tibet." 


PROCEEDINGS  OF  THE   ROYAL   SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  SOCIETY.     157 

On  the  following  dates,  6th,  7th,  and  8th  of  March,  Mr.  Longstaff  will 
repeat  his  address  before  the  Aberdeen,  Edinburgh,  and  Glasgow  Centres. 

On  Tuesday  21st  March,  in  Edinburgh,  Mr.  H.  M.  Cadell,  B.Sc, 
will  give  a  lecture  entitled  "Mountaineering  in  Mexico." 

Sir  Harry  H.  Johnston,  G.C.M.Gr.,  K.C.B.,  will  address  the  Glasgow 
and  Dundee  Centres  on  20th  and  21st  March  respectively.  The  subject 
of  his  address  will  be  "  Liberia." 

Owing  to  Mr.  Rudmose  Brown's  appointment  as  leader  of  an  Ex- 
pedition to  the  Oyster  Pearl  Fisheries  off  the  coast  of  Burma,  his  lecture 
in  Aberdeen  on  20th  March  is  postponed  indefinitely. 


GEOGRAPHICAL     NOTES. 

Professor  Sir  William  Ramsay,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  Litt.D. — Our 

frontispiece  this  month  represents  Professor  Sir  William  Ramsay,  of 
Aberdeen  University,  who  was  presented  with  the  Society's  Silver  Medal 
on  the  occasion  of  his  address  to  the  Society  in  Edinburgh  on  January 
31.  Sir  William  Ramsay  lectured  on  "Roads  and  Railways  on  the 
Plateau  of  Asia  Minor,"  the  region  with  which  his  name  is  so  honour- 
ably associated. 

The  frontispiece  (the  Prince  of  Monaco)  of  our  last  issue  was  from 
a  photograph  by  Lafayette. 

Europe. 

The  Flora  of  an  Island. — In  connection  with  the  papers  which  we 
have  published  here  from  time  to  time  on  the  distribution  of  plants  in 
Scotland,  it  is  interesting  to  notice  a  recent  communication  to  the  Trans- 
actions of  the  Edbiburgh  Field  Nafiimlists'  and  Microscopical  Society  (Session 
1905-6)  by  Miss  Beatrice  Sprague.  The  paper  gives  an  account  of  the 
flora  of  an  island  of  shingle  in  the  river  Orchy,  Dalmally,  Argyll,  The 
island  is  of  recent  formation,  and  consists  of  beds  of  coarse  shingle,  and 
of  an  area  where  the  shingle  is  covered  with  river  sand.  While  the 
former  part  is  almost  bare  of  vegetation,  the  latter  is  thickly  clothed. 
Vegetation  apparently  began  to  grow  here  about  twenty  years  prior  to 
the  writing  of  the  paper,  but  did  not  become  noticeable  until  about  five 
or  six  years  ago.  In  spite  of  the  poor  soil  and  liability  to  flooding,  no 
less  than  143  species  of  plants  were  obtained  upon  the  island,  of  which 
137  were  flowering  plants.  A  careful  study  of  the  sources  of  the  flora 
showed  that  the  vast  majority  of  the  plants  come  from  the  immediate 
neighbourhood,  nine  were  mountain  plants  apparently  brought  down  by 
streams,  and  nine  were  garden  escapes.  As  is  natural  under  the  circum- 
stances, an  analysis  of  the  plants  emphasises  the  importance  of  water 
rather  than  of  wind  carriage. 

The  Survey  of  Lake  Balaton. — We  have  received  copies  of  the 
liesuUate  der  IFissenschaftlichenErforschung  des  Bcdatonsees  (Vienna,  1902-6). 
In  this  work,  issued  by  the  Balatonsee  Commission  of  the  Hungarian 


158  SCOTTISH    GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

Geographical  Society,  we  have,  as  indicated  by  the  programme  of  the 
survey,  a  comprehensive  monograph  of  the  great  lake  of  Hungary,  Lake 
Balaton  or  the  Plattensee — a  work  on  the  same  lines  as  Forel's  great 
monograph  on  the  Lake  of  Geneva. 

The  sections  of  the  work  now  before  us  deal  with  such  diverse 
subjects  as  Ethnography,  Archaeology,  Plankton,  Light  and  Colour,  etc., 
and  one  section  gives  a  comprehensive  Bibliography. 

An  instructive  comparison  might  be  made  of  the  various  phenomena 
connected  with  lakes  as  exhibited  in  Lake  Balaton  and  in  the  Scottish 
Lakes.  The  small  but  deep  lakes  of  Scotland  offer  the  greatest  possible 
contrast  to  the  great  but  shallow  Lake  Balaton,  and  there  can  be  no 
doubt  that  the  physical  as  well  as  biological  phenomena  will  differ 
profoundly. 

Though  comparable  for  size  with  the  Lake  of  Geneva,  Lake  Balaton 
has  a  mean  depth  of  only  about  10  feet,  and  a  maximum  depth  of 
scarcely  40  feet.  In  Scotland  the  greater  lakes  are  relatively  very 
deep,  and  there  are  only  two  even  moderately  large  lakes  which  are  very 
shallow,  viz.  Loch  Leven  and  the  Loch  of  Harray  in  Orkney. 

Some  of  the  subjects  dealt  with  have  but  little  direct  relation  to 
lakes,  or  they  have  not  been  studied  in  that  relation  in  Scotland.  A 
large  volume  is  devoted  to  Ethnography.  The  shores  of  the  Danube, 
which  have  witnessed  such  great  movements  of  the  human  race,  must 
yield  a  Avealth  of  material  for  ethnological  studies  as  compared  with  our 
ever  sparsely-peopled  Highlands,  though  the  glens  and  the  lochs  are 
not  Avithout  profound  human  interest,  and  the  dwellings  of  long-passed 
races,  the  duns,  and  broughs,  and  crannogs  of  our  lochs  have  supplied 
material  for  various  works. 

The  sections  on  biology  deal  with  some  portions  of  the  Plankton, 
the  Diatoms,  and  the  MoUusca. 

Dr.  Entz  points  out  that  only  by  using  the  word  in  its  widest  sense 
can  it  be  said  that  Lake  Balaton  has  any  Plankton,  True  plankton 
forms  exist,  but  there  is  always  a  large  admixture  of  littoral  and  bottom 
species  which  Dr.  Pantocsek,  in  dealing  with  the  Diatoms,  calls  pseudo- 
Plankton.  There  is  an  interesting  chapter  on  the  variation  and  the 
seasonal  forms  of  Ceratium  hirundinella.  Dr.  Pantocsek  gives  a  list  of 
nearly  300  species  of  Diatoms  and  describes  very  many  new  species  and 
varieties.  A  very  small  number  of  species  belong  to  the  active  plankton, 
and  of  these  AsterioneUa  gracilUma  is  one  of  the  commonest  plankton 
organisms  in  Scotland,  Ehizosolenia  longiseta  has  been  found  in  some 
lochs,  but  is  rare,  while  Fragilaria  crotonensis  is  frequent  in  the  west  and 
north  of  Scotland,  where  the  beautiful  variety  contorta  W.  and  G.  S.  West 
is  found  in  a  number  of  lochs. 

The  section  on  Colour  Phenomena  includes  a  chapter  on  Mirages  of 
interest  in  Scotland  in  view  of  mirages  of  a  very  similar  character 
observed  on  Loch  Ness.  The  general  effect  of  these  mirages  is  to  raise 
distant  objects  which  are  below  the  horizon  so  that  they  appear  suspended 
in  air  over  the  horizon.  Along  a  distant  receding  shoreline  the  effect 
is  to  raise  the  shoreline  under  promontories  so  that  they  have  the 
appearance  of  overhanging  cliffs. 


GEOGRAPHICAL   NOTES.  159 

We  have  never  seen  on  Loch  Ness  the  distinct  duplication  of  the 
mirage  by  reflection  which  is  frequent  on  Lake  Bahiton.  The  distant 
steamer  was  often  greatly  exaggerated  in  size  in  the  vertical  direction, 
and  this  may  have  been  due  to  duplication.  The  receding  steamer, 
after  disappearing  over  the  horizon,  often  reappeared  when  far  down  the 
loch.  On  one  occasion  the  Fathers  in  the  Benedictine  Monastery  at 
Fort  Augustus  saw  a  snow-covered  mountain  which  they  judged  from 
its  position  to  be  Ben  Wyvis. 

Von  Cholnolsy  explains  these  mirages  as  arising  when,  the  lake  being 
warmer  than  the  air,  a  layer  of  warmer  air  is  formed  above  its  surface. 
The  great  volume  and  depth  of  Loch  Ness  cause  it  to  maintain  a  high 
temperature  in  winter,  never  falling  below  4r0°  or  42-0''  Fahr.  During 
winter  the  air  must  be  generally  at  a  lower  temperature  than  this, 
especially  at  night ;  hence  we  have  the  mirages  almost  every  morning. 

Asia. 

Dr.  Sven  Hedin's  Expedition. — According  to  a  message  from 
Calcutta,  Dr.  Sven  Hedin  reached  Gyangtse  on  February  5,  and 
expresses  himself  as  delighted  with  the  results  of  his  expedition,  the 
geographical  results  being  especially  rich.  He  expected  to  reach 
Shigatse  at  the  end  of  February.  The  winter  at  the  date  of  writing 
had  proved  exceptionally  severe,  with  temperatures  of  3 1°  below  zero  (F.), 
and  the  whole  caravan  was  lost  crossing  Tibet,  but  no  loss  of  human  life 
occurred ;  and  the  specimens,  maps,  notebooks,  etc.,  were  saved. 

Africa. 

The  Alexander  -  Gosling  Expedition. — Lieutenant  Boyd  Alex- 
ander, with  the  Portuguese  collector  .Jose  Lopez,  the  only  two  survivors 
of  the  Alexander-Gosling  Expedition,  recently  returned  to  London 
from  Africa.  We  have  recorded  here  the  course  of  the  expedition  up  to 
Bima  on  the  Welle  {see  xxii.  p.  381  et  antea),  and  the  subsequent  death 
of  Captain  Gosling,  which  took  place  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Welle.  From 
Bima  it  was  found  impossible  to  reach  Lake  Albert,  as  was  intended,  so 
the  party  turned  north,  and  after  some  time  had  been  spent  among  the 
little-known  tributaries  of  the  Bahr-el-Ghazal,  the  Yei  was  navigated 
down  to  the  Nile,  after  which  no  further  difficulties  were  encountered. 

Polar. 
Scottish  National  Antarctic  Expedition. — Information  has  come 

to  hand  through  the  British  Admiralty  regarding  the  finding  of  another 
float  thrown  overboard  from  the  Scotia,  aft^r  a  drift  of  three  years.  This 
bottle  was  put  into  the  sea  on  the  14th  December  1903,  in  latitude  40' 
32'  S.,  long.  58°  33'  W.,  and  was  found  on  the  13th  December  1906  on 
the  ocean  beach  about  10  miles  SE.  of  the  entrance  of  Port  Philip  Head, 
Victoria,  which  is  approximately  in  latitude  38°  18'S.,  long.  144°  50'  E. 
The  float  therefore  travelled  9355  miles  in  1095  days,  i.e.  8|  miles  per 
day.  This  is  the  second  float  which  has  been  found  on  the  coast  of 
Victoria,  Australia. 


160  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  BlAGAZINE. 

New  Antarctic  Expedition, — Mr.  E.  H.  Shackleton,  lately  Secre- 
tary of  the  Koyal  Scottish  Ueographical  Society,  is  organising  a  new 
expedition  to  antarctic  regions,  which  is  to  leave  this  country  in  October 
next.  The  plans  of  the  new  expedition,  as  meantime  outlined,  are  as 
follows : — 

On  its  departure  the  expedition  will  proceed  to  N^ew  Zealand,  and 
thence  will  go  down  to  the  winter  quarters  of  the  Discovery  in  latitude 
77°  50'  S.  After  landing  a  shore  party  of  explorers,  the  ship  will 
proceed  back  to  Lyttelton,  New  Zealand,  thus  avoiding  the  risk  of  being 
frozen  in  like  the  Discover ij,  and  in  the  following  year  she  will  return  to 
pick  up  the  explorers. 

If  funds  permit,  the  expedition  will  land  a  party  of  men  at  Mount 
Melbourne,  on  the  coast  of  Victoria  Land,  and  will  try  to  reach  from 
that  point,  which  is  the  most  favourable,  the  south  magnetic  pole ;  but 
the  main  object  of  the  explorers  is  to  follow  out  the  discoveries  made  on 
the  southern  sledge  journey  from  the  Discovery. 

It  is  held  that  the  southern  sledge  party  of  the  Discovery  would  have 
reached  a  much  higher  altitude  if  they  had  been  more  adequately 
equipped  for  sledge  work ;  and  in  the  new  expedition,  in  addition  to 
dogs,  Siberian  ponies  will  be  taken,  as  the  surface  of  the  land  or  ice 
over  which  the  party  will  have  to  travel  will  be  eminently  suited  for  this 
mode  of  sledge  travelling.  Further,  a  novel  feature  will  be  the  taking 
of  a  special  type  of  motor  car  suitable  for  use  on  the  surface  of  the  ice. 
The  members  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society  will  cordially 
wish  that  all  success  may  attend  Mr.  Shackleton's  enterprise. 

The  Anglo-American  Polar  Expedition.  —  In  our  issue  of 
November  last  (p.  604),  it  was  indicated  that  Mr.  Mikkelsen  felt  doubt- 
ful of  being  able  to  penetrate  as  far  north  as  he  had  hoped  on  account 
of  the  bad  state  of  the  ice.  A  recent  communication  from  the  com- 
mander of  the  U.S.A.  revenue  cutter  Thetis,  however,  indicates  that  the 
expedition  was  more  fortunate  than  its  leader  expected.  The  Duchess  of 
Bedford  was  towed  into  open  water  by  a  whaler  in  early  September,  and 
probably  succeeded  in  reaching  Banks  Land  before  the  winter. 

General. 

Dr.  Robert  Bell,  of  the  Canadian  Geological  Survey,  who  has  been 
a  corx'esponding  member  of  the  Royal  Scottish  Geographical  Society 
since  its  foundation,  has  recently  been  the  recipient  of  the  Cullum  Medal 
of  the  American  Geographical  Society,  this  being  the  first  time  that  this 
medal  has  been  awarded  to  a  geographer  who  is  not  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States.  Dr.  Bell  was  also  awarded  the  Patron's  Medal 
of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society  of  London  for  1906.  Dr.  Bell's 
many  friends  in  this  country  will  be  glad  to  hear  of  this  double  honour 
which  has  reached  him.  Dr.  Bell's  scientific  work  has  extended  over 
a  period  of  fifty  years,  and  is  now  bearing  fruit,  not  only  in  the  opening 
up  of  the  great  hinterland  of  Canada,  but  also  in  the  increased  interest 
which  is  being  taken  in  the  survey  of  the  little-known  districts  of  the 


GEOGRAPHICAL   NOTES.  IGl 

country,  an  iuteiest  which  was  shown  in  a  recent  resolution  of  the 
Canadian  Senate. 

AVe  are  glad  to  notice  the  name  of  Mr.  W.  S.  Bruce,  leader  of  the 
Scottish  National  Antarctic  Expedition,  among  those  who  are  to  receive 
the  degree  of  LL.D.  from  the  University  of  Aberdeen. 

Geographical  Congresses. — We  are  informed  that  the  twenty- 
eighth  National  Congress  of  French  Geographical  Societies  will  be  held 
at  Bordeaux  this  summer,  beginning  on  July  28.  The  congress  will 
coincide  with  the  Maritime  Exhibition  at  Bordeaux,  and  representatives 
of  foreign  geographical  societies  are  cordially  invited  to  be  present. 

We  have  also  received  a  circular  of  invitation  to  the  sixteenth 
Deutsclien  Geographcv.tcuj,  to  be  held  at  Niirnberg,  from  May  21st-25th 
next. 

EDUCATIONAL. 

Two  recent  articles  by  Professor  A.  Woeikow  in  Pekrmanns  Mitteilungen 
(xi.,  xii.)  on  the  distribution  of  population  over  the  globe  considered  in 
relation  to  natural  conditions  and  to  human  activity,  contain  much  that 
teachers  will  find  suggestive  and  useful.  No  geographer  would,  of 
course,  deny  that  the  distribution  of  man  over  the  surface  of  the  globe 
is  determined  broadly  by  geographical  conditions,  but  he  must  at  the 
same  time  admit  that,  owing  to  man's  peculiar  social  characteristics,  the 
distribution  at  any  one  period  in  time  is  not  wholly  determined  by  con- 
ditions of  relief,  of  climate,  and  so  forth.  If  we  suppose  that  a  prolific 
community  establishes  itself  in  some  suitable  region,  then,  if  the  social 
bonds  are  strong  and  the  migratory  instinct  feeble,  this  area  may 
become  more  densely  populated  than  its  resources  justify,  even  though 
other  suitable  areas  of  the  surface  of  the  globe  remain  inadequately 
populated.  China  is,  of  course,  the  typical  example  of  this.  Professor 
Woeikow's  articles,  which  are  illustrated  by  two  very  striking  maps, 
and  some  very  useful  tables,  are  full  of  interesting  facts  in  regard  to  the 
relation  between  the  natural  conditions  and  the  density  of  population. 

He  naturally  begins  by  a  consideration  of  the  broad  conditions, 
especially  climate,  which  limit  the  density  of  population  in  different 
localities.  Probably  most  teachers  have  dwelt  upon  man's  adaptability, 
and  pointed  out  that  climate  is  on  the  whole  more  important  in  that  it 
markedly  affects  plant-life,  than  for  its  direct  effect  on  man  as  organism. 
The  cost  of  his  food  in  different  climates  is  of  course  an  important 
point,  and  here  Professor  Woeikow  emphasises  the  need  of  fat  in  cold 
climates.  He  regards  fat  as  the  most  costly  element  in  a  diet,  and  this 
fact  limits  the  possibility  of  large  settlements  in  very  cold  regions  by 
greatly  increasing  the  cost  of  labour.  As  the  grass  family  constitutes 
man's  great  source  of  carbo-hydrates,  his  distribution  is  largely  deter- 
mined by  the  conditions  suitable  for  the  growth  of  its  members. 

Professor  Woeikow  goes  on  to  give  some  detailed  statistics  which 
are  very  striking.  If  we  divide  the  world  into  five  regions — (1)  Europe 
with  the  nearer  East  and  North  Africa,  (2)  Southern  and  Eastern  Asia, 

VOL.  XXIIL  M 


162  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL    MAGAZINE. 

(3)  Africa  exclusive  of  the  region  north  of  the  Sahara,  (4)  America, 
and  (5)  Australasia  with  the  islands  of  the  Pacific — we  find  that  the 
first  two  include  more  than  four-fifths  of  the  total  population  of  the 
globe,  the  Asiatic  region  having  840  millions  as  contrasted  with  the 
480  millions  in  the  European  region.  A  glance  at  a  map  showing  dis- 
tribution will  serve  to  show  that  the  above  are  natural  regions  in  that 
they  are  separated  from  one  another  by  sparsely  populated  wastes,  etc. 
Again,  a  point  of  much  geographical  interest  is  the  fact  that  more  than 
half  mankind  lives  between  20°  to  40°  N.  lat.  Full  of  suggestiveness  also 
is  the  fact  that  in  the  old  civilisations  of  India  and  China  the  tendency 
is  for  the  population  to  be  uniformly  distributed  over  the  surface,  while 
in  the  newer  civilisations — alike  in  Europe  and  in  those  parts  of  the 
world  which  have  been  peopled  from  Europe — the  tendency  is  for  the 
greater  part  of  the  population  to  accumulate  in  large  towns.  The  two 
maps  illustrate,  first,  the  general  distribution  of  the  population  of  the 
globe;  and,  secondly,  the  proportion  of  the  community  in  the  different 
regions  which  dwells  in  large  towns,  and  the  contrast  between  the  two 
maps  is  striking  in  the  extreme.  As  their  colouring  is  broad  and 
simple,  it  could  be  readily  transferred  to  any  blank  map  of  the  hemi- 
spheres for  class-teaching  purposes. 

Teachers  who  have  been  interested  in  the  papers  on  plant  geography 
which  we  have  published  here  from  time  to  time  will  find  much  of  value 
in  an  article  by  Mr.  R.  M.  Harper,  entitled  "  A  Phy togeographical 
Sketch  of  the  Altamaha  Grit  Region  of  the  Coastal  Plain  of  Georgia," 
in  Ann.  of  the  New  York  Acadermj  of  Sciences,  xvii.  The  article  may  be 
said  to  be  the  raw  material  of  geography,  rather  than  geography  in  the 
strict  sense,  but  it  is  fall  of  interesting  facts,  and  is  illustrated  by  a 
series  of  photographs  which  would  make  admirable  lantern  slides  for 
teaching  purposes.  The  area  considered  is  one  remarkable  for  its 
geological  uniformity  over  a  large  area,  and  with  the  geological 
uniformity  comes  great  uniformity  of  vegetation.  The  plants  of  the 
region  can  be  classified  into  a  number  of  well-defined  associations, 
which  correspond  very  exactly  to  slight  diff'erences  in  soil  and  topo- 
graphy, and  illustrate  very  precisely  the  value  of  the  conception  of 
plant-associations  to  the  geographer.  The  greater  part  of  the  area  is 
covered  with  Pine  Barrens,  in  which  the  predominating  tree  is  Finns 
palustris,  a  light-loving  tree  which  is  sparsely  scattered  over  the  area,  the 
individuals  being  separated  from  one  another  by  distances  of  20  or 
30  feet,  thus  permitting  an  amount  of  herbaceous  undergrowth  unusual 
in  forest  areas.  These  Pine  Barrens  depend  upon  the  presence  of  a 
loamy  layer  beneath  a  surface  deposit  of  sand.  As  the  loam  passes 
gradually  into  an  impermeable  clay,  and  the  surface  is  gently  rolling,  it 
follows  that  the  low  ground  tends  always  to  be  swampy,  and  the 
vegetation  of  the  Barrens  passes  into  a  swamp  form,  with  a  predominance 
of  trees  or  shrubs.  On  the  other  hand,  where  the  surface  sandy  layer  is 
thick,  as  in  the  sandliills  of  the  region,  another  type  of  vegetation, 
scanty  in  amount  and  xerophytic  in  character,  appears. 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE.  1G3 

NEW  MAPS. 

EUROPE. 

ORDNANCE  SURVEY  OF  SCOTLAND.— The  following  publications  were  issued 
from  1st  to  30th  November  1906  : — One-inch  Map  (third  edition),  engraved,  in 
outline.     Sheets  29,  54.     Price  Is.  6d.  each. 

Six-inch  Maps — (Revised),  full  sheets,  engraved,  without  contours.  Sutherland. 
—Sheets  50,  71.     Price  2s.  6d.  each. 

1  :  2500  Scale  Maps — (Revised),  with  Houses  ruled,  and  with  Areas.  Price  3s. 
each.  Caithness. — Sheets  xvii.  14  ;  xviii.  7,  8,  16  ;  xix.  1,  4,  5,  8,  9,  10, 11,  12, 
13,  14  ;  XX.  9,  13  ;  xxiii.  1,  3,  7,  13  ;  xxiv.  1,  2,  3,  5,  6,  7,  8,  11,  12,  16  ;  xxv.  1, 
2,  9,  10,  13  ;  XXVIII.  10,  14,  15  ;  xxix.  3,  4,  7,  8,  12,  13,  15,  16  ;  xxx.  1,  5,  9  ; 
xxxiii.  2,  3,  4,  6,  7,  8,  9,  10,  11,  12,  13,  14,  15,  16  ;  xxxiv.  1,  2  (3  and  4),  5,  6,  (7 
and  11),  9,  10,  (13  and  14) ;  xxxix.  5,  6. 

Note. — There  is  no  coloured  edition  of  these  Sheets,  and  the  unrevised 
impressions  are  withdrawn  from  sale. 

The  following  publications  were  issued  from  1st  to  31st  December  1906  : — One- 
inch  Map  (third  edition),  engraved,  in  outline.  Sheets  43,  45.  Price  Is.  6d.  each. 
Third  edition,  engraved,  with  Hills  in  brown  or  black.  Sheets  2,  5,  29,  3C,  40,  43, 
45,  46,  54,  60.  Price  Is.  6d.  each.  Third  edition,  printed  in  colours  ard  folded 
in  cover,  or  flat  in  sheets.  Stirling. — Sheet  39.  Price — on  paper  Is.  Gd.  ;  mounted 
on  linen  2s.  ;  mounted  in  sections  2s.  6d. 

Six-inch  Maps  (Revised),  full  sheets,  heliozincographed,  with  contours.  Ross 
and  Cromarty. — Sheet  42.     Price  2s.  6d. 

1  :  2500  Scale  Maps  (Revised),  with  Houses  ruled,  and  with  Areas.  Price  3s. 
each.  Caithness. — Sheets  xxv.  5,  6  ;  xxxix.  1,  2,  3,  9,  10,  13  ;  xlii.  4,  8,  11  (12 
and  16),  15  ;  xliii.  1.  Edinburghshire.— Sheets  x.  8,  11,  12  ;  xi.  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  10, 
11,  12,  13,  14,  15  ;  XVII.  2,  3.     Sheets  x.  4,  7,  10 ;  xvii.  1.     Price  Is.  6d.  each. 

Note. — There  is  no  coloured  edition  of  these  Sheets,  and  the  unrevised 
impressions  are  withdrawn  from  sale. 

The  following  publications  were  issued  from  1st  to  31st  January  1907: — 
Six-inch  and  larger  Scale  Maps. — 1  :2500  Scale  Maps  (Revised),  with  House-- 
ruled,  and  with  Areas.     Price  3s.  each.     Edinburghshire — Sheet  xi.  1. 

Note. — There  is  no  coloured  edition  of  these  Sheets,  and  the  unrevised 
impressions  are  withdrawn  from  sale. 

GEOLOGICAL  SURVEY  OF  SCOTLAND.— The  following  publications  were  issued 
from  1st  to  31st  December  1906  :  — One-inch  Map.  Sheets  13,  21  (Drift  Edition). 
Price  4s.  each. 

MEMOIRS.— The  Oil  Shales  of  the  Lothians.  Part  I.— The  Geology  of  the  Oil- 
Shale  Fields  :  by  H.  M.  C^adell,  B.Sc,  F.R.S.E.,  and  J.  S.  Grant  Wilson. 
Part  II.— Methods  of  working  the  Oil-Shales  :  by  W,  Caldwell.  Part  III.— 
The  Chemistry  of  the  Oil-Shales  :  by  D.  R.  Stewart,  F.I.C.     Price  4s. 

UNITED  KINGDOM.— GENERAL  MEMOIRS.— Summary  of  Progress  of  the  Geological 
Survey  of  the  United  Kingdom  and  Museum  of  Practical  Geology  for  1905. 
Price  Is. 

ADMIRALTY  CHARTS,  SCOTLAND. — Loch  Kishorn   and   the   Approaches  to  Loch 
Carron.     Surveyed  by  Captain  Morris  H.  Smyth,  R.N.,  in  H.M.  Surveying 
Ship  Research,  1904-5.     Scale,  1  :  10,GOO.      Published  Nov.  1906.      Number 
3564  (3644).     Price  3s. 
Loch   Dunvegan,  including  Bay.     Surveyed  by  Captain  Morris  H.  Smyth, 


164  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

R.N.,  in  H.M.  Surveying  Ship  Research,  1905.     Scale,  1  :  15,G30.     Published 
Dec.  1906.     Number  3601  (3653).     Price  3s. 

Presented  hy  the  Hydrographer,  The  Admiralty,  London. 

IRELAND.— Map  showing  the  Surface  Geology  of  Ireland,  reduced  chiefly  from  the 
Ordnance  and  Geological  Surveys  under  the  direction  of  Sir  Archibald  Geikie, 
D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  late  Director-General  of  the  Geological  Survey.  Topo- 
graphy by  J.  Bartholomew,  F.Pv.G.S.  Scale  1  :  633,600  or  10  miles  to  an 
inch.     Price  6s.,  mounted  on  cloth  and  in  case. 

John  Bartholometv  and  Co.,  Edinburgh. 
This  map,  complete  in  one  sheet,  is  a  minute  and  accurate  reduction  of  the 
sheets  of  the  Geological  Survey.     The  drift  and  surface  geology  as  here  shown 
ought  to  be  of  much  practical  value  and  interest  to  agriculturists. 

ASIA. 
ASIA.— Stanford's  New  Orographical  Map  of  Asia.     Compiled  under  the  direc- 
tion  of  H.   J.   Mackinder.      Scale  1  :  8,721,500.      In  four   sheets.      1906. 
Price  16s.,  or  20s.  mounted  on  rollers  and  varnished. 

Edward  Stanford,  London. 

An  eflfective  school  wall-map.  The  relief  of  the  land  is  shown  by  contour  lines 
and  tinted  in  shades  of  brown  ;  the  depths  of  the  surrounding  seas  are  shown  by 
shades  of  blue.     The  lettering  shows  both  physical  and  political  features. 

CHINA.— General  Staff  Map  of  the  Province  of  Chih-Li  (southern  sheet).  Scale 
1  : 1,000,000  or  about  16  miles  to  an  inch.     1906.     Price  2s. 

Topographical  Section,  General  Staff,  London. 

CHINA.— General  Staff  Map  of  the  Province  of  Ho-Nan.  Scale  1  :  1,000,000  or 
about  16  miles  to  an  inch.     1906.     Price  2s.  6d. 

Toptographical  Section,  General  Staff]  London. 


AFRICA. 

AFRIKA.— Justus  Perthes'  Wandkarte  von  Afrika   zur  Darstellung  der  Boden- 

bedeckung  mit  8  Kiirtchen   zur   Entdeckungsgeschichte  und  14  Bildnissen 

beriihmter  Afrikaforscher.    Bearbeitet  von  Paul  Langhans.   Scale  1  :  7,500,000. 

Preis,  9  Mark.  Jnstus  Perthes,  Gotha. 

This  effective  map,  composed  of  the  plates  from  Stieler's  Atlas,  is  coloured  to 

show  the  characteristic  land-surface  features,  with  political  colouring  superimposed 

in  narrow  bands.     A  series  of  inset  maps  shows  the  progress  of  exploration  during 

the  nineteenth  century.     The  interest  of  the  map  is  further  enhanced  by  portraits 

of  the  leading  explorers. 

EGYPT. — Bartholomew's  Tourist  Map  of  Egypt  and  the  Lower  Nile,  prepared  from 
the  latest  surveys.  Scale  1  :  1,000,000  or  16  miles  to  an  inch.  With  inset 
maps  of  Alexandria,  Cairo,  and  Upper  Egypt.     Price  3s.     Mounted  on  cloth. 

John  Bartholomew  and  Co.,  Edinburgh. 
Tins  map  extends  from  the  Delta  to  Wady  Haifa.     For  a  general  map  of 
Egypt  there  is  nothing  more  complete  than  this  new  map. 

BAHR  EL  GHAZAL.— General  Staff  Map  on  Scale  of  1  : 1,000,000,  or  about  16  miles 
to  an  inch.      19ii6.    Price  2s. 


NEW   MAPS.  1G5 

ORANGE  RIVER.— (Provisional)  General  Staff  Map  on  Scale  of  1  : 1,100,000,  parts 
of  Sheets  127  and  128. 

Topofjraphical  Section,  General  Staff,  London. 

EAST  EQUATORIAL  AFRICA. — Anglo-German  Boundary,  Triangulation  Charts  of 
the  British  Commission,  in  3  Sheets.     Scale  1  :  400,000.     1906. 

To2)ographical  Section,  General  Staff,  London. 

SIERRA  LEONE.— General  Staff  Map  on  Scale  of  1  :  250,000,  or  about  4  miles  to  an 
inch.  Sheets— Sherbro  Island,  Freetown,  Falaba,  Panguma,  Karina,  Banda- 
Juma.     1906.     Price  Is.  6d.  each  Sheet. 

UGANDA.— General  Staff  Map  on  Scale  of  1  :  250,000,  or  about  4  miles  to  an  inch. 
Sheets— 86-A,  86-e,  86-i,  86-m,  86-n.     1906.     Price  Is.  6d.  each  Sheet. 

ToiiograiiMcal  Section,  General  Staff,  London. 

AMERICA. 

CANADA.— Standard  Topographical  Map.  Scale  1  :  250,000  or  about  4  miles  to  an 
inch.  Sheets  1  NW.  and  1  NE.,  Guelph,  Ontario.  James  White,  F.E.G.S., 
Geographer.     1906.  Department  of  the  Interior,  Ottawa. 

UNITED  STATES  GEOLOGICAL  SURVEY.— Geologic  Atlas— Redding  Folio,  Cali- 
fornia ;  Dover  Folio,  Delaware  and  Maryland  ;  St.  Mary's  Folio,  Maryland 
and  Virginia ;  Snnqualmie  Folio,  Washington  ;  Milwaukee  Special  Folio, 
AVisconsin.     Price  25  cents  each  folio. 

United  States  Geological  Survey,  Washington,  B.C. 


ATLASES  AND  WORLD  MAPS. 


THE  M.P.  ATLAS. — A  Collection  of  Maps  showing  the  Commercial  and  Political 
Interests  of  the  Britit^h  Isles  and  Empire  thiou^'hout  the  World.  1907. 
Price  25s.  net.        W.  &  A.  K.  Johnston,  Limited,  Edinburgh  and  London. 

It  appears  that  this  Atlas  is  intended  not  only  for  the  special  use  of  "  Members 
of  Parliament,"  as  its  title  might  seem  to  imply,  but  the  abbreviation  "  M.P."  is  to 
be  taken  in  its  widest  interpretation,  and  may  therefore  stand  either  for 
"Merchant  Princes,"  "Maternal  Parents,"  or  any  other  form  of  extension  as  occa- 
sion may  require  !  The  Atlas  deals  with  the  British  Empire  and  its  world  rela- 
tions. The  41  plates  contain  a  series  of  53  maps  mostly  selected  from  Messrs. 
Johnston's  well-known  "Royal  Atlas"  and  other  -woiks.  The  platts  are  revised 
to  date  and  effectively  printed  in  colours.     There  is  no  index. 

ATLAS  OF  THE  "WORLD'S  COMMERCE.  —A  new  series  of  maps  with  descriptive 
text  and  diagrams  showing  Products,  Imports  and  Exports,  Commercial  Con- 
ditions and  Economic  Statistics  of  the  Countries  of  the  World.  Compiled 
from  the  latest  official  returns  at  the  Edinburgh  Geographical  Institute,  and 
edited  by  J.  G.  Bartholomew,  F.R.S.E.  Complete  in  22  parts.  Part  14 
contains  World  Maps  illustrating  Climate  and  Diseases,  Density  of  Popula- 
tion, Races,  Religions,  Languages,  Commercial  Development,  Comparative 
Population  and  Wealth.  Part  15  contains  World  Maps  showing  British 
Consulates,  Railways,  Naval  Stations,  Isochronic  Travel  Lines  and  National 
Tariffs,  also  Wealth  and  Population  of  British  Isles.  Part  16  contains  World 
Maps  showing  Postal  and  Telegraphic  communication  ;  also  British  Isles, 
Industrial  ;  Europe  Industrial,  and  India  Agricultural  and  Industrial.  Price 
6d.  each  part.  George  Newnes,  Limited,  London. 


1G6  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

ATLAS  UNIVERSEL  DE  GEOGRAPHIE.— Commence  par  M.  Vivien  de  Saint-Martin 
et  continue  par  Fr.  Schrader.  Nr.  77,  Etats-Unis  (Region  du  Nord-Est) 
Echellc,  1  : 3,000,000.     Price  2  francs.     1906. 

Librairie  Hachetteet  Cie.,  Paris. 

L'ANNEE  CARTOGRAPHIQUE.— Seizieme  Annee,  1906.  Dresse  et  redige  sous  la 
direction  de  Fr.  Schrader.     Price  3  francs. 

Librairie  Hachette  et  Cie.,  Paris. 
The  maps  in  this  issue  show  the  frontier  changes  in  Soulh  America  and  Africa 
for  1905.     Tliere  is  also  an  interesting  series  of  maps  showing  the  latest  researches 
in  the  Ethnography  of  Russia. 

GROSSER  DEUTSCHER  KOLONIAL-ATLAS.— Bearbeitet  von  Paul  Sprigade  und  Max 
Moisel.  Herausgegeben  von  der  Kolonial-Abteilung  des  auswiirtigen  Anits. 
Lieferung  5  :  Nr.  1,  Erdkarte  zur  Uebersicht  des  Deutschen  Kolonialbesitses. 
Nr.  26.  Togo,  Siidliches  Blatt,  1  :  500,000.  Nr.  16,  19,  Deutsch-Ostafrika, 
Usumbura  Blatt  und  Udjidji  Blatt,  1  : 1,000,000.     1906.     Price  4m. 

Dietrich  Reimer  {Ernst  Vohsen),  Berlin. 
Although  the  parts  of  this  atlas  aie  somewhat  slow  in  appearing,  yet  the  delay 
is  so  far  justified  by  the  excellence  of  the  maps,  which,  in  their  completeness  ai.d 
beauty  of  execution,  are  high-class  specimens  of  cartography. 

MULTUM  IN  PARVO  ATLAS  of  the  World,  with  Descriptive  Text  and  complete 
Index.     New  and  revised  edition.     1907.     Price  2s.  6d. 

W.  S  A.  K.  Johnston,  Limited,  Edinburgh  and  London. 

THE  WORLD.— Chart  on  Mercator's  Projection.  The  World-Wide  Seiies  of  Office 
and  Library  Maps.     Mounted  on  cloth  and  folded  in  case.     Price  15s. 

W.  dc  A.  K.  Johnston,  Limited,  Edinburgh  and  London. 
This  is  a  new  edition  of  jMessrs.  Johnston's  well-known  wall  map  revised  to 
date. 

PHILIP'S  PROGRESSIVE  ATLAS  of  Comparative  Geography.  Edited  by  P.  II. 
L'Estrange,  B.A.  172  Maps  and  Diagrams  on  72  Plates,  with  complete 
Index.     Price  3s.  6d.  net.  George  Philip  &  Son,  Ltd.,  London. 

This  atlas  consists  of  the  maps  from  Mr.  L'E&trange's  admirable  text-book  of 

geography  which  we  have  already  commended. 


BOOKS  RECEIVED. 


Arab  and  Druze  at  Home:  A  Record  of  Travel  and  Intercourse  with  the 
Peoples  of  the  Jordan.  By  Rev.  William  Ewing,  M. A.  Illustrated.  Demy  8vo. 
Pp.  xii  +  180.     Price  5.s.  net.     T.  C.  and  E.  C.  Jack,  Edinburgh,  1907. 

The  Desert  and  the  Sown.  By  Gertrude  Lowthtax  Bell.  Illustrated. 
Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xvi-F347.  Price  16s.  net.  William  Heinemann,  London, 
1907. 

Under  the  Absolute  Amir.  By  Frank  A.  Martin.  Illustrated.  Demy  Svo. 
Pp.  xii  +  330.     Price  lOs.  6«/.  net.     Harper  and  Brothers,  London,  1907. 

The  Dominion  of  Canada,  ivith  Neicfoundland,  and  an  Excursion  to  Alaska. 
"  Handbook  for  Travellers."     By  Karl  Baedeker.     With  thirteen  Maps  and 
twelve  Plans.    (Tiiird  Edition.)    Pp.  Ixiv -f331.    Price  G  marhs.    Karl  Paedekfr 
Leipzig,  1907. 


BOOKS   KECEIVED.  167 

The  Natives  of  Uritisk  Central  Africa.  By  A.  Wkrner.  ("The  Native 
Rices  of  the  British  Empire.")  Illustrated.  8vo.  Pp.  xii  +  303.  Price  6s.  7id. 
Archibald  Constable,  London,  1907. 

Qcograiihy  in  War.  By  Colonel  E.  S.  May,  C.B.,  C.M.G.  Cr.  8vo.  Pp.  61. 
Price  2s.  net.     Hugh  Rees  Ltd.,  London,  1907. 

"  Verb.  Sai)."  on  Going  to  East  Africa,  British  Central  Africa,  Uganda,  and 
Zanzibar,  and  Big  Game  Shooting  in  East  Africa.  Edition  1906.  With 
SAvahali  Vocabulary.  Pp.  72.  Price  2.s.  6f/.  net.  John  Ball  and  Sons,  London, 
1906. 

The  Sacred  Grove  and  Other  Impressions  of  Italy.  By  Stanhope  Bayley. 
Cr.  8vo.     Pp.  132.     Price  4s.  6d.  net.     Elkin  Mathews,  London,  1907. 

Cook's  Handbook  for  Palestine  and  Syria.  New  Edition,  thoroughly  Revised 
by  the  Rev.  J.  E.  Hanauer  and  Dr.  E.  G.  Masterman  of  Jerusalem.  Pp. 
viii  +  424.     Price  7s.  6d.  net.     Thomas  Cook  and  Son,  London,  1907. 

A  Grammar  of  the  Bemba  Language  as  Sjwken  in  North-East  Rhodesia.  By 
Rev.  Father  Schoeffer.  Edited  by  J.  H.  West  Siieane,  B.A.  (Camb.) 
Arranged,  with  Prefiice,  by  A.  C.  Madan,  M.A.  Extra  fcap.  8vo.  Cloth. 
Pp.  72.     Price  2s.  6d.  net.     The  Clarendon  Press,  Oxford,  1907. 

Moorish  Remains  in  Sjfain;  being  a  Brief  Record  of  the  Arabian  Conquest 
of  the  Peninsula,  with  a  Particular  Account  of  the  Mohammedan  Architecture  and 
Decoration  in  Cordova,  Seville,  and  Toledo.  By  Albert  F.  Calvert.  4to. 
Pp.  XX +  586.     Price  42s.  net.     John  Lane,  London,  1907. 

The  Alhambra;  being  a  Brief  Record  of  the  Arabian  Conquest  of  the  Penin- 
sula, with  a  Particular  Account  of  the  Mohammedan  Architecture  and  Decora- 
tion. By  Albert  F.  Calvert.  4to.  Pp.  xx  +  586.  Price  42.s.  net.  John  Lane, 
London,  1907. 

Coni2}arative  Art.  By  Edwin  Swift  Balch.  4to.  Pp.  209.  Allen, 
Lane  and  Scott,  Philadelphia,  1907. 

Hunting  Big  Game  loith  Gun  and  with  Camera:  A  Record  of  Personal 
Experiences  in  the  United  States,  Canada,  and  Mexico.  By  William  S.  Thomas. 
Illustrated.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  x  +  240.  Price  9s.  net.  J.  P.  Putman's  Sons, 
London,  1907. 

Highways  and  Byways  in  Berkshire.  By  James  Edmund  Vincent.  With 
Illustrations  by  Frederick  L.Griggs.  Ex.  Cr.  8vo.  Pp.  xAi  +  443.  Price  6s. 
each.     Macmillan  and  Co.,  Loudon,  1906. 

A  Travers  V Amerique  du  Sud.  Par  J.  Delebecque.  16mo.  Pj).  viii +  314. 
Pric  A  francs.     Plon  Nourrit  et  Cie.,  Paris,  1907. 

The  Egypt  of  the  Future.  By  Edward  Dicey,  C.B.  Cr.  8vo.  Pp.  vi-l  216. 
Price  3s.  6d.  net.     AVilliam  Heinemann,  London,  1907. 

Impressions  of  a  Wanderer.  By  M.  C.  Mallik.  Cr.  8vo.  Pp.  xvii  232. 
Price  5s.     T.  Fisher  UnAvin,  London  1907. 

At  the  Back  of  the  Black  Man's  Mind;  or,  Notes  ou  the  Kingly  Office  in 
West  Africa.  By  R.  C.  Dennett.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xvi  +  288.  Price  10s.  net. 
Macmillan  and  Co.,  London,  1907. 

Sport  and  Travel :  Abyssinia  and  British  East  Africa.  By  Lord  Hindlip, 
F.R.G.S.,  F.Z.S.  Illustrated.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  332.  Price  21s.  net.  T.  Fisher 
L^Qwin,  London,  1907. 


168  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

The  Opal  Sea.  By  Joux  C.  Vax  Dvke.  Cr.  8vo.  Pp.  xviii  +  262.  J.  AVerner 
Laurie,  London,  1907. 

The  Sudan:  A  Short  Compendium  of  Fads  fl.nd  Figures  ahoul  the  Land  of 
Darhiess.  By  H.  Karl  W.  Kumm,  Ph.D.,  F.R.G.S.,  etc.  With  an  Introduction 
by  the  late  Mrs.  Karl  Kumm  {nee  Lucy  Guinne.ss).  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xiv  +  22-1. 
Price  3s.  6(?.  iid.     Marshall  Brothers,  London,  1907. 

Indian  Fidures  and  Problems.  By  Ian  Malcolm.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xvi  +  294. 
Price  105.  ^d.  net.     E.  Grant  Richards,  London,  1907. 

Lyonesse:  A  Handhooli  for  the  Isles  of  Scillij.  By  J.  C  Tonkix  and 
Prescott  Row.  With  a  Special  Introduction  by  the  late  Sir  Walter  Besaxt. 
Cr.  8vo.  Pp.  136.  Price  Is.  net.  The  Homeland  Association  Ltd.,  London, 
1907. 

Cook's  Handbook  for  Erjypt  and  the  Sudan.  By  E.  A.  Wallis  Budge,  M,A., 
Litt.D.  (Second  Edition.)  Cr.  8vo.  Pp.  xxi  +  911.  Price  lOs.  net.  Thomas 
Cook  and  Son,  London,  1907. 

Tlie  Harz :  The  Most  Beautiful  Mountain  Region  of  Northern  Germany. 
With  an  Introduction  by  Hans  Hoffmann  of  Weimar.  Pp.  109.  Rud.  Stolle, 
Bad  Harzburtr,  1905. 

The  Pocket  Guide  to  the  West  Indies.  By  Algernon  E.  Aspinall.  Cr.  8vo. 
Pp.  xii  +  316.     Price  6s. 

The  '■^  Lloi/d"  Guide  to  Australasia.  Illustrated.  Edited  by  A.  G.  Plate 
for  Norddeutscher  Lloyd,  Bremen.  Cr.  Bvo.  Pp.  ix  +  469.  Price  6s.  Edward 
Stanford,  London,  1907. 

Gravesend :  The  Water-gate  of  London,  tvith  its  Surroundings.  By  Alex.  J. 
Philip.  Cr.  8vo.  Pp.  128.  Price  Is.  net.  The  Homeland  Association  Ltd., 
London,  1907. 

Report  on  the  Dominion  Government  Expedition  to  Hudson  Bag  and  (he  Arctic 
Islands  on  board  tlu  D.G.S.  ''Neptune,"  1903-4.  By  A.  P.  Low,  B.Sc,  F.R.G.S. 
Demy  8vo.     Pp.  xviii  +  355.     Geological  Survey,  Ottawa,  1907. 

La  Penetration  Saharienne  (18.30-1906).  Par  Augustin  Bernai:d  et  N. 
Lacroix.     Pp.  x-f  195.     Imprimerie  Algerienne,  Alger,  1906. 

Britain  and  the  British  Seas.  By  H.  J.  Mackinder,  INI.A.  ("Regions  of  the 
World  Series.")  Second  Edition.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xii  +  375.  Pricels.6d.net. 
At  the  Clarendon  Press,  Oxford,  1906. 

Also  the  following  Reports,  etc. : — 

Report  on  the  Administration  of  the  Madras  Presidency  during  the  year  1905- 
1906.     Madras,  1906. 

Madras  District  Gazetteer.     Four  Volumes.     Madras,  1906. 

Distrid  Gazetteer  of  the  United  Provinces  of  Agra  and  Oudli.  By  II.  R. 
Nevill,  I.C.S.,  F.R.G.S.     Volume  xx.     Allahabad,  1906. 

Central  Province  District  Gazetteers.  Edited  by  R.  V.  Russell,  I.C  S. 
Allahabad,  1906. 

Facts  about  Nev:  Zealand.  Pp.  21.  Issued  by  New  Zealand  Department  uf 
Tourist  and  Health  Resorts.     Wellington,  1907. 

Piiblishers  forwarding  books  for  review  will  greatly  oblige  by  marking  the  price  in 
clear  figures,  especially  in  the  case  of  foreign  books. 


THE    SCOTTISH 

GEOGRAPHICAL 

MAGAZINE. 


THE  SWISS  VALAIS :  A  STUDY  IN  KEGIONAL  GEOGRAPHY. 
By  Marion  I.  Newbigin,  D.Sc.  (Lond.). 

{With  Maps  and  Illustrations.) 

The  Canton  Valais  is  a  region  famous  not  only  for  that  beauty  of 
scenery  which  year  by  year  attracts  an  increasing  number  of  visitors, 
but  also  because  of  its  great  scientific  interest.  In  a  previous  paper 
(xxii.  p.  285)  there  was  published  here  a  study  of  a  Scottish  region, 
which  is  remarkable  for  its  cool,  damp  climate,  and  for  the 
antiquity  of  the  land  surface.  The  Highland  area  has  been  for  a  pro- 
longed period  a  land  surface,  and  its  mountains  and  rivers  have  long 
since  passed  into  geographical  old  age.  It  is  far  otherwise  with  the 
area  now  to  be  considered.  In  its  present  form  the  Swiss  Yalais  is  of 
geologically  recent  origin,  and  its  rivers  and  mountains  are  only  in 
process  of  settling  about  a  position  of  equilibrium.  Every  here  and 
there  one  may  perceive  indications  of  this  fact  in  the  landslips  which — 
old  or  new — disfigure  the  mountain-sides,  and  the  same  evidence  of 
immaturity  is  to  be  discerned  in  the  river-systems.  Very  different  also 
is  the  climate,  and  with  climatic  differences  come  differences  in  natural 
products,  and  in  the  whole  mode  of  life  of  the  inhabitants.  Further, 
the  geologically  recent  origin  means  that  the  rocks  of  the  Valais  are  of 
quite  different  type  from  those  which  cover  such  vast  areas  in  the 
Scottish  Highlands,  and  this  naturally  produces  a  difference  in  the  soil 
which  is  of  great  geographical  importance.  Again,  Avhile  the  Highlands 
have  been  isolated  from  the  dawn  of  history,  the  Yalais,  to  some  extent 
at  least,  has  always  served  as  a  route  between  the  countries  to  the  north 
and  south  of  the  Alps,  and  finally,  while  the  Highland  area  shows  merely 
traces  of  a  past  glaciation,  much  of  the  Valais  is  still  in  the  Glacial 
period,  so  that  the  contrasts  are  many  and  obvious. 

VOL.  XXIII.  N 


THE   SWISS  VALAIS  :   A   STUDY    IX    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.  171 

The  Canton  Valais  has  an  area  of  5220  kilometres/  2015  square 
miles,  and  may  be  described  in  brief  as  including  the  upper  Ehone 
valley  from  the  source  of  that  river  to  its  entrance  into  Lake  Geneva. 
The  accompanying  map  shows  the  boundaries  in  detail.  It  will  be  seen 
that,  roughly  speaking,  the  canton  is  bounded  to  the  south  by  the  great 
chain  of  the  Pennine  Alps,  including  the  highest  mountains  of  Switzer- 
land, and  to  the  north  by  the  great  mountain  wall  of  the  Bernese  Alps. 
The  southern  and  eastern  boundaries  of  the  canton  are  formed  by  the 
Italian  frontier,  the  western  by  the  frontier  of  Savoy,  which  debouches 
on  the  Lake  of  Geneva  at  St.  Gingolph.  The  northern  boundary  is 
formed  by  the  Ehone  itself,  from  its  entrance  into  the  lake  to  the 
vicinity  ofEvionnaz,  and  then  by  the  watershed  of  the  Bernese  Alps. 

"Within  this  area  the  course  taken  by  the  Rhone  is  very  striking. 
Beginning  at  its  origin  at  the  Ehone  glacier  we  have  first  a  steep 
Alpine  stretch,  extending  in  a  north-east  to  south-west  direction  down 
to  the  town  of  Brig.  At  Brig  the  river  bends  somewhat  to  the  west, 
but  runs  with  a  general  south-west  direction  down  to  Martigny. 
Throughout  this  second  region  the  valley  floor  is  wide  and  flat,  and  has 
evidently  at  no  very  distant  period  lodged  one  or  more  lakes.  The 
flat  valley  bottom  is  still  very  liable  to  flooding,  and  to  obviate  the  risk 
of  inundation  the  towns  are  built  for  the  most  part  on  the  cones  brought 
down  by  the  lateral  streams.  At  INIartigny  the  river  takes  a  sharp 
bend — the  "elbow"  of  the  Ehone,  and  turning  almost  at  right  angles  to 
its  previous  course,  runs  north-west  to  the  Lake  of  Geneva.  With  this 
change  of  direction  the  river  valley  changes  its  form,  seems  to  break 
through  between  the  great  mountain  masses  of  the  Dent  du  Midi  and 
the  Dent  de  Morcles,  and  forms  a  narrow,  steep-sided  gorge,  which  in 
the  vicinity  of  St.  Maurice  is  a  mere  defile,  so  narrow  as  to  be  readily 
fortified.  Between  St.  Maurice  and  Bex  the  character  of  the  valley  again 
alters  and  we  enter  upon  a.  flat  swampy  area  which  is  obviously  merely  a 
silted-up  part  of  the  bed  of  the  lake.  It  may  be  well  to  emphasise  here 
the  existence  of  these  diff"erent  regions  in  the  valley,  for  the  climate  and 
therefore  the  products  of  each  show  considerable  variations.  To  sum  up 
briefly  :  from  the  present  boundary  of  Lake  Geneva  to  beyond  Bex  -we 
have  a  wide,  swampy,  flat  area,  which  is  geographically  part  of  the  lake 
region ;  then  comes  a  narrow  region,  running  north-west  to  south-east, 
too  narrow  to  be  fully  warmed  by  the  sun,  and  fully  exposed  to  the 
cold  north-west  winds  which  sweep  up  it  from  the  Jura ;  then  a  wide, 
sheltered,  warm  area,  almost  Italian  in  character,  stretching  from 
Martigny  upwards  to  the  vicinity  of  Brig,  and  there  passing  into  the 
Alpine  region,  naturally  colder,  which  ends  with  the  birth  of  the  infant 
Ehone  from  its  great  glacier.  Now  the  characters,  whether  of  climate, 
of  the  natural  flora,  or  of  the  cultivated  plants,  which  can  be  definitely 
stamped  as  typically  Valaisian  are  confined  to  the  warm  stretch  from 
Martigny  upwards,  and  to  the  larger  lateral  valleys  opening  into  it. 

1  Erich  Uetriclit,  Die  Ablation  der  Rhone  in  ihrem  Walliser  Einzugs-gebiete  im  Jahre 
1904-1905.  Inaugural-Dissertation  der  Philosopliischen  Facultat  Bern  z.  Erlangung  d. 
Doctorwiirde,  Berue,  1906.  Abstract  in  La  Geogmphie,  xv.  p.  37.  Reclus  gives  the  figxire 
as  5257  kilometres  {Nouvelle  Geographie  Universelle.  iii.  p.  127). 


172  SCOTTISH    GEOGRAl'lIICAl,    MAGAZINE 

A  glance  at  the  map  will  show  that  the  crest  of  the  Bernese  Alps  is 
much  nearer  the  Rhone  than  the  crest  of  the  Pennines,  or,  in  other 
words,  that  the  northern  lateral  valleys  are  short  and  steep,  while  the 
southern  valleys  are  much  longer.  It  is  a  natural  consequence  that  the 
human  habitations  for  the  most  part  occur  in  the  southern  valleys,  the 
northern  valleys  being  much  more  sparsely  populated.  One  reason  is,  of 
course,  that  as  temperature  diminishes  with  elevation  a  larger  area  is 
available  on  the  south  side  for  the  growth  of  crops,  or  of  grass,  than  on 
the  steep  northern  side.  Those  areas  of  natural  grass,  growing  at  high 
elevations,  which  in  Switzerland  are  called  alps,  are  indeed  few  on  the 
northern  side,  and  as  we  shall  see,  the  economic  life  of  the  Valais  is 
based  in  large  part  upon  these  alps.  We  shall  in  consequence  be  chiefly 
interested  here  in  the  southern  valleys.  Without  stopping  to  consider 
these  tributary  valleys  in  detail,  it  may  be  well  simjjly  to  mention  one 
or  two  of  the  lateral  streams,  as  of  some  of  these  we  shall  have  much  to 
say  later. 

In  general,  on  the  northern  side  the  drainage  is  in  an  undevelop6d 
state,  consisting  for  the  most  part  of  short  swift  streams,  debouching 
independently  into  the  Rhone.  On  the  other  hand,  on  the  south  side 
the  drainage  is  more  developed,  and  the  differential  growth  of  the 
streams  has  resulted  in  various  cases  of  river  capture.  In  other  words, 
one  stream  which,  by  reason  of  its  larger  catchment  area,  or  the  softei- 
rocks  of  its  bed,  has  had  more  excavating  power  than  its  neighbours, 
has  been  able  to  tap  the  upper  tributaries  of  adjacent  streams,  and  has 
thus  constantly  increased  at  the  expense  of  its  neighbours.  The  result 
is  that  on  the  south  side  there  are  a  few  considerable  streams,  with 
tributaries  also  of  considerable  size,  as  well  as  some  small  streams  Avithout 
lar^e  tributaries.  The  chief  streams  of  the  southern  bank  of  the  Rhone 
in  the  area  under  consideration  are  the  Visp,  which  drains  the  two 
valleys  in  which  lie  the  health-resorts  of  Zermatt  and  Saas ;  the  Xavi- 
genze,  draining  the  Yal  d'Anniviers ;  the  Borgne,  draining  the  Val 
d'Herens ;  the  Dranse,  draining  a  collection  of  valleys,  of  which  the 
most  important  are  the  Yal  de  Bagnes  and  the  Val  d'Entremont,  which 
leads  up  to  the  St.  Bernard  Pass;  and  the  Yieze,  which  drains  the  Yal 
d'llliez.  On  the  north  bank  we  need  only  meantime  notice  the  Dala, 
which  drains  the  valley  in  which  lies  Leukerbad,  and  the  Lonza,  drain- 
ing the  Lotschenthal. 

It  is  not  necessary  for  our  purpose  to  describe  in  detail  the  course  of 
these  valleys,  or  to  discuss  the  mountain  groups  in  which  they  respec- 
tively arise,  but  something  may  be  said  of  the  great  means  of  communica- 
tion in  the  Canton.  Such  historical  importance  as  a  highway  as  the  upper 
Rhone  valley  possesses,  is  due  to  the  fact  that  not  a  few  of  those  deeply 
excavated  southern  valleys  of  which  we  have  just  spoken  afford  access 
to  depressions  in  the  great  barrier  of  the  Pennine  Alps,  and  thus  permit 
of  communication  between  Italy  and  Central  Europe.  The  two  most 
important  passes  are  of  course  the  Simplon  to  the  east,  and  the  St. 
Bernard  in  the  more  western  part  of  the  Canton.  As  the  map  recalls, 
the  great  Simplon  road  has  now  been  functionally  replaced  by  the 
railway  tunnel.     Until  the  opening  of  this  tunnel  in  1906,  the  Rhone 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS:   A   STUDY   IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.  173 

valley  line,  it  will  be  remembered,  stopped  at  Brig,  but  concected  at 
Visp  with  the  Zerraatt  line.  The  traffic  carried  by  the  line  of  the  main 
valley,  and  by  the  branch  to  Zermatt,  was,  previous  to  the  opening  of 
the  tunnel,  almost  entirely  tourist  traffic.  Almost,  but  not  entirely,  for 
there  is  a  considerable  amount  of  movement  of  workmen  from  one  side 
of  the  chain  to  the  other.  It  is  because  of  this  movement  that  we  have 
on  the  other  great  pass,  the  St.  Bernard,  the  Hospice,  which  is  not,  as 
the  tourist  is  apt  to  suppose,  merely  for  his  benefit  in  the  summer 
months.  The  summit  of  the  Simplon  Pass  lies  at  a  height  of  2009 
metres  (or  6565  feet),  while  that  of  the  St.  Bernard  is  2472  metres  (or 
8111  feet),  the  elevation  in  both  cases  being  too  great  to  permit  either 
to  have  any  significance  as  a  trade  route,  though  the  significance  of  the 
latter  as  a  highway  is  suggested  by  the  fact  that  it  is  estimated  that 
some  25,000  persons  cross  the  pass  annually,  only  a  small  proportion  of 
which  are  tourists.  In  addition  to  these  famous  passes,  there  are  a 
number  of  others  ;  indeed  from  almost  any  one  of  the  longer  valleys  a 
passage  may  be  forced  to  Italy  or  Savoy.  Most  of  these  passes  are, 
however,  of  minor  importance,  except  as  regards  tourist  traffic.  The 
best  known  is,  perhaps,  the  Th^odule,  a  glacier  pass  rising  to  3322 
metres  (or  11,984  feet),  which  has  been  used  certainly  since  the  Middle 
Ages,  and  is  constantly  crossed  in  summer  time. 

On  the  north  side  the  passes  are  fewer,  and  from  the  nature  of  the 
case  are  less  important.  The  best  known  is  the  Gemmi,  and  there  can 
be  no  doubt,  as  is  pointed  out  by  Christ  in  his  Pfanzenlehen  tier  Scktveiz, 
that  the  tourist  who  wishes  to  fully  appreciate  the  peculiarities  of  the 
mountain-locked  Valais,  should  enter  it  from  the  Gemmi.  As  the 
traveller  stands  on  the  summit  of  the  precipitous  Gemmiwand,  he  sees 
before  him  the  whole  range  of  the  Pennine  Alps  with  their  summits  of 
dazzling  whiteness,  and  at  their  feet  the  deep  valley ;  and  he  sees  also 
another  sky,  and  other  colouring,  than  that  which  he  left  behind  at 
Kandersteg.  The  light  is  brighter,  the  insolation  greater,  the  air  drier; 
the  whole  aspect  of  the  flora  is  southern  instead  of  northern  in  type. 
In  short,  to  cross  the  Gemmi  is  to  cross  in  a  few  hours'  walk  from  north 
to  south  Switzerland,  is  to  obtain  a  foretaste  of  the  sensation  Avhich  one 
feels  on  standing  on  some  summit  of  the  Pennine  Alps  and  looking 
down  upon  the  valleys  of  sunny  Italy.  The  upper  Ehone  valley,  which 
has  been  called  the  Spain  of  Switzerland,  is  indeed  almost  a  displaced 
part  of  the  Mediterranean  lands. 

The  special  point,  however,  which  these  brief  notes  on  the  passes  are 
intended  to  suggest  is,  that  although  passes  of  varying  degrees  of  diffi- 
culty do  cross  the  ring  of  mountains  which  almost  surrounds  the  Canton 
Valais,  yet  the  area  is  one  of  economic  isolation.  From  its  geograj^hical 
peculiarities  it  is  clear  that  if  it  prospers  it  must  be  owing  to  its  own 
products,  not  because  it  can  ever  serve  to  a  great  extent  as  a  highway 
for  trade.  A  true  mountain  region,  with  a  high  mean  elevation  of 
the  surface,  the  peculiar  course  of  the  Rhone  makes  it  even  more 
completely  surrounded  by  mountains  than  an  ordinary  river-valley 
can  be. 

As  the  '•'  elbow  "  has  also  a  marked  effect  upon  climate,  a  few  words 


17J:  .SCOTllSU    GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

should  be  said  as  to  its  cause.  Without  going  into  geological  details,  it 
may  be  sufficient  to  say  that  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  the  valley 
from  Martigny  to  the  lake,  i.e.  from  the  elbow  downwards,  is  very  old, 
much  older  than  the  portion  above  Martigny.  It  was  probably 
formerly  occupied  by  the  river  Drause,  the  large  tributary  of  the  Rhone 
■tthich  enters  at  Martigny.  It  appears  probable  that  the  Dranse  occu- 
pied this  valley  before  the  formation  of  the  Bernese  Alps,  and  the 
folding  near  St.  Maurice.  As  the  land  rose  slowly,  the  Dranse  was  able 
to  excavate  for  itself  a  passage  as  elevation  occurred,  and  there  was  thus 
formed  the  gorge  now  found  near  St.  Maurice.  Above  Martigny  the 
Rhone  runs  in  a  great  longitudinal  fold,  which  runs  north-east  and 
south-west  beyond  the  points  where  the  Rhone  ceases  to  occupy  it.  At 
Martigny  the  Rhone  quits  this  fold  to  avail  itself  of  what  was  once  the 
valley  of  the  Dranse. 

One  other  point  about  the  drainage  system  may  be  noted,  and  that 
is  that  there  is  a  remarkable  discordance,  throughout  much  of  the 
Valais,  between  the  Rhone  and  its  lateral  tributaries.  It  is  a  familiar 
fact  that  in  what  may  be  called  a  normal  river  system  the  lateral 
streams  grade  gently  into  the  main  streams.  In  a  recently  glaciated 
area,  on  the  other  hand,  the  side  streams  often  run  throughout  their 
course  at  a  considerable  elevation  above  the  main  valley,  and  either  pre- 
cipitate themselves  finally  into  the  main  valley  by  a  waterfall,  or  series 
of  rapids,  or,  if  their  excavating  power  is  great,  lie  for  the  last  part  of 
their  course  in  deep  gorges.  Discordance  of  this  kind  is  expressed  by 
saying  that  the  tributaries  run  in  "  hanging  valleys,"  or  the  same  thing 
may  be  expressed  by  saying  with  the  Germans  that  the  main  valley  is  over- 
deepened  as  compared  with  the  lateral.  Many  but  not  all  geologists,  as  is 
well  known,  ascribe  this  condition  to  the  effect  of  ice.  It  is  not  neces- 
sary to  enter  upon  the  question  of  causes  here,  but  we  may  point  out 
the  frequency  of  hanging  valleys  in  the  Valais,  especially  in  the  lower 
part  of  the  Rhone  valley.  As  has  been  already  pointed  out  here  (xxii. 
p.  648)  the  fact  has  an  important  bearing  upon  the  distribution  of 
human  habitations  in  the  side-valleys,  for  it  renders  the  basal  steep 
portion  of  the  valley  useless  to  man,  and  greatly  increases  the  difficulty 
of  access  to  the  upper  approximately  level  parts.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  steepness  somewhat  facilitates  the  task  of  the  geographer,  for  it 
causes  a  rapid  diminution  of  temperature,  a  correspondingly  rapid 
change  in  natural  products,  and  thus  makes  it  easy  to  distinguish  geo- 
graphically between  the  Alpine  parts  of  the  side  valleys  above,  and  the 
warm  floor  of  the  main  valley  below.  Another  result  is  that  as  the 
glacier-fed  streams  descend  to  the  Rhone  valley  they  naturally  deposit 
much  of  their  load  of  debris  as  soon  as  their  velocitj^  is  checked,  and  the 
result  is  the  formation  of  the  large  cones,  wliich  are  very  conspicuuus  in 
parts  of  the  Rhone  valley.  Fuller  particulars  as  to  these  cones  will  be 
found  in  Lord  Avebury's  Scenery  of  Switzerland  and  the  Causes  to  which  it 
is  due,  Avhich  may  be  referred  to  for  further  details  as  to  the  origin  of 
the  Rhr>np  vnllpv.i 


1  See  also  Maurice  Lugeon's  Quelques  mots  sur  le  gi-oupement  de  la  population  du  Valais 
— Abstract  in  Annates  de  Geographie  (1902),  xi. 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS  :   A   STUDY    IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY. 


175 


The  Climate  of  the  Valais. 

We  cannot  profitably  consider  the  vegetation  of  the  Valais  without 
first  considering  the  climate,  which  determines  the  nature  of  the 
vegetation. 

It  will  be  recollected  that  the  Alps  have  a  general  east-to-west 
trend,  and  in  consequence,  in  the  language  of  meteorology,  they  form  a 
temperature  but  not  a  rainfall  divide.  The  meaning  of  this  statement 
is  easily  realised.  Looked  at  from  the  Italian  side  the  great  chain  forma 
a  barrier  shutting  out  the  cold  winds  of  the  north  from  the  sunny  south, 
or,  more  exactly,  the  cold  air  from  the  north  is  warmed  by  compression 
before  it  reaches  the  lower  ground,  and  thus,  in  Hann's  words  (Handhich 
der  Klimatolog'te)  they  constitute  the  dividing  line  between  the  sub- 
tropical climate  of  the  Mediterranean  area  and  the  temperate  climate  of 
Central  Europe.  On  the  other  hand,  as  the  rain-carrying  winds  come 
from  the  west,  i.e.  are  transverse  to  the  chain,  the  Alps  have  not  a  rainy 
and  a  dry  side,  as  have  north-to-south  trending  mountains  like  the 
Rocky  Mountains.  But  though  these  statements  are  generally  true,  yet 
the  emphasis  which  has  been  already  laid  upon  the  mountain  ring 
which  encircles  the  Valais,  paves  the  way  for  the  further  statement  that 
as  regards  temperature,  part  of  the  Valais  approaches  the  Mediterranean 
rather  than  the  Central  European  area,  while  it  has  further  an  unusually 
low  rainfall  for  a  mountain  area.  Thus  Zermatt,  at  a  height  of  5315 
feet  (or  1620  metres)  above  sea-level,  has  a  rainfall  of  65  cm.,  that  is 
approximately  the  same  as  that  of  Leith  (26  inches)  which  is  virtually 
at  sea-level.  The  climate  is  not  uniform,  and  varies  not  only  with 
the  height,  which  is  only  to  be  expected,  but  also  according  to  the 
direction  of  the  part  of  the  Rhone  valley  considered,  the  mountain- 
locked  portion  from  Martigny  upwards  having  a  hotter  and  drier  climate 
than  the  portion  from  Martigny  to  the  lake,  which  is  swept  by  the  cold, 
rain-bearing,  north-west  winds. 

Mean  Annual  Rainfall  of  Stations  in  the  Valais,  1895-1904. 


1.  Rhone  Vallet. 

2    Southern 

Valleys. 

3.  Northern 

Valley.s. 

Station.           Height 

Rain- 
fall 
in  cm. 

Station. 

Height 
in  ni . 

Rain- 
fall 
in  cm. 

Station. 

Height 
in  ni. 

Rain- 
fall 
in  cm. 

MartigiiY,*     .       480 

71 

Champerv,*  . 

1052 

164 

Varen,    . 

750 

62 

Riddes,*         .       492 

49 

Orsieres,* 

890 

63 

LeukerViad,     . 

1415 

100 

Sion,       .         .        540 

64 

St.  Bernard.*. 

2478 

149 

Kippel,* 

1376 

93 

Sien-e,    .                551 

0/ 

Evolena,* 

1378 

87 

Brig,      .                678 

68 

Griichen, 

1632 

55 

Fiesch,*         .     1080 

89 

Zermatt, 

1613 

69 

Reckingen,'  .      1349 

108 

Saas  Gnnid.*. 

1562 

85 

Oberwald,      .     1370 

148 

Binn,  *    . 

1390 

102 

The  mean,  in  the  case  of  stations  marked  *,  i.s  based  upon  a  shorter  period  than  ten 
years,  figures  not  being  available  in  these  cases  for  the  ^vhole  period  1895-1904. 


176 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


Sume  of  the  general  features  of  the  region  as  regards  rainfall  may  be 
gathered  from  the  accompanying  map  which  is  based  upon  the  table, 
this  having  been  obtained  from  the  figures  given  in  the  AnnaUn  of  the 
Swiss  Meteorological  Bureau  for  the  last  ten  years  available.  The  map 
shows  first  that  over  an  area  which  extends  up  the  Rhone  valley 
from  about  Martigny  to  Brig,  and  sends  prolongations  up  the  valleys  of 
the  Visp  and  the  Dranse  there  is,  as  it  were,  an  island  of  low  precipita- 
tion, where  the  rainfall  is  less  than  70  cm.  (or  27i  inches)  per  annum. 
Outside  of  this,  and  extending  up  to  Fiesch  in  the  main  valley  is  a 
region  which  has  a  fall  beneath  90  cm.  (or  35  inches)  per  annum.  Into 
the  next  region,  that  with  a  rainfall  exceeding  90  cm.  but  less  than  110 


Mean  Annual  Rainfall  of  Valais,  1895-1901.     The  figures  are  cubic  centimetres. 


cm.  (or  43  inches),  comes  not  only  the  higher  ground  on  either  side  of  the 
upper  portion  of  the  Ehone  A-alley,  but  also  that  part  of  the  valley  which 
is  included  between  Martigny  and  Lake  Geneva.  The  very  high  ground, 
i.e.  that  represented  by  the  stations  near  the  crest  of  either  the  Pennine 
or  Bernese  Alps,  has  a  rainfall  exceeding  110  cm.  per  annum.  The  point 
which  it  is  desired  to  emphasise  is  that  in  the  Valais  rainfall  is  not 
directly  dependent  upon  height.  If  one  ascends  the  valley  from  Mar- 
tigny one  finds  the  precipitation  gradually  diminishing  until  it  reaches 
a  minimum  at  Riddes  or  Sierre,  and  beyond  that  point  again  increasing. 
Roughly  speaking,  all  the  places  below  the  elbow  of  the  Rhone  have  a 
higher  rainfall  than  the  places  above",  and  this  is  true  both  of  the  side 
valleys  and  of  the  main.  Thus  Champery  in  the  Val  d'lUiez,  at  a 
height  of  1052  metres,  has  a  rainfall  about  two  and  a  half  times  greater 
than  that  of  Zermatt  at  1620  metres. 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS  :    A    STUDY    IN    KEGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.  177 

The  reason  of  this  curious  distribution  is  not  far  to  seek — it  is  found 
in  the  varying  direction  of  the  Rhone  valley  upon  which  stress  has 
already  been  laid.  As  we  shall  see  later,  the  greater  precipitation  of  the 
lower  part  of  the  valley  as  compared  with  the  upper  is  associated  with 
a  lower  temperature,  and  the  causation  in  both  cases  is  the  same — up  to 
Martigny  the  valley  is  exposed  to  the  cold,  rain-carrying  north-west  and 
west  winds  which  sweep  across  from  the  Jura,  while  the  bend  at  Martigny 
makes  these  winds  rare  in  the  upper  part  of  the  valley.  Above  Martigny 
these  are  replaced  by  the  warmer,  drier  south-west  wind,  which  enters  the 
valley  after  blowing  over  elevated  ground,  and  therefore  with  something 
of  a  foehn  effect.  The  following  figures  illustrate  the  connection  of 
high  temperature  and  low  precipitation  with  the  predominance  of  the 
south-west  wind  in  the  Rhone  valley.  As  recent  figures  are  not 
available  for  a  ten  years'  period,  two  periods  of  three  and  four  years 
have  been  taken. 

Climatic  Factors  for  Sierre  and  Bex. 
Period  1895-1897. 


Height 

Mean 

Mean  Annual 

Prevailin 

of  Station. 

Rainfall. 

Temperature. 

Wind. 

Sierre, 

.     551  m. 

71  cm. 

9°C. 

sw. 

Bex, 

.     426  m. 

99  cm. 
Period  1901 

8-8°  C. 
■1904. 

NW. 

Sierre, 

.     551  m. 

53  cm. 

9-3°  C. 

SW. 

Bex, 

.      42 G  m. 

94  cm. 

9-2°  C. 

w. 

It  will  be  noticed  here  that  the  lower  station  Bex  is  slightly  colder 
and  much  wetter  than  the  higher,  a  reversal  of  the  typical  conditions  in 
valleys.  It  would  appear  that  the  south-Avest  wind  prevails  through  all 
the  warmer  part  of  the  upper  Rhone  valley,  but  in  the  Alpine  region  is 
replaced  by  other  winds  determined  by  the  trend  of  the  part  of  the 
valley  considered.  At  Reckingen,  with  a  rainfall  of  over  100  cm.  (five 
years'  mean)  the  prevailing  wind  is  west.  The  heavy  rainfall  is  due  to 
the  warm,  moist  wind  which  comes  up  the  valley.  The  relation  between 
rainfall  and  wind  is  prettily  showm  by  the  distribution  of  the  beech, 
which,  according  to  Christ,  extends  as  far  up  the  Rhone  valley  as  the 
westerly  wind  from  Lake  Geneva  penetrates,  i.e.  throughout  the  area 
where  the  damp  lake  climate  prevails  (see  map,  p.  190).  In  other  words, 
it  extends  up  the  valley  to  a  point  approximately  midway  between 
Martigny  and  Sion,  where  the  dry  warm  winds  cause  its  disappearance. 

The  other  three  maps  illustrate  the  temperature  conditions,  and  are 
again  based  upon  a  ten  years'  mean.  The  three  maps  show  respectively 
the  mean  annual,  the  mean  January,  and  the  mean  July  temperature. 
Taking  the  mean  annual  first,  we  find  that  there  is  an  area  Avith  a  mean 
of  over  9"  C.  which  extends  from  about  Martigny  nearly  as  far  as  Brig. 
The  next  area,  that  including  temperatures  betw^een  9°  and  3°,  includes 
not  only  the  higher  parts  of  the  main  and  side  valleys,  but  also  the 
lower  part  of  the  main  valley.  Finally,  the  great  elevations  have  a  mean 
annual  tempeiature  of  below  3°.     The  tAvo  othtr  maps  (p.  180)  shoAv  that 


178 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL    MAGAZINE. 


Mean  Monthly  Temperatures  of  certain  Stations  in  the  Valais, 
1895-1904,  compared  with  the  Mean  Monthly  Temperature 
AT  Kingussie. 


Name  of 
Station. 

Height 
above 
Sea- 
level. 

Mean  Monthly  Temperatures— Centigrade. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr.  1  May 

June 

July    Aug. 

Sept,  ,  Oct.  i  Nov.  I  Dec. 

Sierre, 

Metres. 
561 

-0-8 

2-4 

5-3 

9-9    13-7 

17-4 

19-5    180 

15-2     9-5      4-1      00 

Leukerba'l, 

1415 

-2-6 

-2-3 

2-7      3-9 

7-6 

121 

14-3    13-4 

10-9 

6-2      2-0  -1-7 

Zermatt, 

1613 

-60 

-5-2 

1-9 

2-2 

6-4 

10-5 

12-7 

10-6 

9-0 

4-1  -0-8  -5-1 

St.  Bernard, 

2475 

-8-3 1 

-8-1 

-6-9 

-3-6 

-0-2 

40 

6-9 

6-5 

4'3  -0-7  -4-2  -7-2 

Kingussie,* 

251 

1-9 

2-2 

2-9      5-2      8-9 

11-9 

13-3'  12-9'  10-7      7-0      38      2-4 

*  The  figure's  for  Kingussie  are  tak-eu  from  Dr.  Biichan's  paper  on  "The  Mean  Atmo- 
spheric Temperature  of  the  British  Islands,"  Jour.  Scott.  Meteorol.  Soc,  Series  iii.,  xiii.  and 
.\iv. ,  p.  3,  and  are  converted  to  Centigrade. 


Mean  Annual  Temperature  of  Valais,  1895-1904.     The  figures  are  temperatures,  Centigrade. 

the  favoured  area  of  the  Khone  valley  above  Martigny  is  both  hotter  in 
summer  and  less  bitterly  cold  in  winter  than  would  a  ]?riori  be  expected 
from  the  elevation.  In  order  to  bring  out  some  features  of  the  annual 
march  of  temperature  as  compared  with  that  of  our  own  country  the 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS  :   A   STUDY   IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.  179 

accompanying  curve  has  been  constructed  which  contrasts  the  mean 
monthly  temperatures  of  certain  places  in  the  Valais  with  the  typically 
Highland  area  of  Kingussie.  The  figures  upon  which  the  diagram  is 
based,  as  well  as  the  mean  monthly  temperature  of  Leukerbad,  are  given 
in  the  table.  The  point  which  the  diagram  specially  illustrates  is  that, 
as  contrasted  with  the  insular  climate  of  Kingussie,  the  climate  of  the 


Jan.   Feb.  Hat-   Ap     Ma^Ju    Jly  Auo    S"ep    Oct   Nov    Dec. 

Mean  Monthly  Temperatures  of  three  stations  in  the  Valais  1895-190i,  compared  with 
'    those  of  Kingussie.    The  temperatures  are  Centigrade. 


Valais  is  typically  continental.  This  is  well  shown  in  the  sudden  rise 
and  fall  of  the  curve  in  spring  and  autumn.  Many  plants  which  flourish 
at,  for  instance,  Sierre,  will  not  grow  at  Kingussie,  not,  as  is  sometimes 
supposed,  because  of  the  winter  cold  at  the  latter  place— it  is  m  point 
of  fact  much  colder  in  winter  in  the  Valais— but  because  spring  when  it 
comes  is  no  laggard  but  comes  swift-footed  and  sure.  In  the  High- 
lands the  rise  of  temperature  is  slow  and  fluctuating,  mild  days  and 
bitterly  cold  ones  often  alternating.     The  consequence  is  that  the  plants 


180 


SCOTTISH   GEOGKAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


are  tempted  one  day  to  bggin  active  life,  and  the  next  are  nipped  with 
the  frost.     In  the  Valais  they  are  protected  with  snow  and  condemned 


Mean  July  Temperature  of  Valais,  1895-1904.     The  tigures  are  temperatures.  Centigrade. 


JNI.-an  .lanuary  Temperature  of  Valais,  1895-1904.     The  figures  are  temperatures,  Centigrade. 

to  forced  inactivity  until  with  a  rush  spring  comes  triumphant  once  for 
1)11  over  the  forces  of  winter. 

Another   interesting    point  which  the  diagram  shows  is  that,  con- 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS:    A   STUDY    IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.  181 

trasting  places  of  increasiug  height  above  sea-level,  we  find  that  the 
temperature  gradient  is  steepest  in  the  lowest  places  and  least  steep  in 
the  higher.  This  is  very  marked  when  the  St.  Bernard  gradient  is 
contrasted  with  the  Sierre  one.  Zermatt,  which  is  intermediate  in 
height  between  the  two,  is  also  intermediate  in  this  respect  also.  This 
is  a  general  characteristic  of  mountain  resorts,  which  tend  to  approach 
nearer  the  insular  type  of  climate  than  places  in  the  valleys. 

The  reason  for  this  is  interesting.  The  first  point  to  be  noticed  is 
that  the  difference  of  temperature  due  to  elevation  is  much  greater  in 
summer  than  in  winter.  In  December,  for  instance,  the  curves  for 
Zermatt  and  Sierre  approach  one  another  much  more  closely  than  in 
July,  the  actual  difference  of  mean  being  5'1°  in  the  first  case,  and  G'S" 
in  the  other.  Even  more  marked  is  the  difference  in  the  case  of  the  St. 
Bernard  and  Zermatt  figures,  for  it  is  there  5 '8°  in  July,  and  only  2'1° 
in  December.  The  causation  is  to  be  found  in  the  so-called  inversions 
of  temperature,^  v/hich  are  frequent  in  Alpine  regions.  Under  ordinary 
circumstances  temperature  diminishes  with  elevation,  but  in  mountain 
regions  during  calm,  clear  weather  in  winter,  it  frequently  happens  that 
the  valley  floors  are  colder  and  damper  than  a  region  on  their  walls. 
Tn  ascending  from  the  valley  floors  at  these  times,  one  passes  into  a 
warmer  region,  and  on  ascending  still  higher,  comes  again  to  a  cold 
stratum.  These  inversions  are  so  frequent  that  they  affect  the  mean 
temperature  in  the  winter  months,  and  produce  the  appearances  noted 
above,  that  is,  they  lessen  the  steepness  of  the  curve  showing  the  annual 
march  of  the  temperature.  For  a  detailed  account  of  the  cause  of  the 
inversion,  reference  should  be  made  to  Hann's  Handhuch,  but  it  may  in 
general  terms  be  given  as  the  result  of  the  tendency  for  the  cold,  heavy 
air  to  sink  to  the  bottom  of  the  valley,  while  the  warm  air  rises.  These 
inversions  have  an  interesting  effect  on  the  life  of  the  inhabitants,  both 
of  the  Valais  and  of  the  Alps  generally.  First  of  all  they  render  the  flat 
valley  floors,  which  are  of  course  often  old  lake  beds,  very  unsuitable 
for  human  habitations.  There  is  throughout  the  Alps  a  general 
tendency  for  the  houses  to  be  placed  on  the  walls  of  the  valleys  rather 
than  on  the  floor,  because  experience  has  shown  that  an  elevation  of 
even  a  few  metres  may  cause  a  considerable  rise  of  temperature  in 
autumn  and  winter.  Again,  in  the  Valais  where  the  temperature  con- 
ditions are  favourable,  the  frequency  of  autumnal  inversions  makes  it 
possible  for  the  inhabitants  to  ascend  to  considerable  elevations  and  yet 
enjoy  comparatively  warm  temperatures.  Something  was  said  of  these 
autumn  and  winter  migrations  in  a  particular  valley  in  a  previous 
article  published  here  (xxii.  p.  648). 

It  may  be  repeated  that  these  inversions  are  local  to  the  valleys 
concerned,  and  are  therefore  only  suggested  by  the  curves  given  above. 
To  prove  their  existence  it  would  be  necessary  to  take  a  series  of 
temperature  readings  at  different  heights  in  the  same  valley.  Such 
readings  have  been  taken  and  examples  are  quoted  by  Hann  and  Kerner. 

1  See  Hann's  Handbook  of  Climatology,  Part  i.,  translated  by  Ward,  p.  252  et  seq.,  and 
Kerner  in  Zeitschrift  d.  oesterr.  Gesellschaft  f.  Meteorologie,  xi.  (1876),  p.  1  et  seq. 


182  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

One  other  point  is  worth  mention.  It  will  be  noted  that  the  diagram 
shows  that  the  summer  temperature  of  Kingussie  is  actually  higher 
than  that  of  Zermatt.  To  any  one  who  has  experienced  both  climates 
this  may  seem  absurd.  One  may  spend  a  whole  summer  in  the  High- 
lands and  hardly  find  a  day  when  it  is  possible  to  sit  for  long  out  of 
doors  in  comfort,  while  at  Zermatt  for  day  after  day  the  temperature 
may  be  almost  intolerably  hot.  The  explanation  is  of  course  to  be 
sought  in  the  difference  of  insolation  due  to  altitude.  According  to 
figures  quoted  by  Hann  {pi).  cit.,  p.  232),  while  at  Whitby  the  difference 
between  the  sun  and  shade  temperature  is  only  5'6^  on  the  Gorner- 
grat  it  is  no  less  than  32'8°,  and  at  the  Eiffelberg  it  is  21°.  In 
consequence,  on  a  clear  day  one  may  bask  in  the  sunshine  on  the 
Gornergrat  at  a  height  of  3140  metres  above  sea-level  in  spite  of  the 
proximity  of  ice  and  snow.  The  figures  given  in  the  table  are  of  course 
shade  temperatures. 

To  return  to  the  general  temperature  conditions  in  the  Valais,  it 
must  not  be  supposed  that  the  unusual  conditions  of  warmth  in  the 
upper  Ehone  valley  upon  which  so  mnch  stress  has  been  laid,  are  solely 
due  to  shelter  from  cold  winds,  or  to  the  warming  and  drying  of  the  air 
by  compression  as  it  descends  from  the  mountain  crests.  The  direction 
of  the  valley,  which  allows  the  sun  to  shine  for  a  much  longer  period 
than  would  be  possible  in  an  east-to-west  valley,  is  an  important  factor, 
as  is  also  the  width  of  the  valley.  Throughout  Switzerland,  as  all 
tourists  know,  the  actual,  as  distinguished  from  the  theoretical,  climate 
of  a  valley,  depends  upon  the  amount  of  its  exposure  to  the  sun.  Thus 
in  the  Yalais  the  difference  between  the  temperature  of  Leukerbad,  on 
the  north  side  and  thus  facing  south,  and  of  Zermatt  in  a  south  trend- 
ing valley  is  greater  than  the  difference  of  elevation  warrants.  There 
are,  however,  some  interesting  facts,  in  regard  to  the  temperature  con- 
ditions at  Zermatt,  which  we  shall  have  to  consider  later  in  connection 
with  the  distribution  of  woods  in  the  Valais. 

Something  has  already  been  said  of  the  winds  of  the  Yalais ;  it  only 
remains  to  say  a  few  words  in  regard  to  that  curious  wind  known  as  the 
foehn.  The  foehn  is  a  warm  dry  wind  which  blows,  sometimes  with 
great  violence,  from  a  southerly  or  south-easterly  direction  in  certain 
of  the  Swiss  valleys,  and  is  often  of  great  importance  as  the  melter 
of  the  winter's  snow  and  therefore  as  the  harbinger  of  spiing.  The 
causation  has  been  shown  to  be  the  existence  of  a  barometric  depression 
in  a  line  between  Ireland  and  the  Bay  of  Biscay,  which  causes  the  air 
to  be  sucked  out  of  the  Alpine  region.  As  the  mountain  wall  of  the 
Alps  prevents  any  direct  movement  of  air  from  the  south,  the  air  over 
the  crest  of  the  ridge  is  drawn  down  to  the  valleys  to  fill  the  place  of 
that  which  has  travelled  westward.  This  air  is  warmed  and  dried  by 
compression  as  it  descends,  and  appears  in  the  deep  valleys  as  the  hot, 
dry,  enervating  foehn.  Xow,  owing  to  its  trend,  the  upper  Ehone 
valley  is  not  visited  by  the  foehn,  while  the  portion  below  Martigny  is 
visited  with,  often  violent,  foehn  winds.  The  result  is  to  make  this 
part  warmer  and  drier  than  it  would  otherwise  be. 

As  a  whole,  however,  the  Yalais  is  remarkable  for  the  frequency  of 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS:   A    STUDY    IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.  183 

calms,  as  compared  for  instance  with  our  own  windy  climate.  It  is  the 
frequency  of  calms  which  makes  it  possible  to  use  places  of  relatively 
great  elevation  as  health  resorts,  while,  on  the  other  hand,  it  makes 
it  impossible  for  the  foreigner  at  least  to  live  with  comfort  on  the  floor 
of  the  Ehone  valley  in  summer.  This  prevalence  of  calms  is,  however, 
only  true  of  places  situated  in  a  valley.  At  the  St.  Bernard  Hospice, 
for  example,  calms  do  not  occur,  and  the  wind  blows  either  from  the 
Swiss  slope,  i.e.  from  the  noith-east,  or  from  the  Italian  slope,  i.e.  from 
the  south-west,  the  former  wind  being  the  more  frequent.  Both  winds 
come  from  warmer  regions,  and  therefore  both  are  moisture- can ying, 
hence  the  heavy  precipitation. 

The  two  important  facts  that  emeige  from  this  study  of  the 
Valaisian  climate  are,  first,  the  unexpectedly  high  temperature  over 
much  of  the  area,  and  second,  the  unexpectedly  low  rainfall.  Both 
are  reflected  in  the  vegetation.  The  high  temperature  leads  to  the 
growth  of  plants  which  are  Mediterranean  in  character,  the  low  rainfall 
limits  the  growth  of  moisture-loving  plants  like  the  deciduous  trees. 
The  steppe-like  conditions  produced  by  the  strong  insolation  and  low 
precipitation  would  be  even  more  striking  than  they  are  were  it  not  for 
that  system  of  irrigation  which  is  everywhere  visible  in  the  dry  region 
above  Martigny.  Fortunately  for  the  Yalaisian,  he  has  in  his  glacier- 
covered  mountains  a  self-regulating  mechanism  which  fills  his  water- 
courses the  fuller  the  stronger  the  sun  shines,  and  therefore  the  greater 
the  need  felt  by  his  cherished  plants.  Let  there  be  in  summer  a  series 
of  dull  and  cloudy  days  and  the  glacial  torrents  which  feed  his  "  hisses  " 
dwindle  to  a  mere  shadow  of  their  former  selves.^  Let  the  sun  once 
more  blaze  forth  in  his  splendour,  and  the  torrents  will  pour  a  lavish 
flood  into  his  watercourses,  so  that  not  only  do  alps  and  crops  and 
vineyards  receive  all  that  they  need,  but  a  thousand  streams  trickling 
down  the  mountain  sides  proclaim  the  superabundance  of  lavish  natuie, 
while  the  climber  whose  task  is  lightened  by  the  return  of  clear  skies 
rejoices  in  the  haj^py  fortune  which  in  the  alps  combines  the  interest  of 
tourist  and  crops. 

The  Zones  or  Vegetation  in  the  Valais. 

In  looking  generally  at  the  zones  of  vegetation  in  the  Valais,  and  at 
their  constituent  plants  so  far  as  these  have  geographical  significance,  it 
is  convenient  first  of  all  to  discuss  the  limits  of  each.  As  the  deciduous 
woods  of  the  canton  are  insignificant,  we  need  only  recognise  three 
regions: — (1)  The  region  of  cultivation;  (2)  the  region  of  coniferous 
woods  ;  and  (3)  the  region  of  the  high  pastures  or  alps.  Rion,  as 
quoted  by  Christ,  gives  1263  metres  (or  4143  feet)  as  the  mean  upper 
limit  of  cultivation  in  the  Valais.  Imhof  (see  p.  191  footnote)  shows 
that  the  coniferous  woods  have  a  mean  elevation  of  2150  metres  (or 
7054  feet),while  according  to  Jegerlehner  (BeitrUge  zur  GeophysiJc,\.  1901-2) 
the  mean  height  of  the  snowline,  which  virtually  forms  the  upward  limit 

'  For  some  actual  figures  as  to  the  effect  of  a  drop  of  temperature  on  tlie  volume  of  the 
streams,  see  the  paper  by  Erich  Uetrecht,  referred  to  on  p.  171. 


184  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

of  the  alps,  is  3050  metres  (or  10,000  feet).  Something  will  be  said 
below  of  the  details  of  temperature  in  the  region  of  the  woods,  but 
the  following,  quoted  from  Christ's  Pflanzenlehen  der  Schweiz,  gives  an 
interesting  rough  approximation.  Christ  says  in  effect  that  the  zone  of 
cultivation  extends  upwards  so  long  as  any  two  months  have  a  mean 
temperature  below  zero,  the  coniferous  woods  so  long  as  there  are  no 
more  than  Jive  mouths  in  the  year  in  which  the  mean  temperature  is 
less  than  zero,  while  in  the  alpine  region  there  may  be  seven  or  more 
months  with  a  mean  of  less  than  zero.  On  the  diagram  on  p.  179  a  line 
has  been  drawn  through  the  zero  reading  to  show  that  while  Sierre  with 
only  one  month  with  a  mean  temperature  of  below  zero,  is  well  Avithin 
the  zone  of  cultivation,  and  Zermatt  with  four  months  in  which  the 
mean  is  below  zero,  is  well  within  the  coniferous  area,  the  St.  Bernard 
with  eight  months  in  which  the  mean  drops  below  zero,  is  above  the  tree- 
line  and  falls  into  the  alpine  area. 

I. — The  Region  of  Cultivation. 

In  the  region  of  cultivation,  especially  in  the  warm  stretch  between 
Martigny  and  Brig,  the  wild  plants  have  a  general  ]\rediterranean  aspect, 
and  owing  to  the  dryness  the  steppe  character  is  pronounced.  The 
warmth  of  the  climate  is  shown  by  the  presence  of  such  cultivated  plants 
as  Indian  corn  and  tobacco,  despite  the  mean  elevation.  The  chief  plant 
of  the  lower  part  of  the  cultivated  zone,  that  is,  from  about  460  to  800 
metres  (or  1500  to  2624  ft.),  is  however  the  vine,  which  is  of  great 
importance  in  the  life  of  the  inhabitants.  It  is  grown  Avherever  the 
slope  of  the  valley  walls  is  such  as  to  permit  of  the  needful  terracing, 
and  is  found  in  the  main  valley  from  about  Martigny  to  Morel,  especially 
on  the  northern  side  of  the  valley,  and  in  the  lateral  valleys  has  a 
special  extension  up  the  valleys  of  the  Dranse  and  the  Visp.  It  is 
virtually  absent  from  the  valley  between  St.  Maurice  and  Martigny  for 
the  climatic  reasons  already  dwelt  upon,  and  because  of  the  shape  of  the 
valley.  In  the  Dranse  valley  vine3Mrds  extend  up  to  above  800  metres 
(2624  ft.)  in  the  vicinity  of  Sembrancher,  while  their  upward  extension 
in  the  Visp  valley  is  even  more  remarkable.  Near  Stalden  the  limit  is 
about  834  metres  (or  2736  ft.),  but  in  1878  Christ  found  vineyards  at 
a  heif^ht  of  1020  metres  (or  3346  ft.)  in  the  vicinity  of  this  village. 
The  fi<''ures  are  only  of  interest  because  they  serve  once  more  to  call 
attention  to  the  peculiar  climatic  conditions  prevailing  here,  upon  which 
so  much  stress  has  already  been  laid.  The  station  of  Griichen  (cf.  p.  175) 
shows  that  the  rainfall  here  is  very  low,  and  the  proximity  to  the  great 
mountain  group,  of  which  Monte  Rosa  is  the  centre,  produces,  as  will  be 
shown  below,  very  favourable  conditions  of  temperature. 

Throughout  the  Valais  the  vineyards  require  artificial  irrigation,  and 
owiuf  to  the  way  iii  which  most  of  the  lateral  torrents  run  at  the  bottom 
of  deep  gorges  before  they  enter  the  main  valley,  the  water  has  to  be 
brought  from  great  distances,  the  straight  lines  of  the  channels  being 
visible  for  miles  along  the  hillsides.  The  wine  is  of  great  importance 
as  an  article  of  diet  on  account  of  the  monotony  of  the  ordinary  food 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS  :    A    STUDY   IN    REGIONAL   OEOGRAPHY.  185 

available — dry  rye  bread,  baked  once  or  twice  a  year  only,  hard  cheese, 
and  dried  meat.  In  the  article  already  alluded  to  (xxii.  p.  648)  some- 
thing has  been  said  of  the  appreciation  in  which  it  is  held,  and  how 
certain  kinds  are  stored  in  the  mountain  cellars  and  storehouses  until 
they  obtain  the  aroma  wliich  is  so  greatly  prized.  As  is  only  natural 
under  the  circumstances,  wine  plays  a  large  part  in  the  social  life  of  the 
people. 

Above  the  zone  where  the  vine  forms  the  chief  crop  comes  a  region 
where  rye  predominates,  this  being  the  chief  cereal  of  the  region,  and 
the  one  used  to  make  the  native  bread.  As  has  been  said  above,  Rion 
gives  1263  metres  (4143  ft.)  as  the  line  which  marks  the  mean  upward 
extension  of  cultivation,  but  in  detail  this  varies  greatly  according  to 
exposure.  The  typical  instance  is  of  course  the  corn-fields  of  Findelen,^ 
near  Zermatt,  which  extend  up  to  2100  metres  (6890  ft.)  on  the  sunny 
side  of  the  valley,  whilst  the  shady  side  is  thickly  clothed  with  Arolla 
pine,  but  almost  every  valley  shows  similar,  if  less  striking  conditions. 
Thus  in  the  Yal  d'Anniviers  we  have  fields  near  the  village  of  Chandolin 
at  a  height  of  1900  metres  (6233  ft.).     (Brunhes  and  Girardin.^) 

Mingled  with  the  rye  of  this  upper  zone  are  various  other  crops, 
grown  on  a  smaller  scale,  while  throughout  the  zone  of  cultivation  are 
an  abundance  of  fruit-trees,  varying  from  the  figs  and  peaches  of  the 
Rhone  valley  to  the  August^ripening  cherries  of  the  upper  region.  All 
the  side  valleys  afford  interesting  studies  of  progressive  change  in  the 
characters  of  the  cultivated  plants,  and  what  has  been  already  said  as  to 
temperature,  etc.,  will  make  it  clear  that  in  the  upper  region,  whatever 
the  exposure,  only  fast-growing  annuals  can  be  grown  with  any  prospect 
of  success.  Where,  as  frequently  happens,  the  valley  consists  of  a  series 
of  basins  separated  by  relatively  narrow  steep  defiles,  the  differences  in 
the  vegetation  of  the  successive  basins  is  very  striking.  The  Val  de 
Bagnes  affords  many  very  interesting  examples  of  this  kind.  It  may  be 
sufficient  to  mention  the  contrast  between  Lourtier  which,  at  a  height 
of  1054  metres  (3458  ft.),  has  many  fruit-trees  (cherries)  and  a 
considerable  extent  of  cultivated  ground,  while  at  Fionnay  at  1497 
metres  (4911  ft.)  in  the  next  basin,  the  fruit-trees  have  disappeared,  and 
cultivation  was  represented  in  1906,  apart  from  the  hay,  by  a  tiny 
patch  of  wretched  potatoes,  and  a  handful  of  what  the  hotel  proprietors 
optimistically  regard  as  salad  plants. 

II. — The  Woods  of  the  Valais.^ 

The  Valais  is  relatively  well-wooded.  According  to  Uetricht  (cf. 
footnote,  p.  171),  15*9  per  cent,  of  the  total  area  of  the  upper  basin  of 
the  Rhone  is  covered  by  forest.  The  four  Highland  counties  of  Ross  and 
Cromarty,  Sutherland, Inverness  and  Argyll,  on  the  other  hand,  have  only 

1  Cf.  article  by  Prince  Roland  Bonaparte,  La  Giographie,  xi.  (1905),  pp.  'AV^-IQ. 

2  Annales  de  Oeographie,  xv.  (1906),  p.  347. 

3  See  especially  Christ,  Das  Pflnnzenleben  der  Sckweiz  ;  Zuricli,  1882.  Die  Zirhe, 
G.  G.  Simony,  Jahrhuch  d.  oesterreichischen  Alpe)i-Verei7ies,vi.  (1870),  and  Lebensgesclnchte 
d.  Blutenjyjlanzen  Mitteleuropas,  von  Kirchner,  Loew  u.  Schroter ;  Stuttgart,  1901-5. 

VOL.  XXIII.  0 


186 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


3'4  per  cent,  of  woods.  In  view  of  the  emphasis  which  has  been  already 
laid  on  the  mountainous  nature  of  the  Valais,  it  is  hardly  necessary  to 
state  that  the  woods  are  predominantly  coniferous  in  type.  Of  the  wood- 
forming  deciduous  trees  of  Switzerland,  the  beech,  as  the  accompanying 
map  shows,  occupies  a  relatively  small  part  of  the  canton.  As  mentioned 
above,  it  practically  occurs  only  in  the  lower  part  of  the  Rhone  valley, 
where  the  necessary  conditions  of  moisture  obtain.  Accompanying  the 
beech  in  the  lower  part  of  the  Rhone  valley,  and  also  in  parts  of  the 
lateral  valleys,  such  non-forest-forming  deciduous  trees  as  elm,  maple, 
linden,  etc.,  occur.  Very  striking  to  those  accustomed  to  the  Scottish 
Highlands  is  the  virtual  absence  of  the  birch.     Like  the  Scotch  fir,  the 


The  Wood.s  of  the  Valais  (modified  from  Christ). 

birch  is  not  totally  absent,  but  like  the  latter  also  it  suffers  severely  from 
competition  with  other  species,  more  tolerant  of  shade.  It  is  the  absence 
of  competitors  which  largely  determines  the  predominance  of  both 
species  in  the  Highlands. 

Another  deciduous  tree  which  forms  woods  of  some  extent  in  parts 
of  the  Valais  is  the  chestnut,  whose  distribution  is  also  illustrated  in  the 
map.  As  Christ  points  out,  the  character  of  the  trees  and  of  their  fruit, 
as  compared  with  the  trees  and  fruit  of  Italian  specimens,  shows  that  the 
conditions  in  the  Valais  are  not  altogether  favourable  to  the  species,  and 
its  range  is  limited. 

Very  different  from  the  small  area  occupied  by  deciduous  woods  is 
that  covered  by  the  dominant  conifers.  A  considerable  number  of  indi- 
genous conifers  occur  in  Switzerland,  but  those  which  are  most  important 
as  forest-formers  in  the  Valais  are  three  in  number.     First  and  by  far 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS  :   A   STUDY    IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.         187 

the  most  important  is  the  spruce  tir  {Picea  excelsa,  Lk.) ;  mingled  Avith 
this,  especially  near  its  upward  limit,  is  the  larch  (Larix  eumpaea,  D.C.) ; 
while  above  larch  and  spruce,  especially  on  the  Hanks  of  the  great  Monte 
Rosa  group,  grows  the  beautiful  and  interesting  AroUa  pine,  the  Arte  or 
Zirhe  of  the  Germans  {Pinus  cemhra,  L.),  which  sometimes,  as  in  the 
Zermatt  valley,  forms  extensive  woods. 

The  Spruce. — Of  these  three  trees  the  spruce,  as  every  one  knows, 
is  widely  distributed  in  Europe.  Absent  as  an  indigenous  tree  in  Italy, 
Spain,  and  in  Southern  Europe  generally,  in  the  greater  part  of  France, 
in  Great  Britain,  Belgium,  the  Netherlands,  Denmark,  and  part  of  the 
North  German  plain,  it  forms  elsewhere  one  of  the  most  important  of 
the  European  forest  trees,  and  is  so  abundant  in  Scandinavia  as  to 
receive  the  common  name  of  Norway  spruce.  It  is,  however,  also 
the  most  characteristic  tree  of  the  true  Alps,  its  place  on  the  lower  ground 
of  the  Jura  being  largely  taken  by  the  silver  fir.  It  is  the  "  pine  "  of 
most  popular  descriptions  of  the  Alps,  and  its  heavy  foliage  and  pendent 
cones  may  be  recognised  in  most  views  of  Alpine  scenes. 

Its  distribution  over  Europe  is  partly,  but  not  wholly,  determined  by 
climate  ;  not  wholly,  for  it  is  absent,  for  example,  from  Great  Britain, 
although  the  climate  of  the  west  of  Scotland  is  well  suited  to  its  needs, 
and  in  many  parts  of  Britain  it  flourishes  exceedingly  when  planted.  In 
general,  however,  its  distribution  may  be  said  to  be  determined  by  the 
fact  that  it  is  intolerant  of  great  heat,  though  resistant  to  cold,  and  that 
it  demands  a  considerable  amount  of  moisture  during  the  growing  season. 
According  to  Purkyne,  it  must  have  a  mean  July  temperature  of  at  least 
+  10°  C,  but  not  exceeding  187°  C,  and  the  mean  January  must  not  fall 
below  —  125°  C.  According  to  Kerner,  the  annual  isotherm  of  r6°  C. 
marks  its  upward  limit.  In  parts  of  Switzerland,  however,  according 
to  Schroter  and  Kirchner,  it  grows  where  the  mean  annual  temperature 
falls  much  below  1*6°  C.  It  ig  in  consequence  of  these  necessary  condi- 
tions of  temperature  that  it  is  a  mountain  tree  in  those  parts  of  Central 
Europe  in  which  it  occurs,  and  a  plain-dweller  in  the  northern  parts  of 
its  range.  But  in  Central  Europe  generally  its  extension  downwards 
from  the  mountains  towards  the  low  ground  is  limited  not  wholly  by 
climate,  but  in  part  by  the  fact  that  it  there  comes  into  competition  with 
the  more  highly  evolved  deciduous  trees.  Its  extension  up  the  slopes 
is,  on  the  other  hand,  chiefly  determined  by  the  meteorological  conditions. 
According  to  Jaccard,  it  ascends  in  the  Valais  to  a  mean  height  of  2000 
metres  (6562  ft.),  with  a  maximum  height  of  2210  metres  (7251  ft.). 
But  in  the  Valais,  according  to  Imhof,i  ^\^q  mean  height  to  which  woods 
ascend  is  2150  metres  (7054  ft. ),  with  a  maximum  of  about  2300  metres 
(7546  ft.).  It  is  thus  obvious  that  in  some  cases  the  spruce  must  itself 
form  the  tree  limit,  and  at  worst  it  leaves  but  a  narrow  band  unoccupied 
which  may  be  taken  advantage  of  by  the  larch  and  Arolla  pine. 

Its  upward  extension  is  limited   by  the  temperature  range  already 
mentioned,  and  the   tree   further  requires,   as  already  stated,  a  moist 


1  Die  Waldgrenze  in  der  Schxoei::,  von  E.  Imhof.     Beit  rage  zur  Geophysik,  iv.  (1899-90), 
241. 


SCOTTISH   UKOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


atmosphere.  Because  of  its  needs  in  regard  to  warmth  and  moisture,  we 
find  in  the  Swiss  Alps  that  all  exposures  are  not  equally  favourable. 
Thus  it  rises  higher  on  a  slope  facing  south-west  or  south  than  on  one 
facing  north-east  or  north.  As  its  wide  horizontal  range  indicates,  it 
is  tolerant  of  very  varied  types  of  soil,  but  will  not  thrive  on  very  poor 
or  dry  ground.  As  regards  life-history,  it  is  sufficient  to  quote  from 
Schroter  and  Kirchner's  monograph  some  facts  about  the  rate  of  growth. 


View  near  Fionnay,  Yal  de  Hagnes.     'J'lie  \vni»U  are  spruce,  iiiin 
alder  in  foreground  Ijy  the  stream. 


witli  larcli  ; 


For  the  first  ten  years  of  existence  this  is  slow,  the  average  height 
at  the  end  of  the  period  being  only  1|-U  metres  (4-5  ft.).  From 
the  tenth  year  the  rate  of  growth  increases  until  it  attains  a  maximum 
at  forty  to  fifty  years,  the  average  height  at  forty  being  9  metres  (29i  ft.). 
After  the  fiftieth  year  the  rate  of  growth  gradually  declines.  Seed  pro- 
duction commences  when  the  tree  is  between  thirty  and  forty  years  old, 
and  seeds  are  not  abundantly  produced  until  it  is  about  fifty.  As  a 
general  rule  a  rich  harvest  of  seed  only  appears  once  in  three  years.  As 
will  be  shown  later,  though  the  rate  of  growth  appears  slow  and  the 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS  :    A    STUDY    IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY. 


189 


power  of  reproduction  late  in  appearing,  yet  the  Arolla  pine  contrasts 
unfavourably  with  the  spruce  in  these  respects. 

The  spruce  appears  in  a  considerable  number  of  forms,  according  to 
the  special  conditions  of  life.  One  of  these  is  specially  interesting 
because  of  its  frequency.  In  the  Alps,  especially  near  grazing  grounds, 
it  is  very  common  to  see  spruces  like  that  shown  in  the  accompanying 
photograph.     In  these  forms  there  is  no  leader,  a  very  short  leader,  or 


Spruce,  with  the  leader  ile.stroyed  by  goats  ;  profuse  branching  has  occurred  below. 


several  small  leaders.  The  tree  has  a  bush-shape,  and  displays  a  number 
of  branches,  almost  prostrate  on  the  ground,  and  some  rooting  in  the 
ground.  These  forms,  which  may  be  of  considerable  age  in  spite  of 
their  small  size,  are  produced  as  a  result  of  injury  by  grazing  animals. 
These  bite  off  the  leader  in  the  young  tree.  As  a  result  copious  lateral 
branching  takes  place,  the  lateral  branches  lying  close  to  the  ground. 
After  a  time  these  lateral  branches  form  a  hedge  round  the  centre,  which 
is  thus  efficiently  protected  from  further  injury.  One  or  more  branches 
then  take  on  the  function  of  leader,  and  shoots  up  suddenly,  with  the 


190  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

result  that  the  ordinary  form  is  more  or  less  perfectly  re-acquired. 
Other  forms  may  be  produced  by  constant  injury  from  snow  or  ava- 
lanches. The  spruce,  in  spite  of  the  downward  droop  of  its  branches, 
must,  on  account  of  its  heavy  foliage,  be  vevy  liable  to  injury  from  snow, 
and  it  is  often  interesting  in  a  fir-clad  valley  to  notice  that  those  parts 
which  from  the  shape  of  the  cliffs  above  must  be  avalanche-swept  in 
winter  are  bare  of  trees,  while  the  neighbouring  parts  are  luxuriantly 
clothed. 

The  Larch} — As  compared  with  the  spruce  the  larch  differs  not  only 
in  appearance,  but  also  in  many  other  respects.  "While  the  spruce  has  a 
wide  distribution,  the  larch  of  Europe  has  a  very  limited  one.  It  is  in 
essence  an  inhabitant  of  the  Alps  and  the  Carpathians,  and  is  indigenous 
only  in  a  narrow  band  of  mountainous  country,  stretching  from  the 
Dauphiny  in  the  west  to  the  vicinity  of  Kronstadt  in  Transylvania  in 
the  east.  Like  not  a  few  other  conifers,  it  had  formerly  a  more  exten- 
sive distribution,  and  even  in  the  area  to  which  it  is  native  it  is  suffer- 
ing from  the  competition  of  the  dominant  spruce.  In  the  Dauphiny, 
where  the  spruce  reaches  its  limit,  in  the  Monte  Eosa  district,  and  in 
the  Engadine,  the  larch  forms  extensive  woods,  but  elsewhere  it  largely 
occurs  in  the  form  of  specimens  scattered  through  the  spruce  woods. 
In  the  Dauphiny  it  ascends  to  its  maximum  height  of  2500  metres,  and 
in  the  Zermatt  valley  trees,  as  distinct  from  woods,  occur  up  to  the 
2400  metre  (7874  ft.)  line.  In  view  of  these  facts  of  distribution  two 
questions  arise — why  can  the  larch  not  compete  with  the  spruce  on  the 
lower  slopes?  and  how  is  it  that  it  replaces  the  spruce  in  the  upper 
region,  as  for  example  at  Zermatt  1  It  is  in  the  necessary  conditions  of 
existence  of  larch  and  spruce  that  the  answer  is  found  to  both  questions. 

First,  as  regards  temperature: — the  larch  can  grow  where  the 
mean  annual  temperature  is  only— 1°  C.  so  that  it  is  more  resistant  to 
cold  than  the  spruce.  On  the  other  hand,  it  cannot  thrive  if  the  mean 
annual  temperature  exceeds  10^  C.  As  it  sheds  its  leaves  in  winter, 
severe  cold  does  not  greatly  affect  it,  and  it  appears  to  demand  a 
winter's  rest  of  at  least  four  months.  On  the  other  hand,  as  the  needles 
are  more  delicate  in  structure  than  those  of  the  spruce,  they  are  very 
liable  to  be  injured  by  a  cold  spring.  The  larch,  in  short,  is  fitted  for  a 
continental  climate,  a  cold  winter,  and  a  sudden  hot  summer,  with  but 
little  intervening  spring.  The  high  ground  suits  it  best,  for  there  it  is 
not  tempted  to  put  forAvard  its  leaves  until  winter  has  finally  taken  its 
departure.  It  requires  less  moisture  than  the  spruce,  for  its  root  system 
is  better  developed,  and  it  thus  obtains  water  from  a  larger  area.  Again, 
the  shape  of  the  tree  and  the  deciduous  leaves  minimise  the  risk  of 
injury  from  snow,  which  cannot  lie  on  the  slender  branches.  The  com- 
bination of  the  above  peculiarities  make  it  easy  to  understand  why  the 
larch  can  grow  at  elevations  which  are  impossible  for  the  spruce. 
Why  is  it  that  the  lower  ground  is  less  suited  to  it,  and  that  here 
the  si»ruce  gains  the  mastery  ?  One  important  point  is  that  the  larch 
must  have  a  large  amount  of  light  at  all  stages  of  growth.     The  young 


1  See  Lebensgeschichte  d.  Blutenjyflanzen  Mitteleuropcis,  vou  Kirchner,  Loew  u.  Schroter. 


THE   SWISS   VALALS  :   A   STUDY   IN    RECJIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.  191 

spruce  is  tolerant  of  shade,  but  the  larch  at  all  stages  of  growth  must 
have  full  exposure  to  sunlight.  One  consequence  of  this  is  that  in  a 
larch  wood  the  trees  stand  well  apart,  while  in  a  spruce  wood  they  stand 
close  together.  If  we  suppose  that  in  such  a  wood  a  few  spruces  are 
introduced,  then  it  will  be  found  that  the  shade  which  prevents  the 
larch  seedlings  from  growing  does  no  harm  to  the  spruce  seedlings,  and 
thus  if  the  other  conditions  are  favourable  to  the  spruce  it  will  more  and 
more  predominate,  and  more  and  more  produce  a  degree  of  shade 
throughout  the  Avood  which  will  absolutely  prevent  the  natural  repro- 
duction of  the  larch.  The  handicap  in  favour  of  the  spruce  is,  however, 
somewhat  diminished  by  the  fact  that  the  larch  grows  much  faster.  In 
the  ten  years  which  it  takes  the  spruce  to  grow  about  a  metre  and  a 
half  (4-9  ft.)  the  larch  seedling  has  grown  about  ih  metres  (14|  ft.) 
that  is  in  youth  it  grows  three  times  as  fast.  Though  the  rate  of 
growth  diminishes  in  later  life,  yet  at  forty  the  larch  can  show  a  height 
of  nearly  20  metres  (65|  ft.)  as  against  the  9  metres  (29i  ft.)  of  the 
spruce. 

The  result  is  that  where  the  meteorological  conditions  are  quite 
unsuited  to  the  spruce  the  larch  in  the  Valais  forms  pure  woods — 
why  this  is  specially  true  of  the  Valais  and  Engadine  we  shall  see 
later.  Where  the  conditions  favour  the  spruce  we  shall  find  woods 
composed  for  the  most  part  of  that  species,  but  with  an  admixture  of 
larch  wherever  local  conditions  handicap  the  dominant  species.  Thus, 
if  a  particular  spot  is  much  exposed  to  snowdrifts,  the  larch  will  thrive 
better  than  the  spruce  because  of  its  shape.  If  the  place  is  storm-swept, 
the  better  root  development  of  the  larch  is  in  its  favour.  So  with  dry- 
ness of  the  soil,  which  checks  the  growth  of  the  spruces  and  allows  the 
larches  to  take  advantage  of  their  quicker  growth  to  get  beyond  the 
upas-like  influence  of  their  neighbours.  This  being  the  case,  it  is  easy  to 
understand  that  the  fact  that  the  larch  is  usually  found  at  considerable 
elevations  is  not  wholly  due  to  its  preference  for  these  heights,  but  is  in 
part  the  result  of  the  difficulty  which  it  has  in  competing  with  the  spruce 
on  the  lower  ground.  Such  facts  as  that  it  occurs  at  a  height  of  423 
metres  (1387  ft.)  at  Martigny  show  that  its  infrequence  at  low  levels  in 
the  Valais  is  not  altogether  to  be  ascribed  to  its  special  peculiarities,  but 
is  in  fact  a  result  of  the  Struggle  for  Existence.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
fact  that  it  does  not  occur  till  a  height  of  1100  metres  (3609  ft.)  at 
Sion  is  probably  due  to  a  climatic  cause ;  cf  what  has  been  said  above  as 
to  the  climate  of  this  region. 

(To  he  continued.) 


192  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE 

THE  EI  VERS  OF  SCOTLA.XD  :  THE  BEAULY  AND  CONON. 
By  Lionel  W.  Hixxman,  B.A.,  F.R.S.E. 

(JFith  Map  and  Diagrams.) 

Unlike  the  Spey  and  other  large  streams  of  the  north-east  coast  south  of 
the  Moray  Firth — livers  of  simple  type  in  which  the  tributaries  are 
throughout  distinctly  subordinate  to  the  main  stream — the  Beauly  and 
the  Conon  are  examples  of  a  complex  river  system,  formed  of  several 
large  streams  nearly  equal  in  length  and  volume,  and  confluent  at  a 
comparatively  short  distance  above  the  river  mouth. 

This  character  is  most  marked  in  the  case  of  the  Beauly,  and  is 
indeed  apparent  in  the  nomenclature  of  the  river  system.  The  Affric, 
the  Cannich,  and  the  Farrar,  streams  of  almost  equal  volume,  unite  to 
form  the  river  Glass,  which  at  some  indeterminate  point  in  its  course 
between  Struy  and  Eilean  Aigas  ceases  to  bear  that  name  and  flows  to 
the  sea  as  the  Beauly  River.^ 

The  apparent  redundancy  in  the  name  Glen  Strath  Farrar  now 
given  to  the  valley  of  the  Farrar,  may  possibly  be  accounted  for  when 
we  remember  that  the  Beauly  Firth  was  the  jEstuarium  Vararum  of  the 
early  geographers,  the  estuary  of  the  Yarar — that  name  being  evidently 
applied  to  the  whole  of  the  Farrar-Beauly  river.  The  lower  and  wider 
portion  of  the  valley  would  then  be  the  Strath — the  upper  section,  above 
Struy,  the  Glen — of  the  Farrar.  \Yhen  in  later  times  the  name  Farrar 
ceased  to  be  given  to  the  river  below  Struy,  and  that  portion  of  the 
valley  became  merged  in  Strath  Glass,  the  name  Glen  Strath  Farrar 
remained  to  indicate  the  "  glen  "  portion  of  the  vanished  Strath  Farrar. 

The  Beauly. 

The  Beauly  river  system  falls  naturally  into  four  well-defined 
sections. 

1.  The  mountain  valley  section.  This  includes  the  torrent  heads, 
the  lake  basins,  and  the  lower  courses  of  the  Aff'ric,  the  Cannich,  and 
the  Farrar.  The  last  two  of  these  flow  in  a  direction  transverse  to  the 
general  "  graining "  of  the  country,  while  the  trend  of  the  Aff'ric  is 
transverse-oblique. 

2.  The  flat  valley  track,  represented  by  the  course  of  the  river 
Glass,  longitudinal  between  Fasnakyle  and  Erchless,  and  transverse  from 
Erchless  to  Eilean  Aigas. 

3.  The  gorges  of  Eilean  Aigas,  the  Druim,  and  Kilmorack. 

4.  The  lower  course  of  the  Beauly,  between  the  foot  of  the  gorges 
and  the  sea. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  trace  in  detail  the  courses  of  each  of  these  streams, 
as  they  can  be  followed  on  the  map.     Some  figures,  however,  may  be 

1  The  whole  stream  belo^v  the  mouth  of  the  Farrar  is  often  called  the  river  Beauly  ; 
but,  on  the  other  hand,  Strath  Glass  is  generally  considered  to  extend  to  the  head  of  the 
gorge  at  Eilean  Aigas. 


194  SCOTTISH   GKOGRAFHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

useful  in  order  to  give  an  idea  of  the  relative  pro^Dortions  of  the  different 
sections  of  the  river  system.  The  area  of  the  entire  basin  is  approxi- 
mately 407  square  miles,  the  greater  part  of  which  is  high  mountain 
ground.  The  watershed  lies  within  a  few  miles  of  the  western  seaboard, 
the  sources  of  the  Affric,  Cannich,  and  Farrar  being  distant  respectively 
5,  7^,  and  7J-  miles  from  the  salt  water  of  Lochs  Duich  and  Carron. 
The  lengths  of  the  component  streams,  measured  along  the  principal 
windings,  and  including  the  lochs  through  which  they  pass,  are  as 
follows.  The  Affric  to  Fasnakyle,  21  miles;  the  Cannich,  24  miles; 
the  Farrar,  28  miles;  the  Glass  from  Fasnakyle  to  Eilean  Aigas,  16 
miles  ;  the  Beauly  from  Eilean  Aigas  to  Tarradale,  lOi  miles.  The  total 
length  of  the  Affric-Glass- Beauly  is  therefore  47^r  miles,  of  the  Cannich- 
Glass-Beauly  48,  and  of  the  Farrar-Glass-Beauly  44-J  miles. 

Section  1. — Resembling  one  another  in  the  physiographical  character 
of  their  basins,  and  in  the  causes  which  have  controlled  the  evolution 
of  their  valleys,  the  Affric,  Cannich,  and  Farrar  differ  only  in  the  extent 
to  which  each  has  graded  its  course.  They  are  essentially  immature 
rivers ;  that  is  to  say  the  fall  from  source  to  mouth  is  unequally  dis- 
tributed over  their  course,  so  that  the  profiles,  shown  in  the  accompany- 
ing diagram,  depart  largely  from  the  smooth  curve  of  a  perfectly  graded 
stream. 

Each  of  these  rivers  presents  a  succession  of  lake  basins,  or  stretches 
in  which  the  local  base-level  of  erosion  has  been  approximately  reached, 
succeeded  by  rock  barriers  which  usually  correspond  to  constrictions  of 
the  valley,  and  are  in  most  cases  due  to  hard  and  less  easily  eroded 
bands  of  rock. 

The  grading  process  has  reached  the  furthest  stage  in  the  Farrar. 
The  rock  barriers  along  the  course  of  that  river  have  been  to  a  consider- 
able extent  cut  through,  so  that  gorges  and  rapids,  rather  than  waterfalls, 
mark  the  successive  steps  in  the  fall  of  the  valley.  A  further  effect  of 
this  partial  lowering  of  the  barriers  is  seen  in  the  draining  of  former 
lakes,  such  as  that  represented  by  the  wide  alluvial  flat  below  Broulin 
Lodge  ;  and  the  lowering  of  the  Avaters  of  the  existing  lochs  indicated  by 
the  terraces  which  surround  Loch  Mhuilinn  and  Loch  Bunacharan,  and 
mark  the  former  level  of  their  waters.  In  Glen  Cannich  we  find  an 
earlier  stage  of  valley  grading.  Here  the  chain  of  lochs  is  strung  so 
closely  on  the  river  thread  that  of  the  18  miles  of  its  course — neglecting 
the  torrent  head — nearly  8  miles  are  through  lochs,  and  the  connecting 
links  of  river,  between  Loch  Lungard  and  Loch  na  Cloiche,  Loch  Mullar- 
doch  and  Loch  Sealbhag,  only  a  few  hundred  yards  in  length.  The 
erosion  of  the  successive  rock  barriers  is  less  advanced  than  on  the 
Farrar,  and  the  waters  of  almost  all  the  higher  lochs  escape  either  over 
a  fall  or  down  a  steep  rapid  little  less  than  a  fall.  Only  in  the  lower 
part  of  the  glen  has  the  river  cut  back  sufficiently  to  produce  a  gorge 
such  as  that  below  Loch  Craskie,  and  lower  to  some  extent  the  waters 
of  the  loch  above.  The  higher  lochs  show  no  signs  of  shrinkage,  but 
terraces  marking  a  slightly  higher  level  are  found  round  Lochs  Sealbhag, 
Car,  and  Craskie. 

The    profile    of  the  Affric  is  of  a    still    simpler    character.      The 


THE   RIVERS    OF   SCOTLAND':    THE   BEAULY   AND   CONON.  195 

total  fall  of  the  river  to  Fasuakyle  is  2530  feet,  of  which  1850  feet 
takes  place  along  the  five-mile  course  of  the  mountain  torrent  above 
Alltbeath.  The  remaining  fall  of  680  feet  is  v€ry  unequally  distributed 
over  a  course  of  19  miles.  Nine  miles  of  this  distance,  from  the  head  of 
the  silted-up  portion  of  Loch  AfFric  to  Achagate  below  Loch  Beinn  a' 
Mheadhoin,  is  practically  a  lake  basin,  with  a  fall  only  of  40  feet  in  the 
short  length  of  stream  above  Loch  na  Laghan ;  and  of  the  remaining 
480  feet  the  river  drops  310  feet  in  the  1|  miles  which  include  the 
Dog  Falls,  the  Badger  Falls,  and  the  connecting  rapids.  This  sudden 
drop  in  level  is  represented  on  the  profile  diagrams  by  the  steepening  of 
the  curve  between  the  20th  and  25th  mile,  a  feature  which  is  most 
strongly  marked  on  the  AfFric,  less  so  on  the  Cannich,  and  is  com- 
paratively smoothed  on  the  Farrar.  This  sudden  steepening  of  the 
gradient  corresponds  more  or  less  closely  in  each  valley  with  the  out- 
crop of  a  belt  of  gneissose  rocks,  much  folded  and  resting  at  high  angles. 
It  may,  therefore,  be  due  to  the  superior  resisting  power  of  these  rocks 
compared  with  those  at  the  mouth  of  the  valleys,  while  it  is  possible 
that  the  latter  may  have  been  more  or  less  shattered  by  a  line  of 
fracture  which  passes  along  Strath  Glass,  and  thus  rendered  more  subject 
to  erosion. 

An  over-deepening  of  the  upper  part  of  Strath  Glass  with  regard  to 
the  tributary  valleys  might  also  be  suggested  as  a  cause  of  the  sudden 
drop  at  the  foot  of  Glen  Affric,  which  might  thus  be  regarded  as  a 
hanging  valley.  It  is,  however,  difficult  to  suppose  that  a  volume  of 
ice  passed  into  the  head  of  Strath  Glass  larger  than  that  which  must 
have  descended  from  the  wide  extent  of  lofty  mountain  ground  that 
surrounds  the  upper  portions  of  Glen  Affric  and  Glen  Cannich. 

Before  passing  to  the  next  section,  some  interesting  points  in  the 
earlier  history  of  the  Farrar  may  be  referred  to. 

Of  the  two  streams  which  fall  into  the  head  of  Loch  Monar,  the 
Amhainn  an-t-Sratha  Mhoir  or  Strathmore  river  has  now  the  greater 
volume,  and  may  be  regarded  as  the  real  head  of  the  river  Farrar.  The 
other,  the  Allt  Loch  Calavie,  flows  for  the  greater  part  of  its  course 
through  a  chain  of  lochs  lying  in  a  wide  level  valley,  which  heads  up  to 
the  main  watershed  of  the  country  at  a  point  where  it  is  only  865  feet 
above  sea-level.  The  low  drift-covered  col  rises  but  a  few  feet  above 
the  stream  on  the  western  side  of  the  watershed,  a  tributary  of  the  river 
Ling,  and  the  flat  marshy  valley  of  the  Allt  an  Loinfhiodha  as  far 
down  as  the  foot  of  Loch  Cruoshie  is  clearly  a  continuation  of  the 
hollow  by  which  the  eastern  drainage  now  passes  through  the  Gead 
Lochs  into  Loch  Monar.  The  stream  below  Loch  Cruoshie  is  rapidly 
eroding  its  present  steep  gorge,  and  it  is  evident  that  since  glacial  times 
it  has  cut  back  eastwards  sufiiciently  to  rob  the  headwaters  of  the  Farrar 
of  the  volume  represented  by  the  three  burns  which  now  flow  into  Loch 
Cruoshie. 

The  gorge  of  the  Garbh  Uisge  below  Monar  Lodge  is  a  recent  post- 
glacial portion  of  the  river  channel.  Its  earlier  course,  occupied  at  a 
time  when  the  valley  south  of  Beinn  na  Muice  was  probably  blocked 
with  ice,  lay  through  the  hollow  between  Loch  Bad  na  h'Achlaise  and  the 


196  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

Uisge  Misgeach.  Other  higher  channels  occupied  by  the  river  during 
former  stages  of  the  grading  of  its  course  can  be  detected  immediately- 
above  Ardchuilk,  at  the  level  of  the  road  between  Lochs  Mhuilinn  and 
Bunacharan,  and  again  at  the  roadside  half  a  mile  below  Deannie 
Lodge. 

The  bathymetry  of  Loch  Monar  and  of  most  of  the  other  lochs 
mentioned  in  this  paper  has  been  fully  discussed  in  the  Reports  of  the 
Scottish  Lake  Survey  published  from  time  to  time  in  the  pages  of  this 
Magazine.^  It  will  therefore  be  sufficient  to  say  that  all  or  nearly  all 
these  lochs  occupy  rock-basins,  though,  in  some  instances,  their  waters 
are  partially  held  up  by  drift  or  alluvial  deposits.  Ice  has  in  every  case 
been  the  principal  eroding  agent,  and  the  powerful  fault  which  crosses 
Loch  Monar  in  an  oblique  direction  has  probably  played  an  important 
part,  as  a  line  of  weakness,  in  the  evolution  of  that  loch.  The  smaller 
lochs  are  all  of  comparatively  recent  origin,  and  may  be  regarded  as 
only  transient  features,  that  under  present  conditions  are  being  slowly 
obliterated  by  the  grading  of  the  river  valleys. 

Section  2. — Between  Fasnakyle  and  Erchless  the  river  Glass  occupies 
a  straight,  trench-like,  longitudinal  valley,  whose  trend  has  been  deter- 
mined by  a  line  of  fault.  The  fall  of  the  valley  floor  from  Invercannich 
to  Struy,  a  distance  of  6|  miles,  is  only  15  feet ;  the  stream  has  graded  its 
course,  and  now  winds  in  sluggish  curves,  with  here  and  there  an  "  ox- 
bow "lake  representing  a  former  "  cut-off,"  through  a  deep  deposit  of 
silt,  sand,  and  fine  gravel. 

There  is  little  doubt  that  this  portion  of  the  valley  is  a  waste-filled 
basin,  at  one  time  occupied  by  a  narrow  glen-lake  comparable  on  a  small 
scale  with  Loch  Ness,  and  like  it,  developed  along  a  XXE.-SSW.  line 
of  fracture  and  consequent  weakness.  The  waters  of  this  lake  probably 
extended  to  the  head  of  the  gorge  at  Eilean  Aigas  and  were  gradually 
drained  by  the  erosion  of  the  rock  barrier  below,  while  the  higher 
reaches  Avere  being  silted  up  with  the  material  brought  down  by  the 
mountain  streams. 

At  Eilean  Aigas  the  character  of  the  river  completely  changes.  The 
wide  haughlands  and  sweeping  curves  of  the  Glass  give  place  to  the 
picturesque  gorges  through  which  the  Beauly  rushes  in  alternating  fall 
and  rapid  amid  the  beautiful  scenery  of  the  Druim  and  Kilmorack. 
These  gorges  have  been  cut  deep  into  the  Old  Red  Sandstone  conglomerate, 
and  in  places  even  reach  the  underlying  floor  of  metamorphic  rock. 

A  feature  common  to  most  of  the  rivers  that  fall  into  the  Moray 
Firth  is  the  abnormal  steepening  of  the  lower  part  of  their  course, 
generally  at  or  near  the  point  where  they  breach  the  inner  or  landward 
margin  of  the  Old  Red  Sandstone  belt. 

In  a  former  paper  on  the  Spey  -  I  have  attributed  this  phenomenon, 
which  is  particularly  well  marked  in  the  case  of  that  river,  to  the 
rejuvenation  produced  by  an  uplift  later  than  the  deposition  of  the  Old 
Red  Sandstone.  In  the  case  of  the  Beauly  it  seems  probable  that  the 
more  recent  uplift  which  raised  the  shore-line  100  feet  above  its  present 


1  Vol.  xxii.  No.  9,  1906;  vol.  xxi.,  1905. 

'  "The  River  Spey," Scottish  Geographical  Magazine,  April  1901. 


THE   RIVERS   OF   SCOTLAND:   THE   BEAULY   AND    CONON.  197 

level  was  an  important  factor  in  the  production  of  the  lower  gorges. 
The  100-feet  beach,  which  forms  a  conspicuous  feature  along  the 
shores  of  the  Beauly  Firth,  can  be  traced  to  the  mouth  of  the  Kilmorack 
gorge,  while  the  100-feet  contour-line  crosses  the  river  at  Teanassie, 
more  than  a  mile  higher  up.  It  is  evident  that  erosion  must  have  been 
largely  accelerated  on  the  down-stream  side  of  the  uplift  by  the  steepen- 
ing of  the  gradient. 

At  the  mouth  of  the  Kilmorack  gorge  the  Beauly  enters  the  final 
section  of  its  course,  and  flowe  gently  over  a  wide  alluvial  plain  to  the 
sea.  Above  the  village  of  Beauly  the  river  is  eroding  the  marine  deposits 
of  the  successive  raised  beaches,  while  below  it  pushes  out  into  the  head 
of  the  Beauly  Firth  an  ever-advancing  delta  of  silt  and  mud,  closely 
similar  to  the  estuarine  shelly  clays  that  extend  far  up  the  valley  of  the 
Conon  to  the  limit  of  the  100-foot  beach. 

The  course  of  the  Beauly  between  Eilean  Aigas  and  the  sea  is  entirely 
postglacial.  An  earlier  preglacial  channel  is  indicated  by  the  hollow 
of  Lonbuie,  which  runs  from  Eskadale  through  Fanellan  to  Beaufort 
Castle.  The  higher  part  of  this  hollow  is  now  deeply  filled  with  boulder 
clay,  the  lower  portion  with  alluvial  sand  and  gravel.  From  Beaufort  the 
river  probably  flowed  through  the  low-lying  tract  of  ground  occupied  by 
the  now  drained  Moniack  Moss  to  the  sea  between  Clunes  and  Lentran.^ 

Having  thus  discussed  in  more  or  less  detail  the  courses  of  the 
streams  that  form  the  present  Beauly  river  system,  it  remains  to 
consider  briefly  the  earlier  history  of  its  development. 

It  seems  probable  that  the  Farrar,  Cannich,  and  Aff"ric  represent  the 
headwaters  of  a  consequent  easterly-flowing  river  system  developed  on 
the  original  surface  of  the  Old  Red  Sandstone  plateau,  which  we  know 
from  the  outlying  fragments  of  that  formation  found  far  up  the  inland 
valleys,  must  at  one  time  have  covered  the  eastern  side  of  the  watershed 
up  to  a  height  of  at  least  2500  feet  above  present  sea-level. 

A  study  of  the  map  shows  the  significant  manner  in  which  the  wide 
valley  of  Glen  Urquhart  and  Corrimony  heads  up  to  a  well-marked 
depression  in  the  eastern  wall  of  Strath  Glass,  directly  opposite  to  the 
mouth  of  Glen  Cannich,  and  continues  the  line  of  that  glen  eastwards  to 
Loch  Ness.  It  is  therefore  not  unreasonable  to  supjiose  that  Glen 
Urquhart  once  formed  part  of  the  course  of  a  large  eastward-flowing 
river,  whose  head-waters  were  captured  by  a  longitudinal  stream  at 
the  time  when  the  removal  of  the  Old  Red  Sandstone  covering  by 
denudation  brought  into  play  the  features  of  an  earlier  drainage  system, 
and  diverted  the  confluent  waters  of  the  Cannich  and  the  Afi'ric  into 
the  pre-Old-Red-Sandstone  valley  of  Strath  Glass. 

The  Farrar-Glass-Beauly  still  preserves  more  or  less  its  easterly 
course,  but  the  lower  part  of  the  valley  has  been  largely  modified  by 
subsequent  events,  and  in  earlier  times  the  river  probably  flowed  over 
a  plain  of  Old  Red  Sandstone  that  occupied  the  position  of  the  Beauly 
Firth,  discharging  its  waters  into  the  Moray  Firth  far  to  the  eastward  of 
the  present  shores  of  the  Black  Isle. 

1  As  suggested  by  Mr.  Wallace  in  his  article  "  Geological  Changes  in  the  Moray  Firth." 
Trans.  Inverness  Scientific  Soc,  vol.  ii.  p.  384. 


198 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


sjioj  uotJin^ 


The  Conox. 

The  upper  part  of  the  Conon  river  system  is 
composed  of  the  Meig  and  the  stream  which  flows 
through  Loch  Luichart.  The  name  Conon  is  first 
given  to  the  river  where  it  issues  from  that  loch, 
the  stream  that  flows  into  the  head  of  the  loch 
being  known  as  the  Bran,  It  is,  however,  signi- 
ficant that  the  Meig  valley,  which  continues  the 
line  of  the  valley  of  the  Conon  below  their  junc- 
tion, bears  the  name  of  Strathconon,  and  it  would 
seem  more  fittiug  that  the  name  Bran  should  be 
extended  to  the  confluence  of  the  Loch  Luichart 
stream  with  the  Meig,  the  name  Conon  being  re- 
stricted to  the  united  waters  below  that  point.  A 
Gaelic  verse,  quoted  by  Mr.  Watson  in  his  ex- 
cellent work  on  the  place-names  of  Ross  and 
Cromarty,  has  reference  to  this  anomaly  : — 


"  Abhainn  Mig  tre  Srath-chomiinn, 
Abhainn  Conuinn  tre  Srath-bhrainn, 
Abhaiun  Dabh-chuileagach  tre  Srath-ghairbh  ; 
Tri  abnaicheau  gun  tairbh  iad  sin." 

"  The  River  Meig  through  Strath  Conon, 
The  River  Couon  through  Strathbran, 
The  River  of  black  nooks  through  Strathgarve  ; 
Three  rivers  without  profit  these." 

At  Contin  (the  confluence)  the  river  is  joined 
by  its  most  important  tributary,  the  Blackwater, 
and  four  miles  above  its  mouth  receives  on  the 
right  bank  the  waters  of  the  Orrin.  The  area  of 
the  Conon  drainage  basin  approximates  to  483 
square  miles.  The  lengths  of  the  various  sections 
are  as  follows  :  the  Meig,  241  miles  ;  the  Bran, 
to  the  foot  of  the  Meig,  26|  miles;  the  Bran- 
Conon,  38|  miles;  and  the  Meig-Conon,  36i 
miles.  The  principal  tributaries  of  the  lower 
river,  the  Blackwater  and  Orrin,  measure  respec- 
tively 28  and  23  miles  in  length. 

The  mountain  torrent  which  forms  the  head- 
waters of  the  Bran-Conon  rises  at  a  height  of 
1500  feet  on  the  slopes  of  Carn  Breac,  at  a  point 
only  9  miles  distant  from  the  salt  Avater  of  Loch 
Torridon,  and  falls  1000  feet  in  its  course  of  5 
miles  to  the  head  of  Loch  a'  Chroisg  (Rosque). 
ii.    §  o  §  S  t  °  Issuing  from  the  loch  as  the  river  Bran,  the  stream 

is  cutting  through  the  high-level  terraces  of  sand  and  gravel  which  are  seen 
on  either  side  of  the  railway  a  short  distance  to  the  west  of  Achnasheen 
station.      These    represent,  as  pointed   out  by  Dr.  Penck   of  Vienna, 


THE   RIVERS   OF   SCOTLAND:    THE   BEAULY   AND   CONON.  199 

and  further  described  by  Dr.  B,  N,  Peach,  delta  deposits  laid  down  in  an 
ancient  lake,  which  was  held  up  by  masses  of  ice  lying  in  the  valley 
to  the  east  and  south  of  the  present  junction  of  the  Bran  with  the 
stream  flowing  out  of  Loch  Gown. 

From  Achnasheen  the  river  winds  eastwards  with  a  gentle  fall 
through  the  grassy  alluvial  stretches  of  Strathbran,  its  straighter 
course  immediately  above  Dosmuckeran  indicating  a  steeper  gradient 
where  the  stream  leaves  the  floodplain  and  has  cut  a  shallow  gorge 
through  the  flagstones  at  the  foot  of  Druim  Dubh.  Below  Dosmuckeran 
the  river  meanders  in  sluggish  curves  between  high  banks  of  sand  and 
clay  through  a  flat  stretch  of  meadow  land.  This  alluvial  flat  is  the 
silted-up  head  of  a  large  loch,  now  represented  only  by  the  shallow  reedy 
waters  of  Loch  Achanalt  and  Loch  Cuilinn.  Li  addition  to  the  filling  up 
of  this  earlier  lake  by  the  stream  at  its  head,  its  waters  were  lowered  by 
the  cutting  back  of  the  rock  barrier  below  Loch  Cuilinn,  and  the  latter 
loch  separated  from  Loch  Achanalt,  the  former  connection  of  the  two 
lakes  being  plainly  indicated  by  the  continuous  terraces  that  can  be 
traced  around  them  both.  After  leaving  Loch  Cuilinn  the  Bran  passes 
in  rapids  and  small  waterfalls  over  a  series  of  rock  barriers,  above  each 
of  which  the  stream  expands  into  a  wide  reach  of  comparatively  still 
water,  and  falls  110  feet  to  Loch  Luichart  in  a  distance  a  little  less  than 
two  miles.  A  mile  above  that  loch  it  is  joined  by  the  Grudie  river,  which 
drains  Loch  Fannich  and  the  southern  slopes  of  the  Fannich  mountains. 
This  is  a  rapid  rocky  stream,  and  falls  460  feet  in  the  last  3^^  miles  of 
its  short  course  from  the  loch.  The  bathymetry  of  Loch  Luichart 
presents  some  interesting  features,  which  are  fully  discussed  in  the 
Report  of  the  Scottish  Lake  Survey  on  the  lakes  of  the  Conon  basin. ^ 
It  may,  however,  be  pointed  out  that  the  abnormal  depth  found  close 
to  the  head  of  the  loch  is  probably  due  in  great  measure  to  the  powerful 
wrench-fault  which  here  crosses  the  lake.  The  eff"ect  of  this  line  of 
movement  would  be  to  shatter  and  disintegrate  the  rock  and  thus 
increase  the  erosive  eff"ect  of  the  moving  ice  at  this  point. 

The  most  prominent  feature  in  the  profile  of  the  Bran-Conon,  below 
Loch  a'  Chroisg,  is  the  sudden  drop  below  Loch  Luichart,  where,  in  a 
distance  of  just  under  a  mile,  the  river  falls  1.30  feet  between  the  rock- 
lip  of  the  loch  at  the  Falls  of  Conon  and  the  mouth  of  the  gorge  at 
Little  Scatwell.  It  is  noticeable  that  the  Falls  of  Conon  occupy  an 
almost  exactly  similar  position  with  regard  to  the  loch  above  and 
gorge  below  as  do  the  Rogie  Falls  on  the  Blackwater  river,  referred  to  in 
the  sequel.  The  erosion  of  the  Loch  Luichart  barrier  has,  however,  not 
yet  been  sufficient  to  lower  appreciably  the  waters  of  the  loch  above  and 
produce  a  marginal  terrace  as  is  the  case  with  Loch  Garve. 

The  course  of  the  Meig  is  less  varied  than  that  of  its  sister  stream 
the  Bran.  Rising  at  a  height  of  1200  feet  at  the  head  of  Gleann 
Fhiodhaig,  it  runs  with  a  fairly  even  fall  of  730  feet  in  9  miles  to 
Scardroy  at  the  head  of  Loch  Beannachan.  Here  a  partially  eroded 
barrier  of  Lewisian    gneiss  crosses  the  stream  and  forms  a  waterfall, 


1  "Lochs  of  the  Conon  Basin,"  Scottish  Geographiail  Magazine,  vol.  xxi.  p.  467,  1905. 


200  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

while  openings    in    the   barrier    at  higher    levels   with    corresponding 
terraces  mark  former  courses  of  the  stream. 

The  waters  of  Loch  Beannachan  lie  in  a  hollow  due  to  erosion  along 
a  line  of  fault  that  can  be  traced  westwards  to  Loch  Maree. 

The  Meig  issues  from  Loch  Beannachan  through  a  deep  accumula- 
tion of  fluvio-glacial  sand  and  gravel,  which  to  some  extent  holds  up  the 
waters  of  the  loch ;  and  rock  is  first  met  with  in  the  bed  of  the  stream 
a  mile  below  the  outlet.  Between  Inbhirchorainn  and  Milltown  of 
Strathconon  the  river  runs  NNE.  and  nearly  at  right  angles  to  its 
higher  course  through  a  straight  caiion-like  valley,  whose  lofty  and  pre- 
cipitous eastern  Avail  of  shattered  and  reddened  rock  forms  one  of  the 
most  striking  features  in  the  scenery  of  Strathconon.  This  valley  has  been 
determined  by  a  powerful  line  of  dislocation  which  can  be  traced  for  a 
great  distance  through  the  counties  of  Ross  and  western  Inverness,  with  a 
trend  parallel  to  that  of  the  faults  which  have  determined  the  Great  Glen 
and  the  upper  part  of  Strath  Glass.  This  Strathconon  fault  has  already 
been  mentioned  as  crossing  the  head  of  Loch  Luichart.  At  Milltown 
the  Meig  leaves  the  fault-valley  and  resumes  its  normal  easterly  course 
with  a  fairly  even  fall  through  Strathconon.  For  a  distance  of  half 
a  mile  above  Little  Scatwell  the  gradient  is  less  matured,  and  the 
stream  struggles  in  a  deep  and  narrow  gorge  through  the  siliceous  flag- 
stones of  Torr  a  Bhealaich. 

Issuing  from  their  respective  gorges  at  Little  Scatwell,  the  Meig  and 
Bran  enter  a  wide  flood  plain,  through  which  their  waters,  united  in  the 
Conon  river,  flow  to  a  point  below  Comrie  where  the  valley  is  again 
constricted,  and  a  band  of  siliceous  rock  crossing  the  stream  has  pro- 
duced a  low  waterfall  and  rock  gorge  below. 

The  next  steep  drop  in  the  gradient  is  found  at  the  Muirton  Falls 
just  above  Newton,  where  the  Conon  encounters  the  coarse  breccia  of 
Old  Red  Sandstone  age  which  forms  Torr  Achilty.  The  fall  or  steep  rapid 
caused  by  the  outcrop  of  this  hard  conglomerate  is  succeeded  by  a 
stretch  of  a  mile  in  which  the  river  flows  swiftly  over  a  floor  of  gently 
inclined  grey  shales  and  flagstones.  These  rocks  are  on  the  same 
horizon  as  the  bods  from  which  are  derived  the  mineral  waters  of 
Strathpeff"er,  and  several  sulphureous  springs  rise  from  the  river  bed 
near  Clachuile  Inn,  but  are  only  exposed  when  the  water  is  at  a  low 
summer  level. 

The  insignificance  of  the  Muirton  gorge  as  compared  with  that  cut  by 
the  Beauly  river  through  the  Old  Red  Sandstone  at  Kilmorack  is  remark- 
able, but  may  be  explained  by  the  fact  that  a  fault  here  crosses  the 
river,  bringing  the  shales  and  flagstones  into  contact  with  the  lowest 
portion  of  the  basal  conglomerate.  The  Conon  has  therefore  had  an 
easier  task  in  eroding  its  channel  through  these  softer  rocks  than  the 
Beauly  on  its  three-mile  course  through  the  hard  conglomerates  of 
Kilmorack  and  the  Druim. 

It  may  be  pointed  out  that  here  again  the  limit  of  the  100-feet 
raised  beach  coincides  very  nearly  with  the  head  of  the  gorge  at  Toir 
Achilty.  Near  Muirton  Mains  finely  laminated  blue  shelly  clays  of 
estuarine  character  are  found  up  to  the  100-feet  level,  and  upon  these 


THE   RIVERS   OF   SCOTLAND:    THE   BEAULY   AND   CONON.  201 

appear  to  rest  the  moraines  that  mark  the  last  retreat  of  the  valley 
glacier  up  Strathcouon. 

From  Torr  Achilty  to  the  sea  the  Conon  flows  through  a  wide 
alluvial  plain,  eroding  the  marine  deposits  of  the  raised  beaches,  and  at 
the  same  time  laying  down  its  own  load  of  material.  At  Moy  Bridge 
it  receives  the  waters  of  the  Blackwater,  and  a  short  digression  must 
now  be  made  to  describe  the  salient  points  in  the  course  of  this  im- 
portant tributary. 

There  are  many  points  in  similarity  between  the  physiography  of 
the  Blackwater  and  that  of  the  Conon,  and  these  have  been  determined 
by  closely  similar  causes.  The  three  large  streams  which  form  the  head- 
waters of  the  river  under  consideration — the  Glascarnoch  and  the 
streams  which  &ow  through  Strath  Vaich  and  Strath  Rannoch — each 
present  in  some  part  of  its  course  the  usual  alternation  of  lake  or 
drained  and  silted-up  lake-basin  with  rock  gorge  through  which  the 
stream  is  eroding  the  determining  barrier  below. 

Two  mountain  torrents,  draining  the  southern  slopes  of  Beinn  Dearg 
and  the  northern  corries  of  the  Fannich  range,  unite  a  short  distance 
east  of  the  low  flat  watershed  to  form  the  Glascarnoch  river.  It  is, 
however,  evident  that  the  waters  of  Loch  Droma  and  the  Allt 
a'  Mhadaidh,  which  now  flow  westwards  to  Loch  Broom,  have  been 
stolen  from  the  Blackwater  basin  by  the  river  Broom,  which  has  cut  back 
more  rapidly  than  the  gently  graded  upper  portion  of  the  Glascarnoch 
stream.  The  flat  alluvial  stretch,  some  four  miles  in  length,  above 
Aultguish  Inn  is  evidently  the  bed  of  a  glen  lake  filled  up  with  the 
detritus  brought  down  by  the  hill  streams,  and  drained  by  the  erosion 
of  a  barrier  mainly  formed  by  the  belt  of  foliated  granite  which  crosses 
the  valley  above  Inchbae. 

Below  Strath  Vaich  the  valley  gradient  steepens,  and  the  river  falls 
430  feet  in  seven  miles  to  Gortin,  at  the  head  of  the  alluvial  flat  which 
represents  the  silted-up  head  of  Loch  Garve.  This  loch  has  also  been 
drained  to  a  considerable  extent  by  the  lowering  of  the  rock  barrier  at 
the  Falls  of  Rogie,  and  the  conspicuous  terraces  round  the  southern  part 
of  the  loch  show  the  former  extent  of  its  waters. 

A  high  terrace  of  sand  and  gravel  extends  from  the  mouth  of  the 
rock  gorge  eroded  by  the  river  below  the  Rogie  Falls  to  the  entrance  of 
the  hollow  occupied  by  Loch  Achilty,  whose  waters  are  to  a  large  extent 
held  up  by  deep  alluvial  deposits.  There  are  indications  that  at  an 
earlier  period,  when  the  lower  part  of  the  valley  was  possibly  blocked 
with  ice,  the  water  may  have  passed  through  this  hollow,  which  connects 
the  valleys  of  the  Blackwater  and  the  Conon. 

Two  miles  below  the  confluence  of  these  rivers  the  waters  of  the 
Orrin  pour  in  from  the  south,  over  a  delta  of  coarse  alluvial  deposits, 
through  channels  that  shift  with  every  heavy  flood.  The  course  of  the 
Orrin  through  its  wild  mountain  valley  presents  no  features  of  special 
interest.  The  fall  of  the  stream,  1200  feet,  is  fairly  evenly  distributed 
over  its  course  of  23  miles,  but  is  on  the  whole  greater  in  the  portion 
below  Camban.  Loch  na  Caoidhe,  at  the  head  of  the  valley,  occupies  a 
rock  basin,  and  the  graded  stretch  that  extends  for  a  mile  and  a  half 

VOL.  XXIII.  P 


202  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

below  Am  Fiar  Loch  represents  the  former  extent  of  that  piece  of 
water.  The  Orrin  Falls  are  due  to  the  outcrop  of  a  band  of  con- 
glomerate, greater  in  resisting  power  than  the  softer  shales  and  flag- 
stones below. 

Like  the  Beauly,  the  Conon  was  at  an  early  period  of  its  history 
developed  on  the  eastward  slope  of  a  plateau  of  Old  Eed  Sandstone  and, 
possibly,  Secondary  rocks,  but  does  not  appear  to  have  been  modified 
to  the  same  extent  by  the  reassertion  of  earlier  surface  features,  and 
still  preserves  to  a  large  extent  its  original  consequent  course. 
It  is  possible,  however,  that  the  southward  bend  of  the  Blackwater 
between  Garbad  and  Garve  was  determined  by  the  high  ground  of  An 
Cabar  and  Little  Wyvis,  and  that  the  pass  between  those  mountains 
indicates  an  earlier  eastward  line  of  drainage. 

The  lower  course  of  the  Conon,  like  that  of  the  Beauly,  Avas  con- 
tinued over  the  Old  Red  Sandstone  plain  far  to  the  eastwards  of  its 
present  mouth,  and,  as  has  been  suggested  by  Mr.  Hugh  Miller,^  the 
opening  between  the  Sutors  of  Cromarty  may  have  been  eroded  by  the 
river  as  it  cut  its  way  down  through  the  softer  strata  by  which  the 
gneiss  of  the  Sutors  was  deeply  covered. 


THE  BLACK  MAX'S  MIND.^ 


These  two  volumes  aie  clear  testimony  that  the  importance  of  West 
Africa  to  the  student  of  ethnology  is  being  recognised.  Ultimately  both 
deal  with  the  same  subject.  They  are  earnest  attempts  to  discover  the 
first  principles  of  the  religion  of  the  "West  African  native.  Major  Leonard, 
in  a  large  volume  of  560  pages,  has  given  us  the  result  of  over  ten  years' 
study  of  the  tribes  in  Southern  Nigeria,  and  Mr.  Dennett  has  been 
reaching  forward  to  the  conclusions  he  arrives  at,  during  a  stay  of  nearly 
thirty  years  on  "  the  Coast."  Both  volumes  are  intensely  interesting, 
and  what  has  to  be  said  regarding  their  form  had  best  be  said  first. 
The  illustrations  in  Mr.  Dennett's  book  are  on  the  whole  well  done,  and 
the  signs  given  on  p.  71  open  up  a  subject  that  requires  thorough 
investigation — that  of  the  sign-writing  used  by  the  natives.  L^^nfortun- 
ately  Mr.  Dennett  overloads  his  pages  with  native  terras  that  are  very 
difficult  to  remember,  and  to  read  his  book  involves  the  retention  in  the 
mind  of  a  goodly  number  of  Bavili  and  Bini  words.  It  is  well  that  the 
proof-reading  is  nearly  perfect  and  the  index  very  full,  though  there  are 
one  or  two  omissions.  On  page  65  we  have  Mvumvuvu,  and  this  is  the 
form  found  in  the  index  which  contains  no  reference  to  pages  107-8, 
where  the  term  is  fully  explained,  and  where  it  is  printed  Mvumvu??ivu. 
Likaida  (p.  82)  is  printed  Likawla  (p.  84).     Major  Leonard's  book  is 

1  Transactions  of  the  Inverness  Scientific  Society,  1885,  vol.  iii.  p.  133. 

2  The  Lower  Niger  and  its  Tribes.  By  Arthur  Glyn  Leonard  (Macmillan,  V2s.  6d.  net), 
At  the  Back  of  the  Black  Man's  Mind:  or,  Xotes  on  the  Kingly  Office  in  West  Africa.  By 
R.  E.  Dennett  (MacmillaD,  10s.  net). 


THE   BLACK   MAN'S   MIND.  203 

larger  and  much  more  diffuse.  Misprints  are  more  frequent,  but  I  shall 
merely  refer  to  some  which  occur  in  an  interesting  Appendix  on  the 
'•  Grammatical  Construction  of  Tongues."  On  page  507,  Ja,  to  chew, 
should  be  Ta,  as  it  is  printed  on  page  512,  where,  however,  tuka  should 
be  huta,  and  utaja  should  be  utalia.  On  page  510  some  use  is  made  of 
diacritical  marks  in  the  word  oydkhd,  but  no  explanation  is  given  any- 
where as  to  the  meaning  of  these  marks,  and  other  words,  usually  written 
with  them,  do  not  receive  them.  On  page  508  the  first  rule  is  badly 
stated,  and  the  rule  for  comparison  of  adjectives  is  wrong,  for  etiakan 
does  not  mean  "extremely  good"  but  "better  than  "  {lit.  good  past).  It 
is  a  pity  that  these  and  a  number  of  other  mistakes  have  crept  into  this 
very  interesting  Appendix.  The  index  is  far  too  meagre,  and  it  is  quite 
impossible  to  locate  many  of  the  towns  mentioned  in  the  text  on  the 
antiquated  map  at  the  end  of  the  volume. 

In  both  volumes  insistence  is  rightly  laid  on  the  effect  of  environ- 
ment on  the  religious  ideas  of  the  natives.  Major  Leonard,  in  his 
opening  chapters,  gives  a  vivid  description  of  Nigeria — a  land  baked 
and  hard  in  the  dry  season,  but  swampy  and  malarial  in  the  rains,  and 
he  seeks  to  trace  the  influence  which  these  climatic  changes  and  other 
natural  phenomena  had  on  the  minds  of  the  people.  If  there  is  less 
description  in  Mr.  Dennett's  book,  it  is  not  less  necessary  to  keep  before 
us  as  we  read,  a  picture  first  of  the  Mayombe  and  Xiloango  country  and 
afterwards  of  the  Benin  Eiver  District.  The  conclusions  arrived  at  by 
these  two  investigators  seem  at  first  sight  vastly  different.  Says  Mr. 
Dennett,  page  105,  "In  the  last  resort  the  Bavili  are  monists,"  and  he 
afterwards  on  more  than  one  occasion  makes  the  same  statement  regard- 
ing the  Bini,  e.g.  page  235,  "We  have  noted  that  both  the  Bini  and 
Bavili  in  the  first  place  recognise  God."  He  then  finds  amongst  both 
peoples  a  distinction  between  things  created  and  things  procreated — the 
former  connected  with  God,  the  latter  with  the  Devil.  He  lays  stress 
on  the  fact  that  the  ultimate  starting-point  for  all  is  God,  but  he  admits 
(p.  166)  that  the  idea  of  God  prevalent  to-day  amongst  the  Bavili  is 
very  degenerate.  Trade,  especially  the  slave  trade,  and  European  mis- 
conceptions regarding  their  civilisation,  have  demoralised  the  people  so 
that  they  do  not  to-day  lay  the  stress  they  should  and  formerly  did  lay 
on  God's  part  in  the  affairs  of  the  world.  Accordingly  he  arrives  at 
Major  Leonard's  conclusion  that  for  all  practical  purposes  the  natives 
to-day  are  dualists  {Lower  Niger,  p.  129),  though  the  latter  does  not 
think  that  Monism  ever  existed  in  Nigeria. 

Both  writers  rest  their  conclusions  to  a  large  extent  on  arguments 
of  a  philological  character,  and  rightly  so.  But  the  study  of  West  African 
languages  is  still  in  its  infancy,  and  the  conclusions  drawn  are  sometimes 
hardly  convincing.  Thus  Mr.  Dennett  pleads  for  Monism  because  every- 
thing is  ultimately  brought  back  to  God — NzamU.  But  Nzamhi  is  not 
the  causing  First  Principle.  Though  His  name  is  singular  in  form,  He 
contains  the  "  essence  of  the  forms,"  and  has  in  Himself  a  male  and 
female  part  (p.  167).  It  would  seem  quite  probable  that  if  the  Bavili 
have  fallen  from  Monism,  they  had  originally  fought  their  way  to  it 
from  Polydemonism,  or,  to  use  Major  Leonard's  term,  Naturism. 


204  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

It  is  only  natural  that  whilst  one  who  has  tried  to  get  at  the  heart 
of  native  ways  of  thought,  and  to  observe  native  customs,  finds  much  to 
agree  with  in  both  books,  there  should  be  many  things  that  he  does  not 
agree  with.  I  do  not  know  the  country  that  Mr.  Dennett  deals  with, 
but  I  have  had  a  good  deal  to  do  with  several  "  Bini  Boys."  Major 
Leonard's  observations  have  mostly  been  made  on  the  Xiger  amongst 
the  Ibo  people,  but  he  has  travelled  through  a  great  part  of  the  country, 
and  has  gathered  information  from  natives  of  all  parts.  Accordingly  he 
feels  justified  in  stating  his  conclusions  broadly,  making  them  apply  to 
the  whole  of  Nigeria.  Thus  he  states,  page  293,  "Virtually,  indeed, 
every  household  has  its  own  priest  in  the  person  of  the  eldest  son,"  and 
this  statement  is  fully  explained  on  page  395.  Amongst  the  Efik  and 
XJmon  peoples  on  the  Cross  River  I  have  not  found  it  so.  The  head  of 
the  family  is  the  priest  for  the  family.  Amongst  polygamists  there  is 
often  doubt  as  to  who  is  the  eldest  born,  and  accordinglj',  in  these  tribes 
at  least,  the  father  regards  as  his  first-born  the  son  of  whose  birth  he 
hears  first,  even  although,  because  of  a  slave's  dilatoriness  in  carrying 
a  message,  or  because  of  a  child  being  born  in  a  distant  farm,  he  is  really 
junior  to  another  by  several  days.  Further,  the  custom  of  the  Nsibidi 
Society  seems  to  me  inconsistent  with  the  position  of  the  eldest  son  as 
priest.  This  society  was  suppressed  in  Duke  Town  in  1878  or  1879, 
but  it  was  "out"  in  Creek  Town  in  1902,  though  it  did  no  damage. 
Its  members  had  the  right  on  its  "  play  "  days  to  kill  at  sight  the  eldest 
son  or  daughter  of  any  house  whatsoever.  Other  children  could  walk 
the  town  with  safety.  It  seems  hardly  possible  that  the  people  would 
submit  to  have  their  family  priest  in  continual  danger.  Mr.  Dennett 
does  not  seem  to  have  found  traces  of  this  special  sanctity  of  the  eldest 
son,  and  facts  like  the  above  do  not  agree  with  it. 

Amongst  the  Bavili  there  does  not  seem  to  be  any  human  sacrifice. 
At  least  no  mention  is  made  of  it  in  At  the  Back  of  the  Black  Man's  Mind. 
Major  Leonard  has  a  great  deal  that  is  interesting  to  say  about  it. 
Amons  the  Inokuns  this  religious  rite  was  performed  till  after  the  Aro 
war,  but  now  it  has  ceased.  Indeed  the  custom  was  universal,  and 
within  the  memory  of  man  was  practised  even  in  Calabar.  Some  time 
a^^o  I  got  a  full  account  of  the  change  from  human  to  other  sacrifices 
in  connection  witli  an  idem  at  Okpoko,  a  farm  village  near  Ikunetu. 
Formerly  there  was  sacrificed  to  this  idem  a  light-coloured  woman — 
owoafia.  But — and  this  is  an  interesting  part  of  the  tradition — about 
forty  years  ago  the  idem  itself  said  that  this  was  not  good,  and  told  the 
people  to  bring  other  sacrifices.  Accordingly  a  white  cow  was  offered. 
Gradually  the  value  of  the  sacrifice  decreased,  till  at  last  it  became  merely 
one  white  egg.  With  this  meagre  offering  the  idem  was  offended  and  in 
1902  declared  that  no  sacrifices  save  those  that  used  to  be  offered  would 
be  accepted.  The  people  understood  this  to  involve  a  return  to  human 
sacrifice,  and  next  day  led  a  light-coloured  woman  to  the  sacred  place  and 
turned  her  face  toward  the  idem.  This  was  done  to  remind  tlie  idem  that 
human  sacrifice  had  been  discontinued  at  its  own  command.  Then  were 
sacrificed  "  a  white  cow,  a  white  fowl,  a  white  tortoise,  and  many  other 
animals,  all  white  "     Since  then  they  have  not  sacrificed  to  the  idem,  nor 


THE   BLACK   MAN's   MIND.  205 

planted  in  that  place.  So  the  idem  is  offended  and  has  gone  to  another 
part.  This  is  proved,  because  the  tree  in  which  the  idem  lived  is  dead, 
[n  revenge  for  the  way  it  has  been  treated,  the  idem  has  sent  an  ekpo 
(devil)  to  OkpiSko,  and  this  el-po  lies  in  wait  for  Ikunetu  people  going 
up-river  and  kills  them — evidently  the  idem  takes  in  this  way  the  human 
sacrifice  that  was  denied  it.  It  is  stated  that  many  people  from  Ikunetu 
have  lost  their  lives  through  this  ekpo. 

I  have  told  this  story  because  it  illustrates  the  power  that  the  old 
killing  customs  still  have  over  the  minds  of  the  people.  Till  these  are 
got  rid  of,  it  seems  hopeless  to  expect  the  people  to  make  progress. 
Both  Major  Leonard  and  Mr.  Dennett  think  that  the  hope  for  the  future 
of  the  black  man — Bantu  and  Negro — lies  in  the  development  of  their 
customs.  This  is  true  if  development  involves  the  loss  of  a  good  deal 
that  has  grown  up  during  the  centuries  and  the  retention  only  of  Avhat 
is  best  in  the  customs  of  the  people.  Can  this  be  done  1  Will  it  be 
that  the  native  of  Africa  Avill  lose  his  tribal  exclusiveness  and  take  a 
human  view  of  life,  and  yet  retain  his  present  religious  ideas?  Is  it 
possible  to  keep  the  family  system,  and  yet  cast  out  the  ancestor-worship 
on  which  it  rests  ?  There  is  no  doubt  that  Christian  missions  are 
influencing  the  people.  So  far  the  missionaries  have  ^practically  left  the 
principles  they  teach  to  influence  the  lives  of  their  converts  and  gradu- 
ally to  transform  the  social  fabric.  This  is  the  slowest  way,  but  it  is  the 
wisest,  because  it  involves  least  loss  of  what  is  good  in  the  old  state  of 
affairs.  But  as  surely  as  Christianity  broke  down  the  slave  system  of 
Rome,  and  the  serf  system  of  mediaeval  Europe,  so  surely  is  it  having  a 
revolutionary  effect  on  the  system  of  domestic  slavery  in  West  Africa. 
Its  progress  cannot  be  stayed,  and  however  much  we  may  regret  the 
passing  of  many  of  the  old  customs,  they  cannot  for  long  endure  before 
customs  which,  because  resting  on  a  higher  idea  of  God,  are  nobler  and 
truer.  Meanwhile  let  us  learn  all  we  can  regarding  the  older  customs 
of  the  people  before  they  pass  for  ever.  It  is  because  of  the  insight  and 
the  sympathy  that  Mr.  Dennett  and  Major  Leonard  have  brought  to 
their  work  that  their  books  are  so  interesting  and  so  valuable. 

J.  K.  Macgregor. 


GEOGRAPHICAL  NOTES. 

Europe. 

Old  Italian  Charts. — The  magazine  of  the  Societa  Geografica 
Itaiiana  for  November  has  an  article  on  certain  nautical  charts  in  the 
Communal  Library  in  Bologna.  They  do  not  belong  entirely  to  the 
"  glorious  epoch  "  of  Italian  mapmaking,  from  the  end  of  the  thirteenth 
to  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  centuries,  but  they  are  still  notable  pro- 
ductions. They  are:  (1)  The  Atlas  of  Count  Ottimano  Freducci,  dated 
1538;  (2)  Atlas  of  Giacomo  Scotto,  1593;  (3)  Nautical  Chart  of  Yin- 
cenzo  Demetrio  Volcio,  1601  ;  (4)  Nautical   Chart  of  Placido  Caloiro, 


206  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

1639  ;  (5)  Atlas  of  Placido  Caloiro,  1665;  (G)  Atlas  of  Trofi mo  Vernier, 
1679  ;  and  (7)  an  anonymous  atlas. 

These  have  all  been  described  before,  but  the  present  article  gives 
more  detail.  There  are  many  points  of  interest  in  these  later  charts, 
showing,  for  instance,  the  steps  of  transition  from  the  mediaeval  to  the 
modern  map.  The  Commune  of  Bologna  also  possess  a  splendid  atlas 
of  Candia,  drawn  by  hand  by  Francisco  Basilicata,  from  1636  to  1639, 
dedicated  to  Andrea  Vernier. 

Tlie  executive  of  the  Geographical  Exhibition  to  be  held  in  Venice 
next  May  promise  to  show  a  display  of  cartographical  treasures,  and  it 
is  just  possible  that  visitors  may  have  an  opportunity  of  seeing  these  old 
charts. 

Asia. 

The  Lake  of  Pangong, — In  the  Journal  of  Geology  (vii.  1906)  Mr. 
Ellsworth  Huntington  gives  an  account  of  this  lake,  which  he  visited  on 
his  way  to  Chinese  Turkestan.  The  lake,  which  lies  in  the  province  of 
Ladakh,  or  Little  Tibet,  is  the  last  of  a  series  of  five  connected  lakes 
lying  at  a  height  of  14,000  feet.  The  upper  lakes  are  in  Tibetan 
territory,  and  drain  into  one  another  so  that  they  are  fresh,  but  Pangong, 
which  has  no  outlet,  is  saline.  At  the  time  of  Mr.  Huntington's  visit, 
at  the  beginning  of  May,  the  lake  was  still  frozen,  and  the  minimum 
air  temperature  at  night  was  from  21°  to  29^  Fahr.  The  inhabitants 
were  then  just  beginning  to  sow  barley,  the  only  crop  which  will  ripen. 
This  May-sown  crop  is  reaped  in  September,  and  at  the  lake  level 
usually  ripens,  but  at  Phobrang,  a  few  hundred  feet  higher,  it  often 
fails,  the  limit  of  cultivation  being  thus  reached. 

The  origin  of  the  lake  is  of  some  interest  in  connection  with  the 
question  of  the  glacial  origin  of  lakes  generally.  It  has  been  stated  that 
the  basin  is  due  to  the  damming  of  an  old  outlet  by  fans  formed  by 
tributary  torrents,  but  the  author  is  of  opinion  that  this  is  an  error,  and 
that  there  must  be  a  rock  lip  which  blocks  the  outlet.  He  considers 
further  that  the  probabilities  are  that  the  basin  behind  the  lip  has  been 
eroded  by  ice,  and  that  it  thus  resembles  the  fiords  of  Xortvay  and  the 
valley  lakes  of  Switzerland. 

Another  interesting  point  about  the  lake  is  that  its  lacustrine 
deposits  and  shorelines  indicate  that  it  is  subject  to  constant  oscillations 
of  level  due  to  variations  either  in  rainfall  or  evaporation.  The  i:)ossi- 
bility  that  such  variations  are  taking  place  simultaneously  over  a  large 
area  in  Asia  suggests  that  the  detailed  study  of  these  variations  may 
cast  much  light  upon  the  recent  history  of  climate. 

A  New  Volcanic  Island. — The  Times  recently  reported  the 
appearance  of  a  new  volcanic  island  off  the  Burmese  coast,  and  some 
further  details  are  furnished  in  a  letter  to  Nature  for  February  18.  The 
island  is  situated  off  the  coast  of  Arakan,  in  the  Bay  of  Bengal,  about 
nine  miles  to  the  north-westward  of  Chebuda  Island,  and  appeared 
above  the  surface  of  the  sea  on  December  14.  Its  greatest  length  is 
307  yards,  and  greatest  breadth  217  yards,  while  the  summit    has  a 


GEOGRAPHICAL   NOTES.  207 

height  of  19  feet  above  high-water  level.  When  visited  by  Commander 
Beauchamp  at  the  end  of  December,  the  island  was  found  to  be  still  in 
an  active  condition  at  the  northern  end,  where  several  springs  of  hot 
liquid  mud  were  found.  Elsewhere  the  surface  had  dried  in  the  sun, 
and  would  support  the  weight  of  a  man.  Mingled  with  the  mud  of 
which  the  island  is  composed  a  few  fragments  of  angular  stone  were 
found,  and  an  interesting  point  was  the  amount  of  drift-wood  which  had 
accumulated  in  the  short  period  which  had  elapsed  between  the  origin 
of  the  island  and  its  being  visited.  The  naturalist  of  the  party  collected 
no  less  than  fourteen  kinds  of  seed.  In  view,  however,  of  the  nature  of 
the  constituent  material  it  is  improbable  that  the  island  will  endure  for 
more  than  a  short  period. 

Australasia. 

A  New  Zealand  Geyser. — In  the  course  of  a  short  article  in  the 

Geological  Magazim  (Nov.  1906),  Mr.  M.  Maclaren  gives  an  interesting 
accouut  of  a  short-lived  New  Zealand  geyser.  This  geyser — Waimangu 
by  name — was  discovered  in  January  1900,  though  it  had  probably  been 
in  existence  for  a  short  time  previously.  Its  basin  was  some  130  feet 
long  and  80  feet  wide,  and  was  usually  full  of  black  muddy  water.  It 
was  active  almost  daily,  but  the  eruptions  were  irregular  in  violence, 
sometimes  liurling  a  mass  of  water  estimated  at  800  tons  to  a  maximum 
height  of  1500  feet,  while  at  other  times  the  geyser  played  lightly  and 
intermittently  for  five  or  six  hours  at  a  time.  For  more  than  four  years 
after  its  discovery  the  geyser  was  in  active  eruption,  but  during  July 
and  August  190i,  it  remained  quiescent  for  nearly  two  months.  This 
period  was  followed  by  renewed  activity,  which  lasted  till  the  end  of 
October,  when  the  geyser  became  extinct,  and  has  so  remained  since. 
The  interest  of  the  case  lies  in  the  apparent  connection  with  another 
phenomenon  of  the  same  region.  Four  miles  to  the  north-west  lies 
Tarawara  Lake,  which  in  June  1886  was  effected  by  an  eruption  of 
Tarawara  Mountain.  The  eruption  threw  a  great  barrier  of  ash  across 
the  valley  which  formed  the  natural  outlet  of  the  lake.  The  result  was 
an  immediate  rise  of  the  lake  surface  by  28  feet,  and  a  slower  sub- 
sequent rise  which  raised  it  an  additional  14  feet  by  the  end  of  October 
1904.  On  the  very  clay  on  which  the  geyser  gave  forth  its  last  discharge 
the  waters  of  the  lake  overtopped  the  barrier  and  rushed  away,  forming 
a  tremendous  torrent  for  a  period  of  a  few  days  until  the  level  had  sunk. 
This  correlation  in  time  certainly  suggests  that  the  waters  of  the  geyser 
had  a  superficial  origin,  and  the  author  mentions  other  New  Zealand 
examples  which  tend  in  the  same  direction,  and  are  thus  opposed  to 
the  view  of  Suess  that  the  waters  of  geysers  have  always  a  deep 
origin. 

The  Geological  Survey  of  New  Zealand. — We  have  received  a 

monograph  on  the  Geology  of  the  Hokitika  Sheet,  North  Westland  Quad- 
rangle, which  forms  Bulletin  No.  1  (new  series)  of  the  New  Zealand 
Geological  Survey.  The  district  of  Westland  includes  the  western 
watershed  of  the  Alps  of  South  Island,  a  region  full  of  scientific  and 


208  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

geographical  interest.  The  region  is  also  of  economic  importance  on 
account  of  the  occurrence  there  of  alluvial  gold,  and  though  gold  is  now 
only  obtained  in  reduced  amounts,  the  possibility  of  the  discovery  of 
gold-bearing  veins  of  commercial  value  cannot  be  overlooked.  Hokitika, 
the  town  which  gives  its  name  to  the  sheet  under  discussion,  is  a  small 
settlement  which  oAved  its  origin  to  the  fact  that  it  was  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  Hokitika  river  that  the  first  finds  of  gold  were  made. 

As  regards  the  general  physical  features  of  the  district,  the  whole  of 
the  west  coast  is  remarkable  for  its  relatively  low  tree-line,  despite  the 
mild  climate  and  the  comparatively  low  latitude.  On  the  lowlands 
trees  are  abundant,  and  the  forests  yield  valuable  timbei-,  but  at  a 
height  of  about  3000  feet  they  become  dwarfed  to  a  low  impenetrable 
scrub.  This  only  persists  about  another  500  feet,  and  is  replaced  by 
an  Alpine  flora,  which  is  again  limited  in  extent  by  the  very  low  snow- 
line. The  rainfall  is  very  heavy — an  average  of  1 17  inches  per  annum  as 
against  51  inches  at  Wellington.  Eain  falls  on  an  average  177  days 
per  annum,  and  the  wettest  month  is  October.  The  mean  annual 
temperature  is  53°  F.  In  1906,  a  year  of  unusual  cold.  Pope's  Pass 
(5290  feet)  was  almost  covered  with  snow  at  the  period  of  maximum 
melting,  while  snow  fell  at  a  height  of  3000  feet  during  each  of  the 
summer  months. 

The  glaciers  of  the  region  are  small  and  of  the  Piedmont  type.  They 
have  little,  if  any,  excavating  power,  and  very  little  morainic  matter  is 
now  being  deposited.  The  glaciation  of  the  region  seems  to  date  from 
the  Miocene,  and  apparently  reached  its  maximum  in  Upper  Pliocene 
or  early  Pleistocene  times,  since  which  time  it  has  gradually  diminished. 
From  the  point  of  vieAV  of  topography  the  district  can  be  divided  into  three 
regions — the  alpine  chain,  with  in  the  district  a  maximum  height  of 
7197  feet  (Mount  Eosamond) ;  an  elevated  peneplain  with  a  mean  height 
of  4000  to  5000  feet;  and  a  coastal  plain.  Some  fine  illustrations  show 
the  characters  of  these  different  regions.  The  coastal  plain  is  interest- 
ing, because  it  is  covered  by  a  great  sheet  of  morainic  and  fluviatile 
deposits  in  which  are  found  the  auriferous  deposits.  The  whole  of  the 
glacial  debris  seems  to  be  auriferous,  but  it  is  only  worth  woiking  where 
a  natural  process  of  concentration  has  occurred,  and  the  richer  leads 
appear  noAv  to  have  been  all  exploited. 

Polar. 

The  Structure  and  Topography  of  Graham  Land.— Mr.  Gunnar 
Anderssen  gives  in  the  I>uUetin  of  I  he  Gcoloyical  Institution  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Upsala  (vii.  1904-5)  an  interesting  account  of  Graham  Land, 
based  ujion  the  researches  of  the  Swedish  Antarctic  Expedition.  He 
points  out  that  the  land-forms  of  the  region,  here  as  usual,  are  intimately 
connected  with  the  geological  structure  of  the  ground,  thus  making  it 
possible  to  make  rather  wider  statements  as  to  geology  than  actual 
observations  justify.  By  far  the  larger  part  of  the  area  in  question  is 
made  up  of  a  series  of  plutonic  rocks  similar  to  those  found  in  the 
Andean   Cordillera,   mingled    with    displaced    and    folded    sedimentary 


GEOGRAPHICAL   NOTES.  209 

rocks.  The  landscape  so  formed  is  highly  mountainous,  with  narrow 
peaks  and  rugged  crests.  The  ice-cover  is  generally  incomplete,  leaving 
bare  many  lofty  mountains,  only  the  more  gentle  slopes  being  covered 
with  inland  ice.  The  large  valleys  are  filled  with  great  glaciers,  and 
even  where  the  whole  surface  is  ice-covered  the  swarms  of  crevasses  and 
the  hummocks  reveal  the  unevenness  of  the  ground  beneath.  On  the 
other  hand,  on  the  east  coast  of  the  mainland,  there  are  broad  promon- 
tories and  large  islands,  as  Ross  Island  and  Vega  Island,  of  very 
characteristic  shape.  This  is  a  typical  plateau-region  with  its  horizontal 
surface  covered  by  slightly  vaulted  inland  ice,  the  coastline  being  formed 
by  dark  vertical  cliffs.  These  cliffs  show  clearly  the  composition  of  the 
area,  being  formed  of  a  coarse  basaltic  tuff  sparingly  intercalated  with 
lava  flows  and  dikes.  The  centre  of  the  region  is  in  Ross  Island,  which 
rises  in  the  centre  to  the  huge  conical  Mt.  Haddington,  possibly  a  large 
volcano.  The  third  type  of  landscape  is  found  in  the  Snow  Hill  and 
Seymour  Island  region,  and  is  interesting  because  it  is  the  only  consider- 
able region  which  is  free  from  land-ice.  The  reason,  perhaps  partly  to 
be  sought  in  special  conditions  of  temperature,  etc.,  is  apparently  chiefly 
the  nature  of  the  rocks,  which  are  soft  sandstones  of  Cretaceous  and 
Tertiary  age.  These  sandstones  are  easily  acted  upon  by  water,  and 
the  regions  where  they  occur  are  therefore  low  and  deeply  dissected. 
Only  in  this  region  does  melting  of  the  snow  occur  to  any  considerable 
extent  in  summer-time.  The  illustrations  by  which  Mr.  Anderssen's 
article  is  accompanied  show  admirably  the  different  types  of  scenery 
in  the  three  regions  mentioned. 

As  regards  glaciation  and  the  ice-covering,  it  is  curious  to  note  that, 
extensive  as  is  the  latter,  the  existing  glaciers  are  far  from  active,  and 
in  the  northern  part  of  Graham  Land  at  least  the  only  icebergs  pro- 
duced are  small  and  irregular  in  form.  The  characteristically  Antarctic 
tabular  bergs  met  with  by  the  expedition  must  therefore  have  come 
from  further  south.  At  the  same  time  there  are  clear  indications  that 
glaciation  was  formerly  much  more  powerful  than  at  present.  At  the 
southernmost  point  reached  by  Nordenskjold  evidence  was  found  that 
the  inland  ice  formerly  rose  300  metres  higher  on  the  side  of  the 
Borchgrevink  nunatak  than  it  does  to-day. 

Another  point  upon  which  the  paper  lays  great  stress  is  the  remark- 
able similarity  both  as  regards  orography  and  geological  structure  to  be 
observed  between  Graham  Land  and  South  America. 

Meteorology  in  the  Antarctic. — In  connection  with  our  previous 
note  on  this  subject  (p.  96),  we  may  state  that  Mr.  W.  S.  Bruce  has 
received  word  of  the  arrival  of  the  Uruguay  at  Scotia  Bay,  South 
Orkneys,  with  Mr.  Angus  Rankin's  party  on  board.  The  vessel 
encountered  hundreds  of  icebergs,  and  heavy  pack  ice,  and  was 
considerably  damaged.  The  party  at  the  Observatory  were  found  to 
be  in  good  health,  and  to  have  accomplished  a  year  of  excellent  work. 

New  Arctic  Expedition. — According  to  the  Afhenceum  the  Duke  of 
Orleans  is  preparing  to  lead  another  expedition  to  the  Arctic  in  the 


210  SCOTTISH    GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

yacht  La  Belgica.  Captain  de  Gerlache  will  be  in  command,  and  the 
crew  will  consist  of  men  who  have  already  had  Arctic  experience.  It  is 
expected  that  the  expedition  will  sail  from  Ostend  in  the  middle  of 
April. 

Commercial  Geography. 

The  Production  of  Cereals  in  France. — A  short  note  on  this 
subject  ill  the  lu'cue  Geaerak  des  Sdcnces  for  December  15  gives  some 
interesting  facts.  The  area  devoted  to  cereals  in  France  oscillates  about 
37  milliou  acres  (15  million  hectares),  that  is,  covers  about  28  or  29  per 
cent,  of  the  whole  area  of  the  country.  About  half  the  total  is  given  up 
to  wheat,  but  this  will  no  longer  pay  as  a  sole  crop,  though  it  does  well  in 
rotation,  especially  with  beet.  The  areas  given  to  wheat  and  barley  are 
slightly  decreasing,  while  that  covered  by  oats  is  stationary.  In  1905 
the  total  production  of  wheat  in  France  was  327  million  bushels  (119 
million  hectolitres),  and  though  far  behind  Russia  and  the  United  States 
she  ranks  third  in  the  list  of  producing  countries.  But  in  spite  of  this 
enormous  production  she  does  not  produce  quite  enough  for  her  own 
wants,  her  exports  of  wheat,  oats  and  barley,  never  quite  equalling  her 
imports.  Much  of  the  excess  is  furnished  by  Algeria  and  Tunis,  and 
Russia  also  sends  corn  to  France.  The  price  of  home-grown  cereals  is 
no  longer  determined  by  local  conditions,  but  by  the  prices  which  reign 
in  the  great  markets  of  the  world.  This  is  due  to  the  constant  diminu- 
tion of  the  price  of  transport  across  the  ocean,  so  that  now  it  costs  less 
to  bring  wheat  from  New  York  to  Havre  than  to  bring  it  from  Havre 
to  Paris. 

The  Commercial  and  Colonial  Expansion  of  Modern  States. — 

The  Recls'a  Colonlale,  official  organ  of  the  Institute  Culoniale  Italiano, 
whose  (Ubut  we  lately  noticed  and  welcomed,  is  justifying  its  existence 
by  the  character  of  its  contributions.  One  excellent  feature  is,  that 
debates  in  the  Senate  on  Colonial  questions  are  quoted  in  cxfenso,  so  that 
those  interested  may  refer  to  thena  with  facility,  without  having  to 
turn  over  old  files  of  newspapers.  The  second  number  reports  a  discus- 
sion in  the  Senate,  inaugurated  by  De  Martino,  on  the  necessity,  among 
other  things,  for  the  reform  of  the  Consular  Service,  which  some  of  us 
might  do  Avorse  than  read. 

In  the  third  number  there  appears  a  most  interesting  article  by  Dr. 
Filippo  Carli,  secretary  to  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  in  Brescia,  entitled 
"  Technical  Education  and  Economic  Expansion."  The  occasion  for  it 
is  a  book  just  issued  by  Marco  Fanni  on  "  The  Commercial  and  Colonial 
Expansion  of  Modern  State?,"  and  Dr.  Carli  uses  it  as  a  text  from  which 
to  evolve  his  own  views  on  technical  education.  The  book  itself  should 
interest  us,  because  the  author's  prognostications  concerning  the  future 
of  Great  Britain  are  most  gloomy,  and  while  we  may  not  share  in  his 
alarm,  it  is  useful  to  know  what  impression  we  produce  on  our  neighbours. 
Carli  differs  from  him  on  one  important  point,  and  uses  this  very  diverg- 
ence to  illustrate  his  own  opinions.     Fanno,  it  seems,  believes  that  the 


GEOGKAPHICAL   NOTES.  211 

phenomena  of  expansion  are  purely  material.  As  he  puts  it,  "  the 
colonial  expansion  of  the  different  countries  depends  on  their  commercial 
expansion,  and  that  iu  its  turn  on  the  increase  of  population."  Again, 
"  the  impelling  force  of  economic,  social  and  political  progress,  is  the 
increase  of  population."  Nothing  is  allowed  for  racial  differences, 
nothing  for  superior  training;  the  only  difference  is  in  geographical 
position.  For  instance,  the  northern  nations  were  less  agricultural  than 
the  southern  from  their  geographical  position,  and  so  had  to  develop 
their  industries  in  order  to  purchase  food-stuffs. 

Carli  traverses  this  view  entirely,  dwelling  on  the  great  force  of  what  he 
calls  the  spiritual  element,  which  includes  technical  education.  Technical 
education  influences  economic  expansion  in  two  ways:  (1)  as  the  co- 
efficient of  industrial  development,  and  therefore  indirectly  as  a  power 
in  the  conquests  of  markets  ;  (2)  as  the  direct  coefficient  iu  commercial 
penetration. 

From  these  two  points  of  view  Germany  is  held  up  as  a  great  example. 
Directly  after  the  Franco-Prussian  War,  she  set  herself  to  educate  her 
people.  The  diffusion  of  technical  education  began  iu  Prussia  in  1876  ; 
in  Wiirfcemburg  the  most  important  industrial  schools  began  in  1893-94  ; 
the  great  school  for  textiles  in  Planen  was  founded  in  1877  ;  the  similar 
one  in  Barlin  started  in  1875;  and  many  others  had  their  beginning 
about  the  same  time.  We  know  what  the  result  has  been  ;  how  Germany 
has  advanced  by  leaps  and  bounds  in  the  commercial  world. 

So  much  for  industrial  development.  When  we  consider  commercial 
penetration,  Germany  very  wisely  says,  "  It  is  not  enough  to  have  goods 
of  the  best  quality,  produced  to  undersell  our  rivals.  We  must  make 
the  consumer  aware  of  their  value."  Hence  comes  the  development  of 
the  consular  service.  The  modern  German  consul  is  a  trained  man  of 
business.  The  whole  of  the  German  trade  centres  iu  his  office  to  be 
fostered  and  encouraged  by  him,  and  he  is  never  above  his  business. 

Rubber  Cultivation  in  Ceylon. — The  last  issue  (1906-7)  of 
Ferguson's  Cnjlon  H-uidbooJ:  and  Dlrectorij,  a  volume  of  great  value 
which  has  just  reached  us,  contains  some  statistics  as  to  the  area  under 
rubber  in  Ceylon  which  have,  or  are  likely  to  have  iu  the  immediate 
future,  considerable  economic  importance.  In  July  1905  Ceylon  had 
about  40,000  acres  planted  with  rubber,  but  so  rapid  was  progress 
in  the  following  year  that  in  little  more  than  a  year  the  acreage 
leaped  up  to  100,000  acres,  not  counting  the  acreage  of  native  gardens, 
which  is  considerable.  In  the  Malay  Peninsula  there  are  probably 
about  another  60,000  acres.  As  yet  these  plantations,  almost  all 
of  recent  origin,  produce  only  a  few  hundred  tons,  and  thus  do  not 
seriously  compete  in  the  market  with  the  supplies  from  S>uth  America 
and  Africa,  but  there  is  aprobibility  that  in  another  six  or  seven  years 
Ceylon  and  the  Malay  region  with  Java  will  be  each  in  a  position  to  put 
about  10,000  tons  on  the  market.  It  will  be  remembered  that  in  South 
America  and  the  Congo  Free  State  it  is  the  wild  rubber  which  is  col- 
lected, and  there  is  som?  doubt  whether  tropical  Africa  at  least  can 
long  keep  up  the   present   rate  of  supply.     As  both    Ceylon   and   the 


212  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

Malay  region  are  in  different  ways  Avell  fitted  to  cultivate  rubber,  Ceylon 
especially  having  a  good  and  cheap  supply  of  labour,  there  can  be  no 
doubt  that  Africa  at  least  will  have  to  alter  her  methods  if  she  is  not  to 
lose  her  market.  It  is  one  of  the  curious  little  facts  with  which  economic 
geography  abounds  that  at  the  present  time  Ceylon  is  supplying  seed  to 
Brazil,  from  which  her  own  plants  of  Para  rubber  were  originally 
obtained. 

A  very  interesting  account  of  the  development  of  rubber  cultivation 
in  Ceylon  will  also  be  found  in  Naiure  for  December  27,  in  an  article 
by  Dr.  J.  C.  Willis,  which  also  gives  some  account  of  the  Rubber 
Exhibition  held  at  Ceylon  last  September.  The  Eeport  on  this  Exhi- 
bition, containing  the  lectures  and  discussions  which  took  place  at  it, 
has  also  been  sent  to  us  by  Messrs.  Ferguson  of  Colombo.  Further,  the 
indirect  effect  of  the  cultivation  of  rubber  in  Ceylon  in  stimulating 
interest  in  its  cultivation  in  South  Ameiica  will  be  found  discussed  in 
a  paper  by  M.  Paul  Le  Conte  in  the  Bulletin  mensnel  of  the  Society  de 
G6ographie  Commerciale  de  Paris  fur  November  last. 

General. 

The  British  Association. — We  have  received  the  usual  intimation 
in  regard  to  the  Meeting  of  the  British  Association,  which  is  to  be  held 
this  year  at  Leicester,  beginning  on  Wednesday,  July  31,  under  the 
Presidency  of  Sir  David  Gill.  The  President  of  Section  E  (Geography) 
is  to  be  Mr.  G.  G.  Chisholm.  An  attractive  programme  of  excursions  is 
being  arranged,  the  geologically  famous  Charnwood  Forest  area  being 
within  easy  reach  of  Leicester  by  rail  or  road.  The  Honorary  Local 
Secretaries  are  Messrs.  Alfred  Colson  and  G.  V.  Hiley,  Millstone  Lane, 
Leicester. 


EDUCATIONAL. 


In  the  December  issue  of  the  Revista  Geografica  Italiana  there 
appears  a  suggestive  article  on  Professor  Cvigic's  monumental  work  on 
"  Human  Settlements  in  the  Servian  Countries,"  especially  interesting  in 
connection  with  the  distribution  of  cities  and  villages  in  the  region. 
These  two  types  of  settlement  have,  of  course,  a  widely  difterent  origin, 
for  while  the  situation  and  character  of  a  village  is  determined  solely 
by  the  local  topographical  conditions,  the  choice  of  the  site  of  a  city  is 
influenced  by  many  concurrent  factors,  such  as  the  great  arteries  of 
communication,  the  rivers,  the  seaports,  and  their  connection  with 
foreign  countries. 

If  we  consult  the  map  of  the  Balkan  Peninsula,  it  will  be  noticeable 
that  the  western  division  differs  in  character  from  the  eastern.  In  the 
former,  the  country  is  divided  up  by  mountain  ranges  running  north 
and  south,  with  deep  and  sunless  valleys  between  them ;  while  towards 
the  east,  the  mountains  are  irregular  in  outline,  enclosing  circumscribed 
depressions  and  valleys  which  only  with  difficulty  communicate  with  one 
another.      Again,    it  will  be    seen    that  the    Peninsula    is   intersected 


EDUCATIONAL.  213 

longitudinally  by  the  great  Morava  and  Vardar  valleys,  and  transversely 
by  the  ancient  Via  Egnatia.  In  a  climatic  sense  the  country  is  also 
divided  up,  for  while  the  northern  slopes  are  densely  wooded,  and  are  sub- 
ject to  all  the  weather  conditions  of  a  forest  land,  the  southern  division 
is  arid  and  devoid  of  vegetation.  These  geographical  peculiarities 
are  reflected  in  the  settlements.  Of  villages  there  are  two  types, 
roughly  speaking,  the  sparse  and  the  imited,  and  it  will  be  found  that 
the  line  of  division  runs  from  north-east  to  south-west,  that  the  sjDarse 
type  prevails  in  the  north-west,  and  the  united  in  the  south-east.  As 
might  be  expected,  the  long  ranges  of  mountains  with  their  sunless 
valleys,  full  of  water,  encourage  the  inhabitants  to  settle  high  up  on 
the  ridges,  in  the  sun,  and  the  condition  that  is  found  is  that  of  long 
straggling  villages,  each  house  apart  from  the  others  and  surrounded  by 
its  fields.  The  wooded  condition  further  favours  this  tendency  to 
isolated  farms.  In  the  south-east,  on  the  other  hand,  where  the  isolated 
valley  and  the  absence  of  forest  lands  prevail,  the  villages  are  at  the 
bottom  of  these  valleys,  the  houses  being  huddled  together,  often  back 
to  back,  and  the  pasture  lands  are  situated  at  a  distance  on  the 
hillsides. 

The  cities,  again,  are  naturally  found  along  the  main  arteries  of 
communication  already  alluded  to,  along  the  great  highway  of  the 
Morava  and  Vardar,  from  Salonika  to  the  Danube ;  by  the  Via  Egnatia 
from  the  Black  Sea  to  the  shores  of  the  Adriatic ;  and  in  the  north 
along  the  line  of  the  Save  and  Danube,  one  of  the  most  striking 
examples  being  Belgrade  itself,  situated  as  it  is  at  the  junction  of  the 
Danube  and  Save.  One  sees  how  these  cities  wax  and  wane  in  prosperity 
in  sympathy  with  the  fortunes  of  the  seaports  and  the  foreign  traffic. 
For  instance,  up  to  the  early  part  of  last  century  the  bulk  of  the  traffic 
went  and  came  by  the  Adriatic  ports,  whereas  since  then  it  tends  to 
take  the  northern  routes  towards  the  Danube,  and  the  })rosperity  of  the 
former  cities  and  ports  has  suffered  in  proportion. 

While  there  is,  of  course,  nothing  new  in  the  above  conception,  the 
particular  application  is  interesting. 

We  publish  this  month  a  short  note  on  the  cultivation  of  rubber  in 
Ceylon  which  may  be  recommended  to  teachers  as  affording  material 
for  an  interesting  lesson.  Though  as  yet  the  cultivated  rubber  does  not 
command  so  high  a  price  on  the  market  as  the  Avild  product,  yet  the 
probabilities  seem  to  be  that  there  will  happen  in  this  case  what  has 
already  happened  in  the  case  of  cinchona.  We  gave  here  some  time 
ago  (xx.  p,  321)  a  short  account  of  the  work  done  by  the  Dutch  in  the 
acclimatisation  of  that  plant,  and  the  consequent  loss  to  South  America 
of  much  of  its  market  for  the  product;  and  it  would  seem  that  the 
painstaking  work  Avhich  has  been  done  in  the  case  of  rubber  is  likely  to 
have  similarly  its  reward  in  the  capture  by  the  eastern  planters  of  the 
rubber  market.  If  this  occurs,  or  if  the  East  can  even  seriously 
threaten  the  South  American  and  African  monopoly,  the  probabilities 
are  that  extensive  social  changes  in,  for  example,  the  Congo  Free  State 
will  necessarily  take  place,  and  there  is  something  very  stimulating  to 


214  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

the  imagination  in  the  slow  conquest  by  scientific  methods  of  an  industry 
hitherto  conducted  on  primitive  and  slovenly  lines. 

According  to  an  article  in  Science  for  December  21,  the  Geographic 
Society  of  Chicago  has  been  interesting  itself  in  the  development  of  in- 
struction in  meteorology  throughout  the  United  States.  It  has  collected 
a  set  of  270  lantern  slides  of  various  meteorological  subjects,  and  has 
compiled  a  descriptive  text  to  accompany  them.  The  slides  have  been 
copied  from  the  Atlas  of  Meteorology,  recent  text-books,  the  Monthly  IFcather 
Eevietv,  and  from  photographs,  etc.,  while  the  text  has  been  compiled  under 
the  auspices  of  an  efficient  committee.  The  text  includes  a  bibliography 
for  the  use  of  teachers,  and  the  whole  is  available  at  cost  price.  The 
idea  is  an  admirable  one,  and  deserves  to  be  further  developed. 


NEW    BOOKS. 
EUROPE. 


Modern  Spain,  181.5-1898.     By  Butler  Clarke.     Cambridge  :  At  the 
University  Press,  1906.     Price  7s.  6d. 

This  is  another  volume  of  the  Cambridge  Historical  Series,  which  quite  sus- 
tains the  high  level  which  the  previous  works  have  accustomed  us  to.  The  aim 
of  this  series  is,  as  the  editor  says,  to  sketch  the  history  of  modern  Europe  with 
that  of  its  chief  colonies  and  conquests,  and  it  is  intended  for  the  use  of  all  persons 
anxious  to  understand  the  nature  of  existing  political  conditions.  As  indicated  in 
the  title.  Modern  Spain,  after  an  introductory  chapter  touching  on  the  time  of  the 
Peninsular  War,  or  as  the  Spaniard  calls  it,  the  War  of  Independence,  takes  the 
reader  over  that  stormy  period  from  1815  to  close  on  the  present  time. 

The  interest  for  the  general  reader  will  centre  on  the  account  of  the  Pragmatic 
Sanction  and  the  resulting  Carlist  wars.  Spain  had  always  from  time  immemorial 
recognised  the  right  of  females  to  the  throne  of  Castile  and  Leon  in  default  of 
males,  but  Philip  v.  introduced  the  Salic  Law  in  1713.  Later,  in  1789,  Carlos  iv. 
set  this  law  aside,  and  a  decree  was  prepared  which  received  the  name  of  the 
Pragmatic  Sanction,  and  which  had  the  effect  of  restoring  the  former  conditional 
rights  of  females.  But  it  was  never  promulgated,  and  therefore,  as  Don  Carlos 
insisted,  never  became  law.  Forty  years  later,  when  it  was  known  that  Doiia 
Christina  was  to  become  a  Jiiother,  Ferdinand  proceeded  to  the  due  promulgation, 
but  it  was  too  late.  Hence  the  Carlist  Avars,  and  all  the  horrors  of  civil  warfare. 
The  first  Don  Carlos  seems  to  have  been  a  scrupulous  and  honourable  gentleman, 
and  to  have  behaved  throughout  with  great  gallantry.  But  for  this,  his 
descendants  might  have  ruled  over  Spain. 

Many  familiar  figures  flit  across  the  pages  as  we  read.  Espartero,  the  brilliant 
soldier  but  unscrupulous  politician ;  Serrano,  the  gay  and  gallant  lover  of  Isabella ; 
Cabrera,  the  brutal  Carlist  leader  ;  and  certainly  not  least,  Queen  Isabella  herself; 
how  she  was  made  a  pawn  of  and  wronged  by  her  scheming  Neapolitan  mother. 

An  important  addition  to  the  volume  is  the  copious  bibliography.  No  work  is 
included  which  is  not  considered  trustworthy,  and  on  this  account  we  are  glad  to 
observe  that  the  Episidios  NacionaJes  of  Perez  Galdos  have  an  honourable 
mention,  for  they  are  delightful  reading  and  full  of  quiet  humour. 

It  is    with  great  regret  that  one  reads,  in  the  sympathetic  memoir,  that  the 


NEW   BOOKS.  215 

author  died  just  as  he  had  completed  this  work.  He  was  an  enthusiastic  lover  of 
Spain,  and  by  his  extensive  acquaintance  with  Spanish  literature  and  history, 
was  unusually  well  qualified  for  the  task  which  he  undertook. 

Britain  and  the  British  Seas.  By  H.  J.  Mackinder,  M.A.  With  Maps  and 
Diagrams.  Second  Edition.  Oxford  :  Clarendon  Press,  1907.  Price  7s.  6d. 
This  book  has  so  rapidly  acquired  the  status  of  a  classic  that  all  geographers 
will  welcome  the  appearance  of  a  second  edition.  The  alterations  are  trifling  ;  we 
notice  that  same,  but  not  all  the  misprints,  etc.,  noted  in  our  previous  review 
(xviii.,  p.  325)  have  been  corrected,  and  it  is  naturally  gratifying  to  us  to  see  how 
often  the  Scottish  Geographical  Magctzine  appears  among  the  new  references 
added. 

As  a  point  of  special  interest  to  our  own  readers,  we  may  notice  that  on  p.  127 
it  is  stated  that  the  Avon  has  probably  captured  the  head-stream  of  the  Dee,  Dee 
being  obviously  a  misprint  for  Don. 

niustratecl  Handbook  to  the  Perthshire  Natural  History  Museum,  and  Brief 
Guide  to  the  Animals  and  Plants  of  the  County.  By  Alex.  M.  Rodger, 
Curator.     Second  Edition.     Perth,  1906.      Price  3d. 

This  pamphlet  was  reviewed  in  vol.  xxi.  p.  507.  The  new  edition  is  slightly 
modified  in  form,  and  has  some  additional  illustrations,  and  also  a  sketch  map  of 
Perthshire.     Otherwise  we  have  only  to  repeat  our  former  words  of  praise. 

Sketches  from  Normandy.     By  Louis  Becke.     London  :  T.  Werner  Laurie, 
1907.     Pp.  250.     Price  6s. 

The  title,  be  it  noted,  is  not  of  but  from  Normandy,  and  really  the  locale  is 
unimportant.  The  sketches  are  mainly  of  people, — tourists,  French  domestics, 
French  children.  Also  they  are  concerned  with  dogs,  shooting,  the  entente 
cordiale,  etc.     They  are  light  and  abound  in  amusing  incidents. 

The  Heart  of  Spain:  An  Artist's  Impression  of  Toledo.      By  Stewart  Dick. 
London  and  Edinburgh  :  T.  N.  Foulis,  1907. 

The  result  of  Mr.  Dick's  sojourn  in  Toledo  is  a  very  pleasant  volume,  breath- 
ing the  fascination  of  the  place.  As  he  truly  suggests,  it  is  a  city  peopled  with 
the  ghosts  of  old-time  warriors,  Goths,  Moors,  and  Christians,  jostling  one 
another  in  the  narrow  streets.  Zorrilla,  indeed,  in  one  of  his  dramas  represents 
this  feeling,  and  as  one  looks  over  the  ramparts  by  the  light  of  the  evening  sun, 
the  impression  is  produced  that  with  a  very  slight  stretch  of  imagination  one 
might  see  the  armour  of  the  host^  of  the  Catholic  Kings  glinting  in  the  distance. 

Mr.  Dick's  illustrations  are  admirable,  especially  the  sketches  in  colour, 
which  most  faithfully  reproduce  the  colouring  of  Toledo  and  the  country  round. 
Those  who  have  visited  Toledo  will  feel  that  in  turning  over  the  pages  of  this 
volume  they  are  making  a  return  journey  in  the  company  of  "one  who  knows." 

We  cannot  make  up  our  minds  to  share  his  high  opinion  of  El  C4reco,  having 
a  recollection  of  sundry  nightmares  by  him  on  the  walls  of  the  Prado. 

My  Experiences  of  the  Island  of  Cyprus.  By  B.  Stewart.  Illustrated  from 
Photographs  by  the  Author.  London  :  Skeffington  and  Son,  1906.  Price 
6s. 

Cyprus  is  seldom  written  about,  and  Mr.  Stewart's  account  of  the  British  isle 
in  the  north-west  corner  of  the  Mediterranean  Sea  is  all  the  more  interesting-.    He 


216  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHIUAI,    MAGAZINK. 

makes  no  pretence  to  literary  style,  but  tells  a  plain,  unvarnished  tale,  with 
sufficient  sprightliness  to  produce  a  readable  book.  He  has  been  twice  in  the 
island  in  recent  years,  first  as  an  engineer  in  connection  with  the  railway,  and  the 
second  time  (in  the  early  months  of  1906)  revisiting  old  scenes.  Cyprus  is  a 
wretched  island,  sufiFering  from  extremes,  deluged  at  one  time  with  rains,  and  at 
another  time  burnt  to  a  cinder  by  the  heat.  Mosquitoes  abound,  and  ophthalmia 
is  common.  "  What  a  desolate  and  unhappy-looking  country  Cyprus  is  I  "  is  the 
exclamation  agaiu  and  again  of  the  traveller  gazing  on  the  broad  stretch  of 
country.  To  add  to  its  drawbacks,  it  seems  to  be  badly  served  for  post-office 
and  trade  purposes  by  the  steamship  companies.  In  the  dashing  years  of  the 
forward  Colonial  policy  of  1895  and  onwards,  British  money  was  flung  at  it,  and 
squandered  on  harbours  nobody  uses,  and  on  railways  on  which  nobody  travels. 
British  capital  has  also  been  sunk  in  trying  to  utilise  the  land,  but  it  has  been  a 
hopeless  enterprise.  While  the  island  is  administered  by  Great  Britain,  it  is  still, 
according  to  the  one-sided  treaty  of  1878,  a  part  of  the  Turkish  Empire,  and  on 
certain  conditions  being  fulfilled,  Britain  may  evacuate  it  at  any  time.  This 
doubtless  impedes  the  development  of  the  island ;  indeed  it  is  gravely  alleged 
"  British  administration  has  done  nothing  for  Cyprus,"  in  spite  of  a  yearly  grant 
of  over  .£.30,000  fi'om  the  Imperial'  exchequer.  The  only  useful  outlay  has  been 
in  the  making  of  country  roads.  It  is  also  remarkable  that  it  is  the  Greek  flag 
that  is  almost  universally  used,  and  the  Union  Jack  is  seldom  visible.  Mr. 
Stewart  has  a  good  deal  to  say  about  the  churches  in  Cyiirus,  and  enriches  his 
book  with  many  excellent  photographs  of  them.  He  also  gives  a  brief  and 
succinct  account  of  its  history  and  of  its  few  antiquities.  If  Cyprus-is  to  redeem 
its  past,  it  is  time  the  Turkish  bond  was  broken,  and 'Britain's  flag  allowed  to  fly 
with  undisputed  authority  over  the  whole  island. 

ASIA. 

Persia  Past  and  Present :  A  Book  of  Travel  and  Research.  With  more  than  200 
Illustrations  and  a  Map.  By  A.  V.  Williams  Jacksox,  Professor  of  Indo- 
Iranian  Languages  in  Columbia  University.  New  York  :  The  Macmillan 
Company.     London  :  Macmillan  and  Co.,  Ltd.     1906.     Price  17s.  net. 

We  have  here  an  important  contribution  to  the  historical  geography  of  western 
Persia.  It  is  not  an  ordinary  traveller's  tale,  but  the  work  of  a  competent 
scientific  investigator  and  interpreter,  prepared,  as  every  page  proves,  with  great 
care  and  elaboration,  and  written  in  a  clear  and  graphic  style.  The  author  is 
professor  of  Indo-Iranian  languages  in  Columbia  University,  and  was  for  a  time 
adjunct-professor  of  English  language  and  literature.  Priind  facie,  the  tenure 
of  these  offices  is  warranty  of  his  being  a  man  of  culture  and  learning.  This  book 
wholly  confirms  the  impression.  As  an  ardent  student  of  the  ancient  languages 
and  religions  of  the  East,  Professor  Jackson  had  previously  visited  India  and 
Ceylon,  and  by  personal  investigation  had  learned  among  the  Parsis  of  Bombay, 
descendants  of  the  old  Zoroastrians  and  preservers  of  their  traditional  beliefs  and 
customs,  much  about  the  ancient  Magian  religion,  its  sacred  writings,  and  the 
past  history  and  present  condition  of  its  votaries.  He  had  in  1899  written  a 
life  of  Zoroaster,  the  prophet  of  ancient  Iran,  sage  and  reformer,  "representative 
and  type  of  the  laws  of  the  Medes  and  Persians,"  "  the  forerunner  of  those  wise 
men  of  the  East  who  came  and  bowed  before  the  majesty  of  the  new-born  Light 
of  the  world."  In  that  book  he  endeavoured  to  picture  for  the  reader  the  some- 
what shadowy  figure  of  the  prophet,  and  to  sift  from  the  heap  of  legend,  tradi- 
tion, and  classical  allusion    the   facts   of  his  life,  times,  and  teaching.     In  the 


NEW  BOOKS.  217 

present  book  the  author  again  appears  as  an  enthusiastic  and  laborious  inquirer 
into  things  old  and  new  :  a  well-equipped  linguist,  acquainted  with  the  various 
scripts  to  be  found  in  western  Persia  from  the  Accadian  or  Assyrian  cuneiform 
to  the  modern  cursive  Persian,  and  familiar  with  the  records  of  historians  and 
geographers  from  the  Achaamenian  rock-inscriptions  and  the  pahlavi  texts  of  the 
Sasanids  to  the  writings  of  mediaeval  and  modern  Arabs  and  Europeans. 

The  plan  of  the  journey  described  in  this  book  was,  says  Professor  Jackson, 
to  traverse  as  much  of  the  territory  known  to  Zoroaster  as  possible,  and  to  visit 
the  places  most  celebrated  in  the  history  of  Persia.  Entering  the  country  from 
Russian  Transcaucasia  by  way  of  Tiiiis,  Erivan,  and  Julfa,  he  visited  Tabriz,  and 
traversed  the  Zoroastriati  region  round  Lake  Urumiah.  Thence  he  proceeded 
southward  to  Takht-i-Suleiman  (the  ruined  site  of  Gandaka  and  the  great  fire- 
temple  of  Adhargushnasp),  and  Hamadan  (the  ancient  Median  capital,  Ecbatana). 
From  there  he  visited  the  Ganj  Namah  trilingual  inscriptions  carved  in  cuneiform 
on  Mount  Alvaiid  by  Darius  and  Xerxes.  From  Hamadan  also  a  digression 
westward  to  Kermanshah  was  made,  in  the  outward  and  return  courses  of  which 
he  scaled,  at  peril  of  limb  and  life,  th'e  great  Behistan  rock  and  examined  its 
famous  inscriptions  ;  inspected  the  grottoes  and  bas-relief  sculptures  of  Tak-i- 
Bostan,  with  which  is  associated  the  legends  of  Khosru,  Shirin,  and  Farhad  ;  and 
identified  at  Kangavar  the  ruined  temple  of  Anahita,  the  Persian  Diana,  whose 
worship  was  widespread  in  Iran  in  the  fourth  century  before  Christ.  Continuing 
the  southward  journey  from  Hamadan,  the  author  arrived  at  Ispahan,  the  former 
cai^ital  of  the  modern  Shahs  of  Persia,  where  he  found  resident  a  few  families  of 
Zoroastrians  or  Parsis,  the  first  he  had  met  in  Persia.  He  then  went  on,  first 
to  Pasargadte,  on  the  plain  of  Murghab,  the  royal  seat  of  Cyrus,  where  the  great 
monarch's  column  and  tomb  still  bear  his  epitaph  ;  and  then,  forty  miles  further 
south,  to  Persepolis,  the  imperial  city  of  Darius  and  his  successors,  the  magnifi- 
cent ruins  of  which  attest  its  once  regal  splendour.  Finally,  the  author  reached 
the  southern  limit  of  his  journey,  Shiraz,  the  home  of  Saadi  and  Hafiz.  Thence 
returning  northwards  he  visited  Yezd.  The  largest  community  of  Zoroastrians  in 
Persia,  numbering  several  thousand  souls,  is  established  there  ;  and  in  inter- 
course with  them  the  author  found  the  chief  occupation  and  interest  of  his  stay 
in  Yezd.  Thereafter  he  proceeded  to  Teheran,  whence  he  visited  Rei,  the  Rhaga 
or  Rages  of  antiquity,  the  traditional  home  of  the  mother  of  Zoroaster  ;  and 
subsequently  left  Persia  by  way  of  Kasbin  and  Resht. 

The  purpose  of  the  journey,  again  says  the  author,  was  in  the  first  instance 
antiquarian  study  and  scholarly  research,  especially  with  regard  to  Zoroaster  and 
the  ancient  faith  of  the  Magi.  But  he  likewise  observed  and  for  himself  investi- 
gated, and  in  this  book  has  described,  many  of  the  geographical  features  and 
historical  problems,  as  well  as  the  ancient  and  modern  manners  and  customs,  of 
western  Iran.  Further  as  he  went  along,  he  noted,  and  has  depicted,  the  condi- 
tions of  domestic  and  national  life  and  economy,  and  the  incidents  and  accidents 
of  travel,  in  the  Persia  of  to-day.  He  has  thereby  succeeded  in  producing  a 
most  interesting  and  well-illustrated  book  of  modern  travel  for  the  general  reader ; 
and  for  the  special  student  a  work  enriched  and  illuminated  by  the  results  of 
solid  learning  and  of  careful  research  into  the  past  and  present  records  and 
history  of  the  field  of  travel. 

Tibet,  the  Mysterious.     By  Sir  Thomas  Holdich.     With  Maps,  Diagrams,  and 
other  Illustrations,  and  Map  by  W.  and  A.  K.  Johnston.     London  :  Alston 
Rivers,  Ltd.     Price  7s.  6d.  net. 
This  volume  of  "  The  Story  of  Exploration  "  Series  is  a  useful  and  timely 
VOL.  XXIII.  Q 


218  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

addition  to  the  series.  The  account  given  in  it  of  the  explorations  which  have 
gradually,  more  especially  during  the  last  thirty  or  forty  years,  substituted 
accurate  knowledge  for  fable  and  ignorance,  may  be  taken  as  putting  into  readily 
iatelligible  aid  realable  form  the  ge)graphical  results  of  those  explorations  and 
their  possible  political  and  commercial  effects.  It  also  shows  the  great  extent 
of  work  of  first-class  importance  from  a  political  and  commercial  point  of  view, 
principally  in  eastern  and  south-eastern  Tibet,  that  still  awaits  the  explorer.  A 
beginning  not  wanting  in  promise  has,  through  the  late  military  expedition  from 
India,  been  made  in  the  penetration  into  Tibet  of  European  influence  friendly  to 
Great  Britain.  The  hope  seems  not  unreasonable  that,  by  virtue  of  tact  and 
patience  and  the  avoidance  of  haste  on  the  part  of  the  invader,  the  next  quarter 
of  a  century  may  see  the  establishment  of  freer  intercourse  and  of  better  means 
of  communication  with  Tibet,  and  the  opening  up  of  the  territories,  as  yet 
scarcely  trodden  by  the  explorer  but  apparently  rich  in  resources  and  population, 
that  lie  on  its  south-eastern  borders.  Nor  ought  it  to  be  overlooked  that  while  we 
have  been  disposed  to  rail  at  the  exclusiveness  and  obstruction  of  the  ruling 
powers  in  Tibet,  the  same  attribute  and  attitude  are  to  be  found,  and  have  been 
quietly  acquiesced  in  on  the  Indian  side  of  the  great  Himalayan  divide,  within 
our  own  immediate  sphere  of  political  and  commercial  influence.  What  of 
Nepal  ?  It  is  a  country  practically  unvisited  by — almost  completely  closed 
against— the  European  explorer  and  trader.  Not  even  the  courses  of  some  of 
its  great  rivers — the  Kurmili,  the  Gandak,  the  Kosi,  and  their  affiuents — which 
debouch  into  the  Gangetic  valley,  have  been  tracked  through  it  by  our  geographers 
to  their  sources  on  the  Indian  or  the  further  side  of  the  Himalayan  watershed. 
In  ancient  times  intercourse  between  India  and  Tibet  across  the  central  and 
eastern  Himalayas  was  undoubtedly  freely  carried  on.  According  to  tradition 
the  first  king  of  Tibet  was  a  native  of  India,  son  of  the  king  of  the  eastern 
Gangetic  kingdom  of  Kosila  ;  and  Buddhism  probably  permeated  Tibet  princi- 
pally through  the  s.ime  avenues  from  India.  It  may  safely  be  said  that  but  for 
the  interposition  of  the  exclusive  principalities  of  Nepal,  Sikkim,  and  Bhutan, 
British  communication  with  and  influence  in  Tibet  would  long  ago  have  been 
far  greater  than  it  is  now.  It  seems  high  time,  therefore,  that  the  geographer  and 
trader,  backed  by  the  Indian  Government,  should  take  these  regions  peacefully 
but  steadily  in  hand. 

As  a  literary  production  this  book  in  its  earlier  chapters  is  not  quite  worthy  of 
the  reputation  of  the  distinguished  author  of  TJte  Indian  Borderland.  The  material 
available  for  the  compilation  of  these  chapters  was  no  doubt  slender  and  scanty, 
and  vague  in  details.  But  from  Chapter  viii,  (in  which  the  travels  of  Hue  and 
Gabet  are  recounted)  onwards,  and  above  all  in  the  chapters  wherein  the  journeys 
of  the  intrepid  explorers  (European  and  native)  from  India  are  described,  the 
narrative,  though  sometimes  dift'use,  lacks  little  in  definiteness  of  outline  or 
detail.  The  author  is  dealing  with  well-considered  material  with  some  of  which 
he  has  firsthand  and  intimate  acquaintance.  Much  of  the  material  is  not  readily 
accessible  to  the  ordinary  reading  public.  To  them  therefore  it  is  a  very  distinct 
boon  to  be  presented  with  a  consectitive  account  of  the  exploratory  work  which 
has  been  accomplished  during  the  last  few  decades  in  the  Tibetan  region.  In  this 
account  not  the  least  gratifying  feature  is  the  hearty  acknowledgment  and  appre- 
ciation of  the  i)art  taken  by  the  native  Indian  surveyors  and  explorers  Avho,  with 
rare  fidelity  to  their  employers,  persistently  carried  out,  through  long  periods  of 
peril  and  privation,  the  duty  intrusted  to  them. 

A  bibliography  is  appended  to  the  book,  which  will  prove  useful  to  those  who 
wish  to  refer  to  original  authorities. 


NEW   BOOKS.  219 

Before  closing  this  notice,  it  may  not  be  out  of  place  to  say  that  the  ideutifica- 
cation  by  Hue  of  an  Englishman  who  was  reported  to  have  lived  at  Lhasa  from 
1826  to  1838  with  the  traveller  Moorcroft  is  not  altogether  probable,  although  the 
author  of  this  book  seems  disposed  so  to  accept  it  (y.  chap.  vii.  123-4).  Moor- 
croft was  a  veterinary  surgeon,  who,  after  attaining  eminence  in  his  profession 
in  England,  in  1808  and  being  then  over  forty  years  of  age,  went  to  India  to 
supervise  the  East  India  Company's  horse-breeding  and  remount  operations  in 
northern  India.  After  making  his  expedition  into  Nari  Khorsum  in  company 
with  Haidar  Hearsey  in  1811-12,  he  started  in  1819,  accompanied  by  an  English- 
man named  Trebeck,  on  a  journey  to  Turkistan  through  the  Panjab  (then  ruled  by 
Ranjit  Singh),  Ladak,  Kashmir,  and  Afghanistan.  His  object  was  investigation, 
not  only  regarding  the  Turkoman  horse  for  breeding  purposes  in  India,  but  also 
into  the  general  trade  resources  of  those  countries  and  the  possibility  of  estab- 
lishing mercantile  relations  between  them  and  India.  He  was  not,  however, 
accredited  by  the  Indian  Government,  which,  on  the  contrary,  discountenanced 
his  proceedings  and  eventually  stopped  his  pay  during  absence.  He  left  Bokhara 
on  the  return  journey  in  August  1825,  but  got  no  further  than  Andkhui  in 
Afghan  Turkistan,  where  he  was  said  to  have  died,  probably  through  foul  means. 
Trebeck  also  was  said  to  have  died  somewhat  later  at  Mazar*i-Sharif.  Some 
at  lea^t  of  their  papers  were  recovered,  and  an  account  of  their  travels  was 
published  in  1841  under  the  editorship  of  the  distinguished  orientalist,  H.  H. 
Wilson.  That,  unknown  to  the  Indian  authorities,  the  report  of  Moorcroft's  death 
was  false,  and  that  he  made  his  way  from  Bokhara  to  Lhasa  and  lived  there  till  1838, 
seems  scarcely  credible. 

Folk  Tales  from  Tibet,  to ith  Illustrations  by  a  Tibetan  Artist  and  some  Verses  from 
Tibetan  Love-Songs.  Collected  and  translated  by  Captain  W.  F.  O'Connor, 
CLE.     London  :  Hurst  and  Blackett,  Ltd.,  1906.     Price  6s.  net. 

This  book  hardly  falls  within  the  scope  of  geography,  except  that  in  these 
days  geography  lays  claim  to  an  interest  in  most  mundane  i\icts  and  affairs. 
Geographical  or  not,  however,  the  book  contains  a  capital  collection  of  fables,  very 
well  told,  portraying,  chiefly  under  the  guise  of  talking  animals,  the  foibles  and 
virtues  of  mankind  in  Tibet  and  elsewhere,  and  full  of  worldly  wisdom  not  unmixed 
with  guile.  The  folklorist  will  judge  whether  the  stories  are  probably  indigenous 
or  exotic,  ancient  or  modern.  But  in  any  case  they  prove  that  the  Tibetan  of 
to-day,  who  loves  to  recite  them  and  to  hear  them  recited,  has  imagination  and 
humour,  and  in  spite  of  lamas  (grand  and  lowly),  demons,  wizards,  and  other 
causes  of  depression,  has  plenty  of  good  spirits  and  is  a  happy-minded  and 
sagacious  enough  fellow.  The  drawings  are  after  the  conventional  manner  of  the 
country — a  manner  apparently  derived  from  China  as  regards  design  and  colour. 
The  best  picture  (a  photograph)  is  the  frontispiece  showing  a  Tibetan  fabulist  and 
his  household,  the  former  a  jolly-looking  old  soul  who  is  plainly  capable  of  enjoy- 
ing the  narration  of  his  tales  as  mucli  as,  the  author  tells  us,  the  listeners  are. 

La  Chine  novatrice  et  guerriere.    Par  le  Capitaine  D'Olloxe.     Paris  :  Colin,  1906. 

Price  3  fr.  50  c. 

As  Captain  D'Ollone  was  commissioned  by  the  French  Government  to  visit 
and  report  on  China,  this  work  is  not  that  of  a  passing  traveller.  He  entitles  it 
"  Innovating  and  Warlike  China,"  showing  at  once  her  willingness  to  accept 
changes  and  her  determination  to  defend  herself.  After  reminding  us  that  Chinese 
history  begins  in  B.C.   722,   he  describes  graphically   the   constant  wars  which 


220  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

occurred  for  the  occupation  of  China  down  to  its  most  glorious  period,  that  of  the 
great  Manchu  emperors,  Kangsi  and  Kien-lung  (1662-1799),  the  first  British 
envoy,  Lord  Macartney,  being  received  by  the  latter  in  1759.  From  1808  onwards, 
difficulties  occurred  with  Britain  in  regard  to  the  exportation  of  opium  from 
India  to  China,  the  British  fleet  in  1840  bombarding  Canton,  taking  Shanghai, 
threatening  Nankin,  and  thus  causing  China  to  yield.  The  result  of  the  "  Opium 
War"  was  the  treaty  of  Nankin  in  1842,  which  opened  China  by  according  five 
treaty  ports  to  British  commerce,  and  ceded  Hong  Kong  to  Britain,  this  being 
the  first  dismemberment  of  China.  France  and  the  United  States  were  afterwards 
accorded  the  same  privileges  of  commerce.  In  1851  the  Taiping  rebellion  shook 
China  to  its  foundations,  and  led  to  the  French  and  British  fleets  seizing  Canton, 
the  Taku  forts,  and  the  mouth  of  the  Peiho  in  1857.  In  1860  a  French  and 
Anglo-Indian  force  retook  the  Taku  forts  and  burned  the  summer  palace  near 
Pekin,  after  which  the  province,  of  which  Vladivostok  is  capital,  was  ceded  to 
Russia.  At  last,  in  1864,  after  thirteen  years  of  carnage  during  which  3,000,000 
are  said  to  have  perished,  the  Taiping  rebellion  was  quelled  by  the  Chinese 
Imperial  army  capturing  Nankin,  the  rebels'  capital.  The  more  recent  dis- 
memberments of  China  are  the  conquest  of  Indo-China  by  the  French  and  British, 
and  of  Formosa  and  Corea  by  the  Japanese,  with  the  occupation  of  Kiao  Chau 
by  the  Germans,  and  the  cession  of  Port  Arthur  to  the  Russians,  and  of  Weihaiwei 
to  the  British.  The  author  points  out  that  China  consists  of  not  one  but  many 
races,  and  resembles  a  Europe  rather  than  a  France  or  an  Italy. 

Buddhism,  now  the  faith  of  four  hundred  millions  of  Chinese,  was  introduced 
from  India  into  China  a.d.  65,  but  it  was  not  authorised  by  Imperial  edict  till 
335.  In  638  Mohammedanism  was  introduced  from  Persia,  and  in  744  an 
emperor  had  a  religious  service  in  his  palace  conducted  by  seven  Christian  priests. 
In  1293  the  Franciscan,  John  de  Monte  Corvino,  arrived  in  Pekin,  sent  by  the 
Pope,  and  was  well  received.  Fourteen  years  later  he  was  nominated  Archbishop 
of  Pekin  with  three  suffragan  bishops.  Foreign  Christians,  however,  behaved  so 
badly  after  their  arrival  in  China,  that  they  acquired  the  name  of  "  foreign  devils," 
and  were  massacred  in  the  sixteenth  century,  but  the  Jesuits  persevered,  and, 
being  learned  men,  converted  many  Chinese,  even  members  of  the  Imperial  family. 
The  great  Manchu  Emperor  Kangsi  accorded  liberty  to  the  Christian  faith 
throughout  the  empire  in  1692.  Dominican  missionaries,  however,  protested 
against  the  Jesuit  ritual  and  appealed  with  success  to  the  Pope,  which  irritated 
Kmgsi,  who  in  1717  issued  an  edict  prohibiting  the  promulgation  of  the  Christian 
faith.  Po2)e  Benedict  xiv.  issued  a  bull  condemning  the  Chinese  worship  of 
ancestors  and  Confucius,  and  a  terrible  persecution  of  Christians  occurred  in 
174G,  which  was  renewed  in  1838  owing  to  the  opium  war  with  Britain.  In  1844 
a  treaty  with  France  authorised  Christian  missionaries,  and  there  are  now  forty- 
three  bishoprics  and  900,000  Roman  Catholics  in  China,  while  there  are  200,000 
Protestants.  There  are  thirty  or  forty  millions  of  Mohammedans,  and  there  is 
scarcely  an  important  town  without  its  mosque.     Islam  progresses  daily  in  China. 

After  discussing  administrative  and  social  China,  the  author  describes  its 
modern  transformation,  beginning  with  the  reforms  from  1860  to  1900.  The 
defeat  of  China  by  Japan  in  1894-5  produced  consternation,  for  the  Chinese  had 
always  regarded  the  little  Japanese  with  contempt  and  as  vassals.  Military 
schools  directed  by  European  and  Japanese  instructors  were  at  once  established 
at  Tientsin,  Nankin,  and  Hankow.  Later,  telegraphs  were  introduced,  and  there 
are  now  33,000  miles  of  telegraph.  Then  railways  were  constructed  and  extend 
already  to  over  3000  miles,  with  concessions  for  2500  miles  more.  Nothing  is 
mire  remarkable  than  the  way  in  which  railways  have  become  popular  in  China. 


NEW   BOOKS.  221 

With  regard  to  the  new  Chinese  army,  the  length  of  service  has  been  fixed 
at  ten  years,  three  on  active  service,  three  in  the  first  reserve,  and  four  in  the 
second  reserve,  which  will  furnish  a  reserve  of  one  million  men.  After  the 
army  reforms  are  complete  in  1908,  the  authorities  hope  to  still  further  increase 
the  army  till  it  reaches  ten  million  men  all  armed  with  the  latest  weapons  and 
thoroughly  trained  after  the  best  systems.  Education  is  likewise  being  reformed 
in  China,  and  in  1902  the  University  of  Pekin  was  reorganised  and  divided  into 
eight  faculties  preparing  for  forty-six  different  callings.  The  schools  have  also 
been  reorganised,  and  foreign  languages  are  taught  in  the  following  order — English, 
Japanese,  French,  German,  and  Russian.  What  stands  in  China's  way  is  lack  of 
money,  or  rather  (for  the  country  is  very  rich),  the  Government  do  not  know  how 
to  finance  the  reforms  they  would  like  to  introduce.  The  author  concludes  by 
declining  to  say  whether  or  not  China  is  approaching  its  downfall  or  renaissance, 
and  decLires  that  he  would  be  a  bold  man  who  would  venture  to  prophesy 
regarding  such  a  complex  empire,  of  which,  he  maintains,  "  we  know  nothing.'' 

British  Malaya :  An  Account  of  the  Origin  and  Progress  of  British  Influence  in 
Malaya.  By  Sir  F.  Swettenham,  K.C.INI.G.  London  :  John  Lane,  1906. 
Price  16s.  net. 

This  volume  on  British  Malaya  is  not  unworthy  of  the  distinguished  name  of 
its  author.  From  the  first  jsage  to  the  last  it  holds  our  interest  and  our  attention. 
It  is  jjartly  an  account  of  the  Straits  Settlements  before  and  after  they  became  a 
Crown  Colony  in  1867.  It  describes  Penang  and  Wellesley  with  their  entrancing 
beauty,  Malacca  with  its  romance  and  its  records  of  by-gone  European  adventurers 
in  Portuguese  Cathedral  and  Dutch  Stadthouse,  Singapore — the  Lion  City — with 
its  past,  remote  and  almost  unknown,  and  all  the  opening  possibilities  of  its  future. 
It  is  only  eighty  years  since  it  entered  on  its  present  phase  of  British  settlement 
and  free  port  owing  to  the  prescient  wisdom  of  Sir  Stamford  Ratfies,  and  his 
co-adjutor  Colonel  Farquhar.  In  these  eighty  years  Singapore  has  become  the 
eighth  port  in  the  world  for  the  volume  of  its  trade.  Raffles,  however,  aimed  at 
more  than  the  establishment  of  a  port  at  Singapore  ;  his  further  aim  was  to  have 
h;id  a  sister  p  )rt  at  Acheen  in  Sumatra,  and  thus  have  handed  over  to  his  country 
the  guardianship  of  the  gate  of  the  Eastern  Ocean,  so  that  it  might  ever  be  open 
for  the  benefit  of  "  such  as  pass  upon  the  seas  on  their  lawful  occasions."  One  of 
the  most  charming  features  of  this  book  is  the  tribute  paid  to  this  same  Sir  S. 
Raffles,  that  almost  forgotten  Founder  of  Empire,  "  who  never  exalted  himself  nor 
depreciated  others."  His  very  burial-place  is  unknown  to  us,  but  his  living 
character  is  brought  before  us  in  the  extracts  from  the  Hikazat  Abdullah,  the  fresh 
and  simply-written  book  of  his  Malay  protege,  Abdullah. 

But  the  main  part  of  the  volume  concerns  the  progress  made  by  what  are  called 
the  Federated  Malay  States,  namely,  Perak,  Selangor,  the  Negri  SembilanorNine 
States,  and  the  eastern  state  of  Pahang.  These  native  states  are  under  the  pro- 
tection of  the  British  Government,  though  not  forming  a  constituent  part  of  the 
British  Empire.  The  record  of  their  progress  and  of  the  benefits  thus  conferred 
on  humanity  must  fill  every  Briton  with  pride  and  gratitmle.  The  story  of  it  is 
told  by  Sir  F.  Swettenham — himself  a  Governor  of  the  Straits  Colony  and  High 
Commissioner  for  the  Federated  States — with  great  lucidity  and  modesty.  It  almost 
transcends  belief  to  read  how  a  handful  of  our  countrymen,  led  by  a  few  so-called 
Residents  at  the  Courts  of  the  Malay  Sultans,  unsupported  by  any  diplomatic, 
political  or  military  power,  have,  with  the  welcome  aid  of  Chinese  energy  and 
industry,  altered  the  face  of  the  whole  country.  The  problem  and  its  solution  are 
briefly  indicated  in  the  following  sentences. 


222  SCOTTISH   GEOGKAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

"  If  I  have  been  able  to  give  the  reader  an  intelligible  idea  of  this  waste  of 
jungles  and  swamps,  of  mountains  and  rivers,  sparsely  inhabited  by  a  far  from 
industrious  or  happy  people,  preying  on  each  other  and  on  the  heaven-sent 
Chinese  toiler  in  an  atmosphere  of  eternal  heat,  tempered  by  frequent  deluges 
of  tropical  rain  ;  if  I  have  been  able  to  show  him  something  of  the  extraordinary 
change  which  has  passed  over  the  country  and  the  people,  lighting  the  dark  places, 
bringing  freedom  and  comfort  and  happiness  to  the  greatly  oppressed,  and  wealth 
to  the  greatly  industrious  ;  if  now  the  reader  sees  a  country  covered  with  towns 
and  villages,  with  roads  and  railways,  with  an  enormously  increased  population, 
with  every  signs  of  advancement  and  prosperity,  and  if  he  also  understands,  in  a 
measure  at  least,  how  this  change  has  been  brought  about,  I  will  cease  to  trouble 
him  with  further  details  of  this  unique  experiment  in  administration." 

But  the  details  of  the  unwearied  "spade-work"  necessary  are  full  of  stimulus, 
and  for  them  the  reader  must  be  referred  to  the  volume  itself. 

The  map  and  illustrations  are  excellent.  In  addition  to  the  absorbing  political 
interest  there  is  a  suggestive  chapter  on  the  character  of  the  Malays,  their  customs, 
arts,  literature,  and  their  "parabolic''  or  "proverbial"  wisdom. 

POLAR. 

The  Norwegian  North  Polar  Expedition,  Scientific  Results.  Edited  by  Fridtjof 
Nansex.  Vol.  V.  Published  by  the  F.  Nansen  Fund  for  the  Advancement 
of  Science.     London  :  Longmans,  Green  and  Co.,  1906. 

This  volume  contains  a  paper  on  the  Bottom  Deposits  of  the  North  Polar  .Sea 
by  0.  B.  Boggild.  The  chief  point  brought  out  is  the  great  uniformity  of  the 
deposits,  due  to  the  absence  of  land  ice  in  the  North  Polar  basin.  Not  a  single 
mineral  jjarticle  was  found  over  2  mm.  in  diameter  ;  and  of  those  present 
none  were  derived  from  volcanic  rocks.  Sixteen  samples  in  all  were  obtained, 
most  were  shallow  water  deposits  from  ofl'  the  Siberian  coast ;  a  few  of  grey  deep- 
sea  clay  diflering  only  from  the  former  in  being  of  a  rather  finer  consistency.  The 
absence  of  rocks  in  the  shallow  water  deposits  makes  it  probable  that  there  are 
no  projecting  rocks  above  the  surface  and  that  there  has  been  little,  if  any, 
elevation  of  the  sea-bottom  in  recent  geological  periods.  The  deep-sea  clays 
showed  a  remaikable  paucity  of  organic  constituents,  doubtless  because  the  surface 
of  the  ocean  is  for  the  greater  part  of  the  year  entirely  ice-covered.  The  fora- 
minifera  never  reached  5  per  cent,  and  siliceous  organisms  were  entirely  absent. 

Separate  appendices  deal  with  the  chemical  analyses  of  the  deposits  and  with 
the  Thalamophora  (Foraminifera)  from  the  deposits  and  from  the  mud  of  ice- 
floes. 

The  greater  part  of  the  volume  is  taken  up  with  an  investigation  of  "  Dead- 
Water"  by  V.  W.  Ekman.  This  phenomenon  was  met  with  by  the  Fram  off 
Taimur  Island  and  is  frequently  experienced  in  some  of  the  Norwegian  Fjords. 

Sailing  ships,  slow  steamers,  or  boats  in  tow  suddenly  lose  way  and  refuse  to 
answer  the  helm.  This  occurs  where  a  layer  of  fresh  or  brackish  water  is  present 
on  top  of  the  salt  water.  The  author  quotes  a  number  of  recorded  instances  and 
has  done  some  excellent  experimental  work  with  boat  models  in  a  tank  containing 
layers  of  water  of  different  specific  gravity.  He  makes  it  clear  that  a  vessel 
moving  at  low  speed  generates  large  waves  (well  shown  in  photographs)  at  the 
boundary  between  the  fresh  and  salt  water,  and  that  the  propelling  force  is 
dissipated  in  their  generation.  Steering  way  is  lost  because  the  rudder  is  largely 
in  a  thickened  layer  of  forward-moving  fresh  water.  At  higher  speeds  (varying 
with  the  depth  of  the  fresh  water  layer  and  difference  in  density  between  the 


BOOKS  RECEIVED.  223 

two  layers)  these  boundary  waves  are  not  produced  and  "Dead-Water  '  will 
not  trouble  the  navi'ffatoi;. 

The  last  paper  is  one  by  Nansen  on  the  Protozoa  from  the  pools  which  formed 
on  the  surface  of  the  ice-floes  in  summer.  These  were  in  all  probability  marine 
in  origin,  the  germs  being  frozen  into  the  ice  when  it  formed,  and  development 
taking  place  with  the  summer  thaw  ;  they  flourished  in  water  which  had  only 
1  to  2  per  cent.  NaCl  along  with  numerous  marine  diatoms  and  other  alg*. 

The  protozoa  were  chiefly  Infusioria,  but  some  belonged  to  the  Flagellata. 

Numerous  drawings  made  at  the  time  of  collection  are  reproduced,  but  circum- 
stances did  not  permit  of  the  full  life-history  of  the  organisms  being  made  out 
nor  were  they  specifically  determined. 


BOOKS  RECEIVED. 


Life  hy  the  Seashore:  An  Introduction  to  Natiiral  History.  By  Marion 
Newbigin,  D.Sc.  (Lond.)  With  many  original  Illustrations  by  Florence 
Newbigin.  Cr.  8vo.  Pp.  viii  +  344.  Price  2s.  6d.  net.  Swan  Sonnenschein  and 
Co.,  Ltd.,  London,  1907. 

On  the  Trail  of  the  Immigrant.  By  Edward  A.  Steiner.  Demy  8vo. 
Pp.  375.     Price  §1.50  net.     Fleming  H.  Revell,  New  York,  1907. 

A  Mission  in  China.  By  W.  E.  Soothill.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xii  +  293. 
Price  5s.  net.     Oliphant  Anderson  and  Ferrier,  Edinburgh,  1907. 

Our  Oivn  Islands:  An  Elementary  Study  in  Geography.  By  H.  J. 
Mackinder,  M.A.  Cr.  Svo.  Pp.  xv.  +  298.  Price  2s.  6d.net.  George  Philip 
and  Son,  Ltd.,  London,  E.C. 

Handbook  of  Polar  Discoveries.  By  A.  W.  Greely,  Major-General  L'nited 
States  Army.  Third  Edition.  Cr.  Svo.  Pp.  xii  +  325.  Little,  Brown  and  Co., 
Boston,  1907. 

The  Egyptian  Sudan.  By  J.  Kelly  Giffen,  D.D.  Illustrated.  Cr.  8vo. 
Pp.  252.  Price  3-^.  6d.  net.  Third  Edition.  Fleming  H.  Ptevell,  New  York, 
1907. 

Highways  and  Byways  of  the  Mississip)pi  Valley.  Written  and  illustrated  by 
Clifton  Johnson.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xiv  +  287.  Price  8s.  6(7.  net.  The  Macmillan 
Co.,  New  York,  1906. 

Three  Vagabonds  in  Friesland  with  a  Yacht  and  Camera.  By  H.  F. 
Tomalin.  With  Photographic  Pictures  by  Arthur  Marshall,  A.E.I.B.A., 
F.R.P.S.  4to.  Pp.  xii-l- 229  +  xx:vi.  Frice  Is.Qd.  net.  Siuipkin,  Marshall  and 
Co.,  London,  1907. 

Die  Halbinsel  des  Sinai  in  ihrer  Bedeutung  nach  Erdkunde  und  Geschichte 
auf  Grund  eigener  Forschung  an  Ort  und  Stelle.  Dargestellt  von  Professor  Dr. 
E.  Dagobert  Schoenfeld.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  viii  +  196.  Preis  3/.8.  Dietrich 
Reimer  (Ernst  Vohsen),  Berlin,  1907. 

Dti  Niger  au  Golfe  de  Guinee  par  le  pays  de  Kong  et  le  Mossi.  Par  le 
Captain  Binger  (1887-1889).  Two  Volumes.  Hachette  et  Cie.,  Paris  1892.  (Pre- 
sented by  Colonel  P.  Durham  Trotter.) 

A  Junior  Course  of  Comparative  Geography,  consisting  of  Course  A  :  of  "  A 
Progressive  Course  of  Comparative  Geography."  By  P.  H.  L 'Estrange,  B.A. 
With  140  Pictures  and  Diagrams.  Demy  8vo.  Pp.  viii  4- 239.  Price  2$.  6d.  net. 
George  Philip  and  Son,  Ltd.,  London,  1907. 

Lehrbuch  der  Ewhe-Sprache  in  Togo  (Anglo-Dialekt),  von  A.  Seidel.    Pp.  176. 


224  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

The  Havsa  Language  :  Grammar  {in  English)  and  Systematic  Vocabulary : 
(Hausa-German-French-English).  Von  A.  Seidel.  Pp.  292.  Julius  Gross,  Vei- 
h.g,  Heidelberg,  1906. 

Japanese  Rule  in  Formosa.  By  Yosaburo  Takekoshi,  with  Preface  by 
liaron  Shimpei  Goto.  Translated  by  George  Braithwaite.  Illustrated. 
Demy  8vo.  Pp.  xv  +  342.  Price  10s.  6rf.  net.  Longmans  and  Co.,  London, 
1907. 

British  North  America :  The  Far  West,  the  Home  of  the  Salish  and  Dene.  By 
C  Hill  Troct.  (Native  Races  of  the  British  Empire  Series.)  Demy  8vo.  Pp. 
xiv  +  263.     Price  Qs.  net.     Archibald  Constable,  London,  1907. 

Also  the  following  Reports,  etc. : — 

General  Handhooh  for  PJiodesia.  Pp.  66.  British  South  Africa  Co.,  London, 
1907. 

Illwitrated  Handbook  of  North-Eastern  Rhodesia.  Pp.  .35.  "  Administration 
Press,"  Fort  Jameson,  1906. 

Winter  in  Schiveden.  Wegweiser  des  Schwedischen  Touristenvereines.  Pp.  48. 
Wahlstrom  and  Widstrand,  Stockholm,  1906. 

Summary  Report  of  the  Geological  Survey  Department  of  Canada  for  1905  and 
1906. 

Geological  Survey  of  Canada.  Section  of  Mines.  Annual  Report  for  1904. 
Ottawa,  1906. 

Western  Australian  Year-Booh,  1902-1904.  (Thirteenth  Edition).  By  Mal- 
colm A.  C.  Eraser,  F.R.G.S.,  F.S.S.,  F.R.C.  Inst.  Pp.  x  +  1283.  Perth,  W.A., 
1906. 

Administration  Report  of  the  Marine  Survey  of  India  for  190.5-1906. 
Bombay,  1906. 

Repoii  on  the  Administration  of  the  Civil  and  Military  Station  of  Bangalore  for 
the  year  1905-1906.  By  The  Hon.  Mr.  Stcart  Eraser,  I.C.S.,  CLE.  Bangalore, 
1906. 

Pi,e,port  on  the  Administration  of  Coorg  for  the  year  1905-1906.    Mercara,  1906. 

Zur  Wirtschafts-  und  Siedlungs-Geographie  von  Ober-Burma  und  den  Nord- 
lichen  Shan-Staaten.     Von  Dr.  Hans  J.  Wehrli.     Pp.  130.     Ziirich,  1906. 

Monism?  Thoughts  suggested  by  Professor  HaeckeVs  book  "The  Riddle  of 
the  Universe."  By  S.  Ph.  Marcus,  M.D.  Translated  by  R.  W.  Felkix, 
M.D.,  F.R.S.E.     Pp.144      Price  Is.  net.     Pebman,  Ltd.,  London,  1907. 

General  Report  on  the  Operations  of  the  Survey  of  India  during  1904-5.  Pre- 
pared under  the  direction  of  Colonel  F.  B.  Loxge,  R.E.     Calcutta,  1906. 

Ceylon  in  1903-1905,  describing  the  Progre.'<s  of  the  Island  sincr  1803  .■  its  present 
Agricultural  and  Commercial  Enterprise,  with  useful  Statistical  Information.  By 
John  Ferguson,  C.M.G.    Demy  8vo,  pp.  xl-f  158-f  clxxxvi-f  27. 

The  Ceylon  Rubber  Exhibition,  1906.  Lectures  and  Discussions  on  Rubber 
Cultivation  and  Preparation  (Illustrated).     Pp.  130. 

The  Cexjlon  Handbook  and  Directory  and  Compendium  of  Useful  Information 
for  1906-1907.  Compiled  and  edited  under  the  direction  of  J.  Ferguson, 
C.M.G.,  M.L.C.     Pp.  xxxviii  +  1411. 

Presidential  Address  delivered  before  the  Ceylon  Branch  of  the  Royal  Asiatic 
Society.  By  the  Hon.  J.  Ferguson,  C.M.G.  Pp.  38.  A.  M.  and  J.  Ferguson, 
Colombo,  1906. 

Publishers  forwarding  books  for  review  will  greatly  oblige  by  marking  the  price  in 
clear  figures,  especially  in  the  case  of  foreign  books. 


I 


MAP  OF  CONON  AND  BEAULY  BASINS 


[^L'JSTRATING  MR  HINXMAN'S  PAPBB 


THE    SCOTTISH 

GEOGRAPHICAL 

MAGAZINE. 


THE  SWISS  VALAIS  :  A  STUDY  IN  REGIONAL  GEOGRAPHY. 
By  Marion  I.  Newbigin,  D.Sc.  (Lond.). 

(With  Maps  and  Illustrations.) 

{Continued  from  page  192.) 
The  Woods  of  the  Valais. 

The  Arolla  pine. — But  even  at  the  high  levels  the  larch  has  not 
matters  all  its  own  way,  for  there  it  comes  into  competition  with  the 
third  important  conifer  of  the  Valais,  the  Arolla  pine.  In  the  Valais, 
and  especially  in  the  vicinity  of  the  ]\Ionte  Rosa  massif,  the  Arolla  pine 
occurs  at  the  tree-limit,  sometimes  mingled  with  larch  and  sometimes 
forming  unmixed  woods  of  considerable  extent.  Like  the  larch,  it  some- 
times ascends  as  more  or  less  scattered  trees  up  to  over  2400  metres 
(7874  ft,)  and  forms  woods  even  above  the  2300  metre  line  (754  6  ft.). 
It  does  not,  however,  descend  as  low  as  the  larch,  being  much  less  tolerant 
of  high  temperatures.  Where  larch  and  pine  occur  in  the  same  locality 
the  pine  ascends  higher  than  the  larch.  The  lowest  point  to  which  the 
Arolla  pine  descends  in  the  Valais  is  1500  metres  (4921  ft.)  at  Lac 
Champex.  It  thus  can  hardly  be  said  to  compete  with  the  spruce,  for 
it  does  not  as  a  rule  flourish  till  levels  when  the  spruce  is  beginning  to 
feel  the  effects  of  the  low  temperature.  On  the  other  hand,  the  com- 
petition of  the  spruce  drives  the  larch  up  to  the  region  favoured  by  the 
Arolla  pine,  and  in  consequence  either  of  this  or  of  climatic  changes 
Finns  cemhra  is  gradually  losing  its  hold,  and  is  certainly  a  dying 
species.  In  the  Arolla  valley  itself  the  trees  are  few  in  number,  are  in 
many  cases  in  a  dying  state,  and  young  trees  to  take  the  place  of  the  old 
are  conspicuously  absent. 

Spruce  and  larch  are  familiar  to  all,  but  it  may  be  well  to  point  out 
some  of  the  characters  of  the  less  familiar  Arolla  pine.     The  needles, 

vol.  XXIII.  R 


226  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

instead  of  growing  in  bunches  of  two  like  those  of  our  familiar  Scotch 
fir,  are  many  in  each  cluster,  the  seeds  are  devoid  of  a  "  wing,"  and  are 
large  and  edible,  being  prized  as  food  by  man,  by  squirrels  and  other 
rodents,  and  by  birds,  notably  the  nutcracker,  which  is  said  to  live 
largely  upon  them  in  Siberia,  and  may  be  seen  at  Arolla  constantly 
engaged  in  tearing  the  cones  to  pieces  with  its  powerful  bill.  In  the 
Alps  as  a  rule  only  relatively  few  cones  are  produced,  but  about  once  in 
ten  years  the  harvest  is  exceptionally  abundant.  The  toll  taken  by 
man,  bird  and  beast  is,  however,  so  heavy  that  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that  one  reason  for  the  gradual  disappearance  of  the  tree  is  that  very 
few  seeds  are  allowed  to  germinate.  In  itself  this  is  not,  however,  a 
sufficient  reason,  for  the  tree  is  more  fruitful  in  Siberia,  and  its  compara- 
tive barrenness  in  the  Alps  can  only  be  the  result  of  unfavourable  con- 
ditions of  life. 

The  distribution  of  the  Arolla  pine  is  remarkable  in  that  the  area 
occupied  by  it  in  the  Alps  is  small  as  compared  with  the  vast  tract 
which  it  occupies  in  Asia.     Its  abundance  in  Siberia  has  indeed  given 
it  the  name  of  Siberian  cedar.    In  Central  Europe  it  occupies  discon- 
nected areas  in  the  Alps  and  Carpathians,  where  its  range  nearly  corre- 
sponds with  that  of  the  larch.     The  fact  that  the  areas  are  disconnected 
would  to  the  student  of  distribution  at  once  suggest  that  it  is  an  old 
type,  and  in  point  of  fact  there  is  abundant  evidence  to  prove  that  Pinus 
cembra  had  once  a  much  more  extended  distribution  in  Europe.    In  brief, 
it  is  one  of  the  relics  of  the  glacial  period,  and  its  progressive  disappear- 
ance before  and  during  the  human  period  is  to  be  regarded  as  due  to 
that  series  of  changes  of  climate  which  in  Scotland,  for  example,  is  leading 
to  the  weathering  and  destruction  of  the  peat  deposits  laid  down  under 
other  conditions  of  climate  (cf.  Mr.  Lewis's  paper,  S.G.M.,  xxii.  p.  241). 
It  has  been  already  pointed  out  that  the  larch  is  a  tree  adapted  to  a 
continental  climate,  but  this  is  true  to  an  even  greater  extent  of  the 
Arolla  pine.     It  is  physiologically  fitted  for  a  long  severe  winter  and  a 
sudden  hot  summer.     According  to  Simony,  a  locality  where  the  mean 
temperature  of  May  is  7°C.  is  as  unfavourable  as  one  where  the  mean 
summer  temperature  is  less  than  8°  C.     A  frost-free  period  of  sixty-seven 
days  is  sufficient,  but  the  temperature  during  that  period  must  be  con- 
siderable.   According  to  Simony,  in  the  Alps  the  isotherms  of  0°  and  5°  C, 
mark  its  upward  and  lower  limits.     But  even  more  than  conditions  of 
temperature  is  its  extension  limited  by  conditions  of  moisture.     It  is  the 
physiological  relic  of  a  period  when  the  air  was  loaded  with  moisture, 
and  in  the  Alps  it  approaches  the  glaciers  because  their  damp  breath  is 
like  a  reminiscence  of  an  earlier  time.     It  also  favours  a  clay  soil  or  a 
soil  containing  humus  because  of  the  power  which  each  displays  of  hold- 
ing water.     Further,  in  that  in  the  Alps  it  is  the  westerly  winds  which 
bring  moisture,  we  find  that  westerly  exposures  are  much  more  favour- 
able than  easterly  ones.    Thus  on  a  valley  wall  facing  south-west  the  tree 
will  on  the  average  ascend  more  than  300  metres  (984  ft.)  higher  than 
on  a  slope  in  the  same  region  facing  south-east.     In  this  case  the  up- 
ward extension  on  the  south-west  slope  is  due  to  the  favourable  conditions 
of  warmth,  and  the  lower  to  the  favourable  conditions  of  moisture. 


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227 


In  regard  to  physiology  there  are  many  interesting  points,  all 
tending  to  emphasise  the  primitive  nature  of  the  tree.  Thus  growth  is 
extraordinarily  slow — like  the  elephant  the  AroUa  pine  belongs  to  a 
period  when  time  was  of  no  consequence.  The  normal  length  of  life  is 
350  to  400  years,  and  exceptionally  trees  may  live  600  to  800  years. 
Eeproduction  does  not  take  place  until  the  tree  is  sixty  years  old,  and 
in  the  Alps,  as  already  mentioned,  cones  are  abundant  only  about  once 
in  ten  years.  The  seedlings  are  shade-loving,  and  grow  much  more 
slowly  than  those  of  the  spruce.  Thus  it  takes  ten  years  for  them  to 
reach  a  height  of  half  a  metre  (H  ft.),  and  at  eighty  years,  when  the 
larch  has  reached  a  height  of  30  metres  (98  ft.),  and  the  spruce  about 
22  metres  (72  ft.),  the  Arolla  pine  is  only  about  8  metres  (26  ft.)  high. 
The  seedlings  can  only  thrive  where  there  is  undergrowth  to  shield  them 
in  the  early  part  of  their  life,  and  this  fact  naturally  limits  the  upward 
extension  of  the  tree.  To  all  the  natural  disadvantages  which  limit  the 
spread  of  the  tree,  one  must  add  that  its  close-textured  wood  is  valuable, 
so  that  in  the  Alps  man  long  since  joined  the  already  lengthy  list  of 
its  enemies.  The  wood  is  strongly  impregnated  with  resin,  and  in  con- 
sequence decays  very  slowly.  One  result  of  this  is  that,  under  natural 
conditions,  dead  trunks  may  stand  for  a  long  period  before  they  fall.  It 
is  the  presence  of  such  dead  trunks  in  regions  where  there  are  no  young 
trees  that  is  one  of  the  proofs  of  the  former  extension  of  the  Arolla  pine 
in  the  Alps.  Almost  everywhere  in  the  Alps  it  is  possible  to  demon- 
strate by  this  and  other  means  that  the  area  is  constantly  diminishing. 
In  short  the  Arolla  pine,  even  less  than  the  larch,  cannot  effectively 
contest  the  supremacy  of  the  spruce  in  the  Valais.  The  pine,  indeed,  on 
account  of  the  unfiivourable  north-eastern  exposure  of  the  northern 
valleys,  is  for  the  most  part  limited  to  the  lateral  valleys  to  the  south  of 
the  Rhone,  and  is  only  abundant  about  the  Monte  Rosa  group.  The 
accompanying  table  sums  up  the  characters  and  distribution  of  the  three 
trees  mentioned  : — 


Summary  Table  for  Spruce,  Larch,  and  Arolla  Pine. 


Height  of  Tree. 

Tree. 

Limit  of 
Temperature. 

Maximum  elpva- 
tion  i-eaclied. 

First 
Flowering. 

Remarks. 

At  10  yrs. 

At  80  yrs. 
22  m. 

Spruce,   . 

-H-6°C. 

2000-2100  m. 

U-H  ni. 

30-40  yrs. 

Moisture  in  air 

or  soil  essen- 

tial. 

Larch,     . 

-r  c. 

2300-2400  m. 

4  m. 

30  m. 

15-20  yrs. 

Full  exposure 
to  sua  essen- 
tial. 

Pine, 

0-0"  c. 

2300-2400  m. 

•5  m. 

8-9  m. 

60  yrs. 

Large  amount 
of  moisture 
in  air  or  soil 
essential. 

The  heights  are  given  iu  metres,  and  the  temperature  is  the  lowest  mean  annual  the  tree  can 
tolerate. 


228  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

Of  the  other  conifers  which  occur  in  the  Valais,  it  is  only  necessary 
to  mention  in  passing  the  mountain  pine  (Pimis  montana),  which  is 
infrequent,  but  sometimes  forms  pure  cultures,  as,  for  example,  at 
Grachen  in  the  Saas  valley.  Here  it  occurs  in  its  upright  form,  the 
curious  dwarf  form  which  is  common  in  Austria  at  the  tree-limit  being 
uncommon  in  Switzerland.  As  already  mentioned,  the  Scotch  fir 
(Pinus  sylvestris)  is  somewhat  uncommon  as  a  forest-former.  It  occurs 
on  the  floor  of  the  Rhone  valley,  where  the  soil  has  the  necessary 
arenaceous  character,  and  also  sometimes  on  moraines.  It  does  not, 
according  to  Christ,  ascend  above  1500  metres  (4921  ft.). 

A  short  note  on  the  actual  conditions  in  certain  valleys  may  serve  to 
make  the  foregoing  general  description  more  vivid.  Take,  for  example, 
the  Val  de  Bagnes.  For  much  of  its  extent  the  sides  of  this  valley  are 
luxuriantly  clothed  with  spruce.  The  highest  village  is  Fionnay  (really 
a  mayen  and  not  a  village),  which  stands  at  an  elevation  of  1497  metres 
(4910  ft.:  cf  figure  on  p.  188).  Round  the  little  group  of  houses  and 
hotels  fir-woods  are  abundant,  and  mixed  with  the  dominant  species, 
especially  at  the  margin  of  the  torrent,  at  the  edges  of  clearings,  or 
generally  in  places  unsuited  to  the  spruce,  the  larch  occurs.  Walking 
up  the  valley  from  Fionnay,  it  will  be  found  that  the  spruce  persists 
until  one  has  ascended  a  vertical  height  of  about  100  metres  (328  ft.), 
but  at  a  height  of  some  1590  metres  (5116  ft.)  it  is  replaced  to  a  large 
extent  by  larch.  The  transition  between  the  two  types  of  wood  is  very 
striking  here,  and  it  is  interesting  to  see  how  the  few  remaining  spruces 
seem  to  seek  shelter  beneath  the  taller  larches.  In  the  region  where 
the  spruce  is  dominant  the  surface  of  the  ground  is  either  covered  with 
pasture-land  or  with  forest,  but  in  the  larch  region  the  grass  flourishes 
beneath  the  sparsely  scattered  trees,  thus  giving  a  combination  of  wood 
and  pasture  which  is  rarely  seen  in  Switzerland. 

On  continuing  up  the  valley,  we  find  that  the  last  larches,  Avhich  are 
also  the  last  trees,  are  seen  near  the  inn  at  Mauvoisin  at  a  height  of 
about  1800  metres,  the  valley  above  being  narrow  and  almost  sunless 
even  in  midsummer.  Lower  down  the  valley  trees  ascend  about  200 
metres  (or  C56  ft.)  higher,  but  here  the  valley  is  wider,  and  therefore 
more  fully  exposed  to  the  sun.  General  1}%  we  may  say  of  the  Val  de 
Bagnes  that  the  tree-limit  varies  from  1800  to  2000  metres  (5905  to 
6562  ft.)  according  to  the  exposure,  and  larches  form  the  limiting  form, 
the  Arolla  pine  being  absent. 

If  the  traveller  continue  his  journey  to  the  head  of  the  valley,  and 
then  cross  one  of  the  glacier  passes  to  Arolla,  he  will  find  that  while  he 
left  behind  the  last  tree  at  1800  metres  (5905  ft.),  he  finds  the  first 
trees  in  the  Arolla  valley  at  from  2200  to  2300  metres  (7218  to  7546  ft.), 
that  is,  about  400  to  500  metres  (1300  to  1640ft.)  higher  up.  Further, 
while  in  the  valley  which  he  has  left  behind  the  larch  formed  the  tree- 
limit,  the  first  trees  which  he  encounters  here  are  Arolla  pines.  This  fact 
the  guide-books  do  not  fail  to  emphasise ;  but  the  traveller  who,  stimu- 
lated by  Baedeker,  looks  forward  with  interest  to  seeing  this  tree,  will  be 
greatly  disappointed  when  his  eyes  fall  upon  the  aged  and  decrepit 
trunks  which  surround  the  hotels,  and  are  outlined  against  that  dreary 


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229 


waste  of  stone  which  is  the  chief  feature  of  the  Combe  d'Arolla.  Let 
him  continue  his  journey  over  to  Zermatt  and  he  will  find  there,  at  an 
elevation  of  2300  metres  or  more,  fine  and  flourishing  woods  of  Arolla 
pines,  which  constitute  indeed  one  of  the  great  beauties  of  the  valley. 
As  other  series  of  valleys  would  give  similar  results,  we  are  justified  in 
saying  briefly  that  the  tree-limit  rises  as  the  Zermatt  region  is  ap- 
proached, and  that  Avhere  the  limit  is  high  the  Arolla  pine  forms  the 
limiting  species ;  where  it  is  low  this  species  tends  to  be  absent.  We 
have  seen  above  that  the  zone  of  cultivation  also  rises  as  the  Zermatt 
region  is  approached. 

The  explanation  has  been  so  clearly  set  forth  in  a  series  of  recent 


Mean  elevation  of  the  surface  of  Switzeriaud.     (From  de  Q\iervam  after  Liez.) 


German  papers  that  it  can  be  given  very  briefly,  the  more  briefly  as  the 
results  of  these  papers  are  expressed  in  maps  which  we  reproduce  here. 

In  the  first  place,  a  paper  on  the  mean  elevation  of  Switzerland,  by 
H.  Liez,^  shows  that  the  greater  part  of  the  Valais  has  a  mean  elevation 
of  over  2000  metres  (6562  ft.),  and  a  considerable  area  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  Monte  Rosa  group,  a  mean  elevation  of  over  2500  metres  (8202  ft.). 
Comparing  with  this  the  results  obtained  by  J.  Jegerlehner,-  in  a  study 
of  the  snowline,  we  find  that  this  line  rises  highest  (3200  metres  or 
10,499  ft.)  in  the  region  of  the  greatest  mean  elevation,  while  Ed. 
Imhof  ^  has  shown  that  the  same  thing  is  true  of  the  tree  limit,  which  is 
highest  in  the  Monte  Rosa  region,  the  region  of  greatest  mean  elevation, 
and  next  highest  in  the  Engadine,  where  the  mean  elevation  is  almost 

1  "  Die  Verteilung  der  mittleren  Hohe  in  der  Sch.\\ei7."—Jahresbericht  d.  Geographischen 
Gesellschaft  von  Bern,  xviii.  (1903). 

2  Beitrdgez.  (reophi/sik,  v.  (1901-:2). 

3  "  Die  Waldgrenze  in  d.  Seliweiz,"  T.  cit.  iv.  (1899-90). 


230 


SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 


as  great.    As  throughout  Switzerland  it  can  be  shown  that  the  snowline 
and  the  tree-limit  vary  together,  the  distance  between  them  remaining 


Isoliypses  of  tree-limit.     (From  de  Quervain  aftt-r  Imliof. ) 


Isohypses  of  suowliue.     (From  ile  Quervaiu  after  Jegerleliner. ) 


approximately  constant,  it  is  reasonable  to  suppose  that  both  are  deter- 
mined by  a  similar  cause,  which  has  been  shown  by  A.  de  Qiiervain  ^  to 

1  "Die  Hebungd.  atmospliari.sclien  Isotliermen  in  d.  Schweizer  Alpen  u.  ihrer  Beziehung 
;renzen."— r.  cit.,  vi.  (1903-4y 


z.  d.  Hobengrt 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS  :   A   STUDY    IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY. 


231 


be  the  special  conditions  of  temperature  which  exist  in  regions  of  great 
mean  elevation.    This  author  has  taken  the  daily  temperature  readings  at 


Isotherms  at  a  height  of  1500  m.,  July,  1  p.m.     (From  de  Quervain.) 


Isotherms  at  a  height  of  loOO  m.,  Jan.,  7  a.m.     (From  de  Quervain. ) 

7  A.i\[.  and  1  P.M.  for  a  large  number  of  stations  of  different  altitudes 
throughout  the  year  for  a  ten  years'  period,  and  after  reducing  the  tem- 
peratures to  a  mean  level  of  1500  metres  (4921  ft.)  has  plotted  the 
results  in  the  form  of  a  series  of  isotherms  on  the  map  of  Switzerland. 


232  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

Two  of  these  maps  are  reproduced  here.  The  result  is  to  show  that, 
owing  to  the  conditions  of  radiation,  etc.,  which  exist  in  mountain 
regions,  the  temperature  at  midday  is  considerably  greater  in  regions  of 
great  mean  elevation  than  in  regions  of  lower  mean  elevation,  through- 
out the  greater  part  of  the  year.  In  other  words,  a  place  in  the  Zermatt 
region,  or  in  the  Engadine,  at  an  elevation  of  1500  metres,  would  have 
at  midday  a  considerably  higher  temperature  than  a  place  of  the  same 
elevation  in  the  Canton  Ticino,  or  one  in  the  vicinity  of  Lake  Geneva. 
This  statement  is  true  for  all  the  months  from  February  to  November, 
but  not  in  January  and  December.  The  amount  of  the  difference  varies 
with  the  season,  being  greatest  (5'5°)  in  July  and  least  in  February 
(3"5°).  On  the  other  hand,  at  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning  the  elevation 
of  the  isotherms  is  much  less  conspicuous  even  in  the  warmer  months, 
and  in  the  colder  months  there  is  then  a  depression  of  the  isotherms  at 
great  elevations  (cf.  map  p.  231).  That  is,  at  seven  o'clock  on  a  January 
morning  a  place  in  the  Nicolaithal  would  be  considerably  colder  than 
one  of  corresponding  elevation  in  the  lowlands.  As  it  is  the  midday 
temperatui'e  which  specially  counts  in  the  life  of  plants,  and  in  the 
melting  of  snow,  the  results  obtained  by  de  Quervain,  explain  the  eleva- 
tion of  both  the  snowline  and  the  tree-limit  in  the  Yalais.  The 
causation  of  the  elevation  of  the  isotherms  on  approaching  the  great 
mountain  masses  is  the  conditions  of  radiation  which  exist  there  as  com- 
pared with  those  existing  in  regions  of  less  mean  elevation. 

In  the  Alps  of  the  Yalais  generally  a  vertical  distance  of  about  890 
metres  separates  the  snowline  from  the  tree-limit,  but  it  is  rather  inter- 
esting to  note  tliat  in  Val  de  Bagnes  the  two  are  separated  by  a  vertical 
distance  of  1000  metres  (or  3281  ft.).  The  reason,  as  de  Quervain 
points  out,  is  to  be  sought  in  the  shape  of  the  valley.  The  mountains 
reach  a  considerable  elevation  (Grand  Combin,  4317  metres,  or  14,164 
ft.),  but  the  valleys  are  deep  narrow  gorges,  whose  walls,  as  in  the 
vicinity  of  Mauvoisin,  may  shut  out  the  sun  save  for  a  short  period  of 
the  day.  The  elevation  of  the  mountains  raises  the  snowline,  but  the 
shape  of  the  valley  lowers  the  tree-limit,  hence  the  unusual  distance 
between  the  two  here,  and  hence  also  the  absence  of  suitable  ground  for 
the  Arolla  pine. 


III. — TnK  Alps  of  thp:  Valais. 

We  have  finally  to  consider  that  most  important  part  of  the 
Valaisiaii  area,  the  Alps  or  high  pastures.  From  all  that  has  been 
said  already  of  climate,  eleA^ation  and  natural  productions,  it  is  obvious 
that  the  possibilities  of  cultivation  in  the  region  must  be  strictly 
limited.  The  flat  floor  of  the  Rhone  valley  with  its  constant  liability 
to  inundation,  the  lower  terraced  slopes  of  the  main  valley,  and  ])arts  of 
the  larger  lateral  valleys,  constitute  the  whole  available  area,  and  even 
so  cultivation  in  the  higher  parts  is  beset  with  many  difficulties.  The 
mineral  products  of  the  region  are  insignificant,  manufactures  almost 
absent,  and   yet  the  canton  in   1904   had  an   estimated  population  of 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS  :   A   STUDY   IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRArilY.  233 

116,843  ^  persons,  giving  a,  density  of  56  per  square  mile  as  contrasted 
witli  a  density  of  11  for  Sutherland,  and  21  for  Inverness.  Further, 
the  population  is  increasing,  the  estimate  for  1904  showing  an  increase 
of  2  per  cent,  on  the  1900  figures.  This  obviously  means  some  source 
of  wealth  which  has  not  been  yet  considered,  and  though  we  must  not 
forget  the  "tourist  industry,"  yet  the  great  source  of  wealth  in  the 
canton  is  certainly  the  cow. 

If  we  may  take  the  sheep  as  a  symbol  for  the  Scottish  Highlands, 
then  the  cow  may  serve  as  a  fitting  symbol  for  the  Valais,  as  for  much 
of  Switzerland.  The  development  of  the  dairying  industry  again 
depends  upon  the  abundant  growth  of  grass  in  the  alps. 

It  would  be  a  matter  of  great  interest,  as  illustrating  the  inter- 
relations of  history  and  geography,  to  trace  in  the  case  of  the  hill-folk 
of  Switzerland  and  the  Highlands  the  relation  of  the  mental  and  moral 
qualities  to  the  occupation.  For  that  this  is  not  the  place,  but  in  pass- 
ing we  may  just  note  that  in  both  cases  the  open  life  on  the  mountains 
with  the  flocks  has  bred  an  unconquerable  love  of  freedom  and  in- 
dependence, and  a  warrior  spirit,  which  has  time  and  again  left  its 
mark  on  the  pages  of  history.  Our  language  is  deeply  impressed  with 
the  Oriental  imagery  wdiich  makes  the  shepherd  the  type  of  gentleness, 
but  in  point  of  fact  the  herd's  life,  with  its  perpetual  conflict  with 
nature,  does  not,  among  the  Westerns  at  least,  produce  such  a  spirit. 

Again,  no  doubt  because  of  the  constant  contact  with  the  forces  of 
nature,  alike  in  Switzerland  and  in  Scotland,  the  people  of  the  hills  are 
profoundly  and  typically  religious.  This  attribute  expresses  itself  in 
different  forms  it  is  true,  but  even  the  most  confirmed  Protestant  can 
hardly  fail  to  be  touched  by  those  crude  religious  emblems  Avhich  are 
dotted  over  the  Swiss  hills,  and  which,  hardly  less  than  the  churches 
of  the  Scottish  Highlands,  suggest  the  connection  between  the  pastoral 
life  and  strong  religious  instinct. 

Leaving  aside  those  sociological  points,  it  is  necessary  to  consider  in 
detail  what  exactly  an  alp  is.  In  the  list  of  the  zones  of  vegetation  in 
the  Valais  given  above,  the  third  or  alpine  zone  was  stated  to  be  that 
between  the  tree-limit  and  the  snowline.  Very  little  reflection  will, 
however,  make  it  clear  that  over  a  large  proportion  of  this  area  the 
vegetation  is  not  sufficiently  great  in  amount  to  form  a  pasturage. 
Great  expanses  of  the  surface  are  covered  by  moraines  or  by  screes  and 
rock-rubbish,  and  other  regions  are  precipitous,  and  devoid  of  any  cover- 
ing of  soil.  Thus  the  alpine  region  is  the  region  in  which  the  high 
pastures  occur,  but  not  the  region  in  which  the  surface  is  predominantly 
pasturage.  Again,  nimble  as  the  Swiss  cow  is,  there  is  a  limit  to  its 
agility,  and  therefore,  although  the  pasturages  are  by  no  means,  as  the 
stranger  is  apt  to  assume,  level  areas,  there  are  necessarily  regions  of 
moderate  gradient,  AVhat,  then,  are  these  grass-covered  regions  which 
occur  throughout  the  high  ground  of  Switzerland  ?  Eoughly  speaking, 
the  alps  are  mountain  shelves  bordering  the  valleys,  and  these  shelves 
form  pasturages  because  they  mark  the  sites  of  the  old  glaciers  and  are 


1  Statesman's  Year  Book,  1906, 


234 


SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 


thus  covered  with  morainic  matter,  -NA'hich  forms  a  fertile  soil.  The  accom- 
panying three  sections  across  parts  of  the  Val  de  Bagnes  show  the  exact 
position  of  the  alps.  It  will  be  noted  that  the  valley  in  which  the  present 
torrent  flows  becomes  increasingly  gorge-like  as  one  ascends  the  valley, 


Fig.  1. 


Sections  across  the  Yal  de  Bagnes,  to  show  the  position  of  the  alps, 
and  vertical  scales  are  the  same. 


The  horizontal 


but  whatever  the  shape  of  the  existing  valley,  there  is  clearly  shown  at 
either  side  the  platform  which  marks  the  remains  of  the  bed  of  the  old 
glacier,  and  here  the  alp  is  situated.  Thus,  in  climbing  the  side  of  the 
valley  one  has  first  a  very  steep  rise  from  the  valley  floor,  then  a 
gentle   slope — the    alp,   which    ends    suddenly    (Fig.    1)    or   gradually 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS  :   A   STUDY   IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.  235 

(Figs.  2  and  3)  against  the  base  of  the  great  peaks.  Fig.  3  ^  is  taken 
above  the  level  at  which  trees  occur  in  the  Val  de  Bagnes,  but  Fig.  1  is 
of  great  interest  as  showing  the  position  of  the  woods  relative  to  the  alps, 
and  the  position  of  what  are  known  as  the  mayens.  Where  the  first 
part  of  tlie  valley  wall  has  a  considerable  slope,  but  is  not  absolutely 
precipitous,  it  is  usually  clothed  with  trees.  Where  the  slope  is  gentle, 
as  especially  happens  where  a  lateral  stream  has  formed  a  considerable 
cone,  then  there  is  a  more  or  less  considerable  stretch  of  pasturage,  care- 
fully fenced  in  (see  illustration  p.  236).  It  is  here  that  the  cattle  come 
in  spring  while  the  snow  is  still  on  the  upper  pasturages.  When  they 
are  driven  to  the  high  ground  in  the  middle  of  June,  the  grass  is  allowed 
to  grow  again,  and  by  the  earlier  part  of  August  it  is  cut  as  hay,  to  be 
stored  for  use  in  late  autumn  or  winter.  Between  forest  and  mayen,  as 
the  figures  suggest,  there  is  a  certain  amount  of  rivalry  as  it  were,  and 
it  is  to  extend  these  early  pasturages  that  in  parts  of  Switzerland 
excessive  forest  destruction  has  gone  on.  The  mayen  forms  a  transi- 
tion between  the  cultivated  land  and  the  alp,  and  the  fact  that  it  is 
less  difficult  of  access  than  the  alp  makes  it  possible  to  cut  and  store  its 
grass  as  hay.  The  alp,  if  one  may  put  the  matter  so,  is  so  difficult  of 
access  that  its  produce  must  be  transported  in  the  compact  form  of 
cheese. 

One  other  point,  both  mayen  and  alp  have  been  made  by  the 
denuding  action  of  ice  and  water — we  need  not  stop  here  to  discuss 
the  relative  action  of  the  two — but  these  forces  are  also  their  great 
enemies.  Both  alp  and  mayen  are  bounded  above  by  steep  slopes,  and 
that  in  a  region  where  serial  denudation  is  extraordinarily  rapid.  Both 
are  in  consequence  in  constant  risk  of  being  overwhelmed  by  avalanches 
of  stones  and  mud,  while  as  the  glaciers  advance  and  retreat  their 
moraines  may  be  pushed  over  fertile  stretches  of  pasturage.  In  other 
words,  the  forces  which  made  the  pasturages  are  still  in  action.  Again, 
the  position  of  the  alps  is  such  that  they  are  naturally  traversed  by 
streams  of  w^ater  from  the  heights  above,  such  streams  being  of  all 
dimensions.  The  soil  of  the  alp  is  never  very  thick,  but  the  dense 
covering  of  grass  and  herbage  protects  it  from  the  denuding  action  of 
the  small  runnels  so  long  as  it  is  intact.  If,  however,  the  pasturages 
are  badly  managed  and  allowed  to  be  overcrowded,  then  the  covering 
may  be  completely  destroyed,  the  dark  soil  beneath  is  exposed  and  is 
soon  channelled  and  carried  away.  In  the  Val  de  Bagnes  the  cows  are 
milked  on  the  alp,  and  small  areas  of  destroyed  pasture  of  this  kind 
were  very  obvious  round  the  huts  Avhere  the  cows  are  collected  for 
milking.  The  grass  and  alpine  plants  have  here  disappeared,  and  are 
replaced  by  a  scanty  covering  of  nettle,  Chenopodium,  dock  and 
dandelion.  Where  si^ch  patches  occur  on  the  slope  the  soil  is  being 
rapidly  washed  away. 

1  It  is  iuterestiiig  to  note  the  resemblance  between  this  section  and  the  diagranimatic 
representation  of  an  alpine  valley  given  by  Professor  Kilian  in  an  article  on  "Glacial 
Erosion  and  the  Formation  of  Terraces,"  in  La  Giographie,  xiv.  5,  1906.  To  this  article 
reference  should  be  made  for  an  explanation  of  the  causation  of  the  peculiar  shape  of  the 
valley.     See  also  Penck's  Die.  Alpeu  im  Eisuitalter. 


236 


SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 


In  regard  to  the  paths  to  the  alps,  a  point  which  was  very  notice- 
able in  the  Val  de  Bagnes  is  worth  mention  in  connection  with  the 
evolution  of  ways  of  communication.  The  valley  is  still  unsophisti- 
cated, and  therefore  the  paths  are  for  the  cows  and  not  primarily  for 
the  tourists — there  are  no  special  tourists'  paths.  Now,  wherever  the 
gradient  is  steep  the  path  is  admirably  marked,  but  no  sooner  does  the 
ground  become  easy  than  the  path  dies  away  and  is  lost.  The  reason 
is  obvious.  When  the  ascent  is  steep  the  cows  must  necessarily  keep 
together,  and  the  path  must  be  kept  in  repair ;  where  it  is  easy  each 


Mayeli  du  lii-M.T.-5,  N  al  lU-  ougUL-s.  1  lie  uul.>  ,.ie  jjiuce^  uii  a  uoiic  iJH)U..iit  (lowu 
by  the  lateral  stream  to  the  right.  Note  the  gentle  slope  to  the  left  which 
forms  the  niayen  or  spring  pasturage.  The  trees  are  spruce,  mingled  with 
larch. 


cow  wanders  off  on  a'  path  of  her  own  in  search  of  some  succulent  herb, 
and  the  herdsman  allows  them  to  scatter  until  the  a})proach  of  a  steep 
region  necessitates  their  collection.  This  is  very  striking  in  the  path 
over  the  Col  de  I'enCtre,  which  is  a  mule-path  according  to  the  guide- 
books, but  which  in  point  of  fact,  in  crossing  the  pasturage  of  Chermon- 
tane,  simply  disappears,  though  above  and  below  it  is  well  marked. 


» 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS:   A   STUDY   IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.  237 

The  plants  of  the  alps. — We  have  thus  seen  that  the  alp  is  a  relic  of 
a  past  period  of  greater  glaciation,  and  as  its  soil  is  thus  the  rock 
dt^bris  derived  from  the  neighbouring  mountains,  there  are  naturally 
great  differences  in  the  fertility  of  the  different  alps.  We  must  next 
consider  the  nature  of  the  plants  produced  by  the  alps  in  order  to 
learn  wherein  consists  the  value  of  a  fertile  alp.  As  compared  with  the 
more  familiar  conditions  which  exist  in  this  country,  the  striking 
feature  is  that  the  grasses  are  relatively  less  important.  In  this 
country  the  chief  fodder  plants  are  the  grasses  and  various  Leguminosse, 
especially  the  clovers.  The  reason  is  not  primarily  the  special  food 
value  of  these  plants  as  compared  with  others,  but  the  absence  of  strong 
distasteful  odours,  of  much  indigestible  supporting  tissue,  and  of  poisonous 
extractives,  etc.  In  Switzerland  a  very  large  number  of  plants  are 
consumed  as  fodder,  and  of  the  three  which  are  specially  prized  by 
the  herdsmen  as  signs  of  fertility  on  an  alp,  only  one  is  a  grass. 
These  three  precious  plants  are  Poa  alpina,  a  grass  which  is  not  un- 
common on  the  hills  of  Scotland,  a  plantain  (Plantago  alpina),  and  one 
of  the  Umbelliferse,  Meum  mntelUna  by  name.  A  large  number  of 
grasses,  Leguminosse,  Compositse,  and  so  on  are  also  eaten,  but  relatively 
the  grasses  are  less  important  than  with  us.  Further,  when  valley  grass 
or  hay  is  compared  with  alpine  hay  or  grass,  it  is  found  that  the  alpine 
plants  are  richer  in  proteids  and  fats,  while  they  are  poorer  in  cellulose 
than  the  valley  forms.  The  reason  is  to  be  sought  in  the  special  con- 
ditions of  existence  of  the  mountain  plants.  As  already  explained,  they 
are  during  the  short  growing  period  exposed  to  very  strong  insolation. 
The  bright  light  checks  growth,  so  that  the  plants  tend  to  become 
tufted  and  short-stemmed.  At  the  same  time  there  is  a  slighter 
development  of  mechanical  tissue,  so  that  they  are  softer  and  less  rigid. 
The  result  is  that  plants  which  the  cattle  will  not  eat  or  cannot  digest  on 
the  low  ground  are  sought  after  as  food  above.  Again,  it  is  well  known 
that  many  alpines  tend  to  reproduce  themselves  vegetatively  rather 
than  by  seeds.  The  grass  Poa  alpina,  for  instance,  in  its  viviparous 
variety,  has  leafy  buds  in  place  of  flowers.  Associated  with  the  vege- 
tative method  of  reproduction,  and  with  the  necessity  of  storing  food 
for  the  long  cold  winter,  there  is  a  strong  tendency  to  accumulate  food- 
products  in  the  leaves.  We  might  perhaps  sum  up  the  difterences  by 
saying  that  the  plants  of  the  high  alps  have  to  concentrate  into  a  period 
of  about  three  months  the  whole  of  their  activities,  and  that  in  conse- 
quence the  growth  there  is  richer  but  less  voluminous  than  on  the 
lower  ground.  Another  point  of  view  is  to  say  that  as  only  a  few 
herbivores  naturally  inhabit  the  high  alps,  the  plants  of  that  locality  do 
not  need  the  means  of  protection  necessary  for  plants  growing  at  less 
elevations. 

Whatever  the  immediate  cause,  the  result,  so  far  as  man  is  concerned, 
may  be  realised  by  quoting  from  Anderegiii's  book  ^  some  figures  for  the 
alps  of  the  Valais.     There  are  in  the  canton  422  alps,  which  have  a 

1  Schweizerische  Alpwirtschaft.  Ulustrirtes  Lehrbuch.     Yon  Professor  Felix  Anderegg. 
3  Parts.     Bern,  1899. 


238  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

capital  value  of  nearly  £180,000  (ih  million  francs)  and  yield  a  net 
profit  of  £28,000  (705,000  francs)  per  annum.  This  works  out  at 
nearly  a  pound  per  "  kuhstoss  "  (i.e.  the  proportion  of  alp  required  for 
the  keep  of  one  cow  during  the  sojourn  on  the  alp).  The  figures,  of 
course,  include  a  number  of  young  cattle,  etc.,  which  are  not  directly 
productive.  Where  cows  in  milk  alone  are  considered  it  is  found  that 
the  net  profit  obtained  from  each  cow  during  its  eighty-eight  days' 
sojourn  on  the  alp  is  about  £2,  10s.  (the  actual  figure  is  62  francs; 
see  Anderegg,  ii.  p.  507)  in  butter,  milk,  and  cheese.  In  other  words, 
every  day  spent  on  the  alp  by  each  cow  brings  a  net  profit  of  sevenpence 
to  its  owner.  Owing  to  the  difficulty  of  transport,  due  to  the  position 
of  the  alps,  the  milk  is  for  the  most  part  converted  into  cheese,  the 
whey  being  given  to  the  muscular-looking  pigs  which  accompany  the 
herd  to  the  alps.  As  the  cheese  is  not  consumed  on  the  alp,  it  is 
obvious  that  every  summer  the  alp  is  losing  more  than  is  returned  to  it 
in  the  form  of  manure.  How  is  this  waste  made  up  for  ?  To  some 
extent  it  is  made  up  for  by  the  system  of  irrigation  which,  as  already 
mentioned,  prevails  in  the  Valais.  The  irrigation  channels  contain 
glacier  water,  or  "  glacier  milk  "  as  the  Germans  call  it,  which  is  simply 
loaded  with  glacier  mud.  The  fine  particles  of  this  mud  fertilise  the 
soil  in  precisely  the  same  fashion  as  the  Nile  mud  fertilises  Egypt. 
Again,  even  where  systematic  irrigation  does  not  go  on,  denudation  is 
proceeding  so  rapidly  all  round  that  the  surface  of  the  alps  is  in  constant 
process  of  renewal.  In  this  connection  it  will  be  remembered  that,  as 
the  alps  are  geologically  of  recent  origin,  and  consist  of  a  vast  number 
of  kinds  of  rocks  of  very  different  hardness,  rock  waste  is  much  more 
rapid  than  in  an  old  land  surface  like  the  Highlands  of  Scotland,  where 
the  softer  rocks  have  long  since  been  worn  away  to  form  the  Lowlands, 
and  only  the  resistant  forms  remain. 

It  was  pointed  out  in  the  early  part  of  this  paper  that  by  far  the 
most  impressive  way  of  entering  the  Valais  is  to  cross  the  Gemmi  pass, 
and  gaze  from  its  summit  over  the  great  cleft  of  the  Rhone  valley  to  the 
giant  peaks  of  the  Pennine  Alps  towering  up  to  the  sky.  The  fore- 
going account  may  serve  to  show  that  the  instinct  which  draws  the 
attention  first  to  the  mountain  wall  is  geographically  the  right  one,  for 
almost  every  feature  of  the  geography  of  the  canton  is  determined  by 
the  mountains.  It  is  the  mountain  ring  which  produces  the  warm,  dry 
climate,  while  the  glaciers  supply  the  water  necessary  to  make  up  for 
the  deficient  rainfall.  Further,  it  is  the  scouring  action  of  the  glaciers 
which  supplies  the  rock-floor  upon  which  the  whole  fertility  of  the 
region  depends.  Even  the  catastrophes  which  often  overwhelm  not  only 
pasturages  but  villages  are  in  reality  but  part  of  the  beneficent  action 
by  which  nature  perpetually  fertilises  anew  the  Alpine  lands.  The 
geographer  who  crosses  the  turbid  Rhone  on  his  homeward  journey  may 
carry  his  thought  one  step  further  and  reflect  that  pasturages  and 
mayens,  even  the  great  lake  itself,  are  but  temporary  phenomena,  but 
stages  in  the  process  by  which  the  alps  are  in  process  of  being  ground 
down  to  a  mere  core  like  the  Scottish  Highlands.  Meantime,  however, 
whether  from  wholly  geographical  causes  or  not,  there  can  be  no  doubt 


THE   SWISS   VALAIS  :   A   STUDY    IN    REGIONAL   GEOGRAPHY.  239 

that  the  Alpine  regions  benefit  a  proportionately  much  larger  number  of 
persons  than  do  the  Highlands.  In  the  alps  one  sees  man  as,  at  least  to 
some  extent,  the  conqueror  of  nature,  rather  than  as  the  conquered,  as 
in  the  Highlands. 


COSSACKS  AND  COSSACKDOM. 

By  V.  DiNGELSTEDT,  Corr.  Member  of  the  R.S.G.S. 

The  Cossacks  have  perhaps  primarily  an  historical  and  political  interest, 
for  they  have  powerfully  contributed  to  the  extension  and  maintenance 
of  the  huge  Russian  Empire ;  but  they  possess  also  considerable  interest 
for  geographers  and  ethnographers,  for  they  occupy  an  area  more  than 
double  the  size  of  that  of  the  United  Kingdom,  their  number  equals 
that  of  the  population  of  some  independent  states,  and  their  ethnic 
composition  is  more  complicated  than  that  of  many  other  nations. 

The  Cossacks  are  now  attracting  the  particular  attention  of  the 
civilised  world  ;  for,  after  having  won  for  Russia  immense  territories, 
they  are  now  actively  employed  in  crushing  the  internal  troubles,  due  to 
popular  discontent  and  a  desire  for  change  in  the  political  and  social 
regime. 

Literature  about  Cossacks  is  not  abundant.  There  are  many 
erroneous  notions  about  them,  and  the  author  of  the  present  article  deems 
it  useful  to  gather  together  what  is  known  about  them  just  at  the 
present  moment,  when  they  are  playing  such  a  conspicuous  part  on  the 
scene  of  contemporary  history,  and  perhaps  are  on  the  point  of  under- 
going themselves  some  important  transformations  in  accordance  with 
new  popular  tendencies  incompatible  with  the  existence  of  Cossackdom. 

Cossacks  are  not  a  nation,  nor  a  particular  tribe  nor  race:  they  are  a 
distinct  and  privileged  part  of  the  heterogeneous  Russian  population,  a 
social  body  of  soldier-husbandmen,  a  class  (soslovid),  an  hereditary  order 
(confririe)  with  its  own  duties,  rights,  privileges,  customs,  manners  and 
traditions.  They  are  not  governed  by  the  common  law,  but  by  rules 
constituting  a  part  of  the  military  code.  They  are  not  burghers  nor 
citizens,  but  militiamen,  and  their  interests  are  not  those  of  common 
Russian  subjects. 

Napoleon  i.  was  strongly  impressed  by  the  deeds  of  the  Cossacks ; 
he  prophesied  that  in  a  century  Europe  would  be  either  republican  or 
Cossack.  It  does  not  seem  that  the  great  leader  proved  himself  a 
great  prophet,  but  he  did  not  certainly  much  err  in  attributing  to 
Cossacks  an  eminent  importance  and  value. 

Let  us  cast  a  glance  on  the  origin  of  Cossacks  and  their  past  prowess, 
before  considering  the  territory  they  occupy,  their  divisions,  their 
strength,  occupations,  customs,  character,  etc. 

Name  and  origin. — The  name  of  Cossack — Russian  KosaJ: — has  been 
variously  derived  from  the  Turkish  hazdk,  meaning  a  robber,  and  other 
words  in  different  languages  signifying  "  an  armed  man,"  "  a  sabre,"  "  a 


240  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

rover,"  "  a  goat,"  "  a  cassock,"  etc.  It  was  first  heard  of  in  the  tenth 
century.  Manoudi  calls  them  Kechek,  and  Nestor  somewhat  later 
gives  them  the  name  of  Kassghar.  For  the  Russian  mind  the  name  of 
Cossack  conveys  an  idea  of  a  free,  rough,  weather-beaten,  and  rather 
happy  fellow.     There  is  a  Russian  saying: — 

"  It  is  for  that 
The  Cossack  is  so  fat : 
From  sweet  repast 
To  calm  repose 
He  turns." 

It  is  probable,  however,  that  this  description  refers  more  to  the  past 
than  the  present  state  of  Cossackdom,  and  gives  a  clue  to  its  remote 
origin. 

According  to  Scherer  (Annals  of  Russia  Minor)  the  first  Cossacks  were 
descended  from  Komans  obliged  to  flee  before  the  invasion  of  Tartars, 
who  in  1272,  under  the  leadership  of  Batu-khan,  came  to  occupy  the 
part  of  the  empire  left  by  Tchinghis-khan. 

The  Komans  settled  at  first  in  the  lower  Yaik  (Uralsk),  but,  later  on, 
on  the  approach  of  Batu-khan,  were  forced  to  flee  as  far  as  the  Dnieper 
and  the  Don,  and  take  refuge  in  the  caves,  the  islands  and  the  marshes 
of  the  lower  parts  of  these  rivers.  Hence  they  made  their  raids  into 
the  neighbouring  states  and  enlisted  all  the  roving  and  discontented 
elements,  Tartars,  Kalmucks,  etc.,  for  rapine  and  pillage.  They  gave 
origin  to  a  number  of  hordes,  some  of  whom,  after  many  adventures, 
settled  in  the  islands  of  the  Dnieper  below  its  falls,  and  thus  formed 
the  Zaporog  Setcli. 

Zaporog  Cossacks  were  the  prototype  of  Cossacks.  The  world  has 
never  seen  such  an  audacious,  enterprising,  and  terrible  band  of  military 
men,  with  proverbial  courage.  In  order  to  obtain  admission  to  their 
number,  it  was  required  from  the  candidate  to  profess  the  Greek  faith, 
to  be  a  bachelor,  to  pass  in  a  boat  against  the  current  the  thirteen 
cataracts  of  the  Dnieper,  to  have  killed  ten  of  his  enemies,  to  be  an 
excellent  shooter,  to  be  able  to  swim  across  the  Dnieper,  and  so  on. 
Their  chiefs  were  elected  every  year.  They  had  almost  everything  in 
common,  and  they  rigorously  excluded  women  from  their  midst.  About 
seventy  thousand  strong,  they  became  a  scourge  to  all  their  neighbours, 
a  menace  even  for  Russia  at  the  time  when  Ataman  Mazeppa  made 
friendship  with  Charles  Xii.,  the  king  of  Sweden.  After  the  battle  of 
Poltava,  and  later  under  Catherine  ii.,  they  were  partly  dispersed  and 
partly  annihilated. 

Two  things  were  necessary  for  the  extension  of  Cossack  states — 
space  and  discontent ;  and  both  Russia  and  Poland  in  the  sixteenth 
century  had  plenty  of  those  gangs  of  adventurers,  marauders,  vagabonds, 
robbers,  outcasts,  cut-throats  who,  seeking  freedom  and  fleeing  from 
pursuit,  were  able  to  traverse  badly  delimited  frontiers,  and  establish 
themselves  on  some  masterless  lands  on  the  wooded  banks  of  the 
Dnieper,  the  Don,  Ural,  etc. 

These  predatory  gangs  of  malcontents  could  not  faiPto  be  organised 


COSSACKS  AND  COSSACKDOM.  241 

under  the  headship  of  more  distinguished  men.  To  their  formation  into 
more  orderly  communities  further  contributed  Polish  and  Lithuano- 
Eussian  lords,  and  later  on  the  princes  of  Moscovia,  who  impressed  on 
them  the  ideas  of  knighthood  and  the  stamp  of  patriotism. 

The  Polish  landlords  obtained  as  a  grant  from  their  kings 
immense  territories  in  the  southern  steppes  of  Russia,  and,  in  order  to 
people  them,  they  promised  to  peasants  willing  to  settle  in  these  regions 
freedom  from  taxes  and  duties  and  impunity  from  any  crimes  they  had 
committed.  The  measure  proved  successful,  the  formerly  uninhabited 
steppes  changed  their  aspect,  they  were  peopled  and  opened  to  culture  ; 
the  stanitsas,  at  first  independent  one  from  another,  combined  for  the 
election  of  a  common  chief  or  ataman  (hetman);  and  already  in  1649  a 
daring  Cossack  chief  on  the  Dnieper,  Hetman  Khmelnitsky,  had  suc- 
ceeded in  establishing  a  semi-autonomous  state,  at  first  allied  to  Poland 
and  later  transferring  its  allegiance  to  Russia  (1654);  other  Cossack 
communities  at  the  end  of  the  fifteenth  century,  after  the  partition  of 
the  south-eastern  steppes  between  Poland,  Muscovia  and  Turkey,  rose 
to  considerable  importance,  acquired  lands  and  rich  booty,  and  were  able 
to  wage  wars  with  all  their  neighbours,  and  especially  the  Moslems. 

The  Tzars  of  Moskov  knew  how  to  profit  by  the  valour  and  audacity 
of  these  turbulent  freelances;  they  supplied  them  with  bread,  powder 
and  lead,  granted  them  lands  and  privileges,  addressed  them  compli- 
ments, recognised  their  liberties,  and  at  the  same  time  prepared  the 
way  for  submitting  them  to  their  rule. 

After  Zaporog's  slez  of  Cossacks,  crushed  and  suppressed  by  Catherine  ii. 
(1792),  the  next  great  colony  of  Cossacks,  and  the  most  important  one 
at  the  present  day,  was  established  in  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  on  the  Don  and  Medvieditsa  and  the  shores  of  the  Azov  Sea. 

The  first  Don  Cossacks  ataman  which  history  mentions,  bore  the 
Tartar  name  of  Sariazman,  but  the  colony  consisted  mainly  of  outlaws 
and  fugitives,  rascolnick  (dissidents)  and  adventurers  from  Russia,  and 
Poland,  and  the  Crimea.  In  the  second  half  of  the  same  century  these 
colonists  had  already  succeeded  in  forming  powerful  and  aggressive  com- 
munities. Lately  their  number  has  considerably  increased  by  Zaporog 
Cossacks,  the  people  of  Ukraine,  runaways,  brigands  and  adventurers 
from  all  eastern  Europe,  all  willing  to  enter  into  the  ranks  of  Cossacks 
in  order  to  enjoy  liberty  and  the  adventurous  life  of  freelances  and 
marauders. 

In  1570  the  Don  Cossacks  asked  for  and  received  the  protection 
of  Ivan  the  Terrible,  but  his  hand  did  not  weigh  heavy  on  them,  and 
long  afterwards  they  could  repeat  the  saying :  "  The  Tzar  reigns  in 
Moskov  and  the  Cossack  on  the  Don." 

In  1580,  under  the  leadership  of  Yermak,  an  absconded  criminal,  a 
gang  of  Don  Cossacks  conquered  a  part  of  Siberia  and  thus  laid  the 
foundation  of  the  now  important  Siberian  Cossacks'  army. 

The  power  and  prosperity  of  the  Don  Cossacks  only  increased 
their  turbulence  and  aggi'essive  spirit,  and  Peter  the  Great  found  it 
necessary  to  subdue  them ;  he  crushed  their  revolt  under  Bulavin, 
reduced  their  territory,  and  forbade  further  recruiting  of  their  ranks. 

VOL.  XXIII.  S 


242  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

In  the  course  of  time  the  number  and  the  importance  of  the 
Cossack  settlements  went  on  increasing.  In  order  to  push  forward 
the  frontiers  of  their  domain  the  Russian  princes  did  not  want  so  much 
to  wage  great  wars,  as  to  wage  small  ones,  in  the  Caucasus  and  in 
Central  Asia,  against  Asiatic  tribes,  mostly  divided  among  themselves. 
They  wanted  for  that  purpose  not  great  regular  armies,  but  armed, 
warlike,  adventurous,  vigilant  populations,  exactly  such  as  these  free- 
booters and  daring  adventurers  who  formed  Cossackdom,  and  were 
recruited  from  the  discontented  elements  of  the  nation,  were  capable 
of  offering.  The  Cossacks  constituted  also  an  excellent  distraction 
from  internal  troubles.  Being  compelled  to  defend  their  frontiers  from 
the  incursions  of  piratical  tribes,  and  hoping  to  extend  their  domains  at 
the  first  opportunity,  the  Russian  princes,  by  granting  lands  and  privileges, 
founded  more  and  more  Cossack  colonies.  Thus  have  been  founded  on 
the  lower  course  of  the  Kuban  the  Tchernomorsky  Cossack  army,  mainly 
from  the  remains  of  the  Zaporogs ;  the  Terek-Kislar  Cossack  army 
in  the  Northern  Caucasus ;  the  Grebenskoy  Cossack  army  in  the  second 
half  of  the  sixteenth  century  from  the  fugitives  from  the  Don,  after 
the  punitive  expedition  of  the  stolnic  Murashkin ;  the  Mosdoc  Cossack 
army,  from  the  Cossacks  settled  at  first  on  the  Volga  and  the  Khoper, 
and  others.  The  cordon  line  of  Cossack  settlements  went  on  con- 
tinually increasing  from  the  Sea  of  Azov  to  the  Caspian,  and  from  the 
Caspian  along  the  Ural  across  Orenburg  towards  the  Kirghiz  steppes,  the 
Altai,  Semiryechinsk,  Baikal,  and  Transbaikal  up  to  the  river  Amoor 
and  the  Pacific,  In  the  rear  of  the  Cossacks'  fortified  line,  protected 
by  them,  settled  Russian  agriculturists,  affording  also  recruits  for  the 
Cossacks. 

Historical. — We  have  no  intention  of  entering  into  any  details  of  the 
stirring  and  bloodstained  history  of  Cossacks,  but  it  would  be  hardly 
possible  to  understand  their  psychology  without  remembering  some 
at  least  of  the  great  deeds  which  have  rendered  them  so  famous. 
In  the  history  of  mankind,  as  in  that  of  the  earth,  the  past  is  never 
completely  past;  it  leaves  its  traces  and  reacts  on  the  present.  The 
actual  state  of  the  Cossacks  is  powerfully  influenced  by  their  glorious 
traditions,  which  live  in  their  souls  and  continue  to  inspire  them. 

The  halcyon  days  of  Cossacks  belong  to  the  seventeenth  century,  when 
Zaporog  Cossacks  fought  as  allies  of  Poland  against  Turkey  under 
the  headship  of  Konassewitch  Sahaydatchny  (1621),  and  somewhat 
later  against  the  Poles  themselves  under  the  orders  of  Bogdan  Khmel- 
nitsky,  who  rallied  around  his  standard  fifty  thousand  men.  After 
having  obtained  some  signal  victories  over  Polish  generals,  Khmel- 
nitsky  proclaimed  the  emancipation  of  the  peasants,  raised  up  the 
Don  Cossacks,  reinforced  his  army  by  Tartar  troops,  and  with  an  army 
of  400,000  strong,  marched  to  Germany,  and  was  arrested  only  by  the 
heroic  resistance  of  a  Polish  noble  of  English  origin,  Andrew  Firley. 
After  the  convention  of  Zborov  (1G49)  the  same  Khmelnitsky  invaded 
Moldavia,  ransomed  its  Gospodar,  and  occupied  Podolia. 

In  1654  he  concluded  at  Pereiaslav  a  convention  with  the  Tzar 
Alexander   Michailovitch,   by  the   terms   of   which   a   portion    of  the 


COSSACKS  AND  COSSACKDOM.  243 

Ukraine,  with  its  Cossack  population,  submitted  under  conditions  of  a 
considerable  independence  to  the  dominion  of  Russia.  This  sovereignty 
was  often  only  nominal,  the  Cossacks  of  Ukraine  remained  restless, 
they  changed  their  allegiance  now  and  then,  broke  into  fresh  revolts, 
menaced  all  their  neighbours,  shed  torrents  of  blood,  until  at  last  they 
were  suppressed  and  partly  annihilated  by  the  vigorous  action  of 
General  Tekeli,  sent  by  Catherine  ii.  (1790).  History  has  preserved 
many  narratives  of  the  extraordinary  exploits  of  the  Zaporog  Cossacks ; 
they  were  renowned  as  reckless  corsairs,  they  managed  with  admirable 
ability  their  light  boats  (czat/Id),  pushed  them  to  the  estuary  of  the 
Dnieper,  penetrated  into  the  Azov  and  Black  Seas,  and,  like  the  ancient 
Danes,  wherever  they  made  good  landing,  they  spread  slaughter,  con- 
flagration, and  ruin.  The  most  renowned  of  the  Cossack  leaders  or 
hetmans  were :  John  Mazeppa,  elected  as  hetman  by  the  Ukraine 
Cossacks  in  1687 — he  attempted  to  throw  off  the  sovereignty  of  the 
Tzar  Peter  the  Great,  took  part  in  the  battle  of  Poltava,  after  which  he 
fled  (1709)  to  Bender  and  there  died;  Yermak — the  conqueror  of 
Siberia ;  Stenka  Razin,  the  famous  robber,  who  succeeded  in  alluring 
200,000  men  to  his  standard;  Bulavin,  Nekrassof  who  revolted  against 
Peter  the  Great ;  Minaef,  Krasnoshchekof,  Platov,  leader  of  Cossacks  in 
the  war  with  Napoleon  ;  Zelesniak,  the  leader  of  the  rebellion  of  1768  ; 
Gouba,  Sava,  Rozycki,  Pugatchef  and  others. 

With  each  of  these  names  a  whole  epopee  is  connected  in  the 
Cossack  mind,  and  they  chant  their  heroes  and  transmit  their  high 
deeds  from  generation  to  generation.  At  the  time  of  Catherine  ii.  the 
Cossack  name  was  so  renowned  that  many  of  the  Russian  grandees 
and  generals  caused  themselves  to  be  inscribed  as  Cossacks  (among 
others  Count  Potemkin).  From  the  famous  Zaporog  and  Little-Russian 
Cossacks  have  survived  to  our  days  a  certain  number  of  landowners 
(Cossacks)  outside  of  the  village  communities  who  still  enjoy  greater 
prosperity  than  the  rest. 

Territory. — Cossack  colonies  occupy  now  a  line  extending  for  about 
6790  miles  from  east  to  west  and  about  870  from  south  to  north,  or 
42°  57'  to  55°  28'  N.  lat. ;  from  the  Don  and  the  Sea  of  Azov  to  the 
district  of  Vladivostok  on  the  Sea  of  Japan,  and  from  Terek  to  Orenburg 
they  cover  an  area  of  about  220,000  square  miles,  that  is,  more  than 
that  of  the  German  Empire.  There  are  ten  distinct  Cossack  colonies, 
or  voislvs,  each  owning  their  land  and  waters  granted  to  them  in 
perpetuity  by  letters  patent  of  the  Tzar.  The  most  extensive  Cossack 
territory  is  that  of  the  Don,  having  an  area  of  63,532  square  miles, 
then  come  in  order  of  their  extension  :  the  Orenburg  colony,  with  35,792 
square  miles;  Transbaikal  colony,  32,953  square  miles;  Ural,  27,221 
square  miles;  Kuban,  25,566;  Siberian,  21,560;  Terek,  8220;  As- 
trachan,  3135  ;  and  that  of  Amoor,  2542  square  miles.  The  total 
population  of  these  extensive  lands  is  about  three  millions,  of  whom 
71  per  cent,  are  Cossacks  and  29  per  cent.  non-Cossacks.  The  Imperial 
charters  granting  to  the  Cossacks  land  and  privileges  issued  formerly 
have  been  recently  renewed  and  solemnly  announced  to  different  Cossack 
armies,  gathered  in  their  respective  head-quarters.     We  reproduce  here 


244  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE, 

the  Edict,  dated  24  January  1906,  addressed  to  the  Don  Cossacks.     It 
runs  as  follows  : — 

"  To  Our  faithfully  dear  and  valiard  Bon  Cossacks  Army. 

"  Since  the  first  days  of  its  existence,  more  than  three  hundred  years 
ago,  the  glorious  voisko  of  Don  has  served  faithfully  the  Tzar  and 
Fatherland.  Relentlessly  pursuing  the  bright  goal  then  opened  for 
Russia  in  the  development  of  her  formidable  might,  it  has  ever  since 
heroically  and  with  an  unalterable,  limitless  devotion  of  all  her  sons 
to  the  throne  and  Russian  State,  defended  its  frontiers,  and,  constitut- 
ing thus  a  bulwark  on  its  borders,  contributed  to  its  extension. 

"  In  the  years  of  heavy  trials  sent  to  the  Russian  Empire  by  the 
inscrutable  designs  of  Providence,  all  the  Don  Cossacks,  animated  with 
equal  affection  and  courage  and  always  placing  themselves  in  fclie  ranks 
of  the  defenders  of  the  honour  and  the  dignity  of  the  Russian  power, 
have  acquired  by  the  spirit  of  military  virtues  always  inherent  in  them 
and  by  their  countless  glorious  deeds  immortal  fame,  and  the  gratitude 
of  the  Fatherland. 

"And  now  in  the  just-terminated  war  with  Japan,  and  particularly 
in  the  actual  heavy  days  of  trouble,  the  Don  Cossacks,  strictly  following 
the  behests  of  their  ancestors  to  serve  the  Tzar  and  the  Russians  faith- 
fully and  truly,  have  served  as  a  model  to  all  the  true  sons  of  the 
Fatherland. 

"  In  recognition  for  such  a  devoted,  indefatigable,  and  faithful  service, 
We  declare  to  the  valiant  and  Our  dear  Don  army  Our  particular  monarchi- 
cal benevolence,  and  confirm  herewith  all  the  rights  and  privileges  granted 
to  them  by  Our  august  Forefathers  now  resting  in  God,  pledging  Our 
Imperial  word  for  the  inviolability  of  their  actual  mode  of  service, 
which  has  brought  to  them  historical  glory,  as  well  as  of  all  their  goods 
and  possessions  acquired  by  the  labour,  services,  and  blood  of  their 
ancestors  and  confirmed  by  Imperial  edicts." 

Similar  edicts  have  been  also  granted  recently  to  the  Orenburg 
Cossacks  army  (23rd  February  1906),  the  Ural  Cossacks,  the  Terek 
Cossacks  army  (23rd  April  1906),  the  Siberian  Cossacks,  and  the 
Kuban  Cossacks. 

The  lands  of  the  Cossacks  are  unevenly  distributed  between  41''  and 
55°  N.  latitude,  in  the  plains  and  in  the  mountains  ;  they  enjoy  generally 
a  healthy  and  moderate  climate,  and,  with  some  exceptions,  might  be 
considered  as  quite  favourable  for  the  activity  of  man.  Tiie  mouths 
of  the  Kuban,  Terek,  and  Ural,  as  also  the  loAver  course  of  the  Araoor, 
the  Usuri,  and  the  Sungatch,  are  malarial,  and  there  are  also  in  Orenburg 
some  tracts  north  of  Ui  river  and  Pressnogorki  that  are  considered 
unhealthy. 

At  the  beginning  the  Cossack  lands  were  mostly  considered  as 
collective  property ;  they  are  now  allotted  to  families,  save  for  some 
reserves.  The  land  granted  to  Cossacks  is  considered  as  equivalent  for 
the  sacrifices  they  submit  to  in  order  to  wear  arms  in  the  service  of 
Fatherland;  the  allotment  of  each  male  Cossack  is  from  8  to  32*4  acres. 
The  pensions  to  officers  are  also  granted  in  form  of  land.     In  1775  on 


COSSACKS  AND  COSSACKDOM.  245 

those  officers  were  conferred  the  rights  of  nobility  and  of  the  jjossession  of 
serfs.  Since  the  emancipation  (1856)  Cossack  officers  have  been  granted 
an  allotment,  according  to  rank,  of  from  247  to  4200  acres.  It  is  now 
permitted  to  all  non-Cossacks  to  settle  in  the  Cossacks  land,  and  conse- 
quently the  proportion  of  civil  population  on  those  lands  is  increasing. 
In  the  absence  of  the  Cossack  owner  his  land  is  leased  or  administered 
by  the  community. 

We  shall  give  a  very  succinct  account  of  all  the  Cossack  regions  : — 
The  Don  Region. — Area,  63,532  square  miles — that  is  more  than  the 
total  of  England  and  Wales;  domiciled  population,  2,575,878  (1897); 
density  of  71  per  square  mile.  The  chief  town  is  Novotcherkask.  The 
region  is  divided  into  otdjehj  or  districts,  and  has  117  stanitsa  (villages) 
and  1918  hamlets.  It  belongs  to  the  southern  steppes  of  Eussia,  and 
extends  from  the  upper  Vorona  affluent  of  the  Don  on  the  frontiers  of 
the  Voronej,  Tambov,  and  Saratov  governments,  on  the  north,  to  the  Sea 
of  Azov  and  the  mouth  of  the  Eisk  on  the  border  of  Kuban  Cossacks 
land  in  the  south.  This  great  region  may  be  divided  into  two  principal 
parts,  that  of  the  north  above  the  confluence  of  the  Don  and  Medvieditsa, 
which  is  mainly  agricultural,  and  that  of  the  lower  basin  of  Don,  where 
are  cultivated  vines  and  fruits.  In  the  Russian  saying  it  is  reputed 
to  be  a  land  of  plenty,  of  milk  and  honey.  The  Don  (anc.  Janais)  is 
reverenced  by  the  Cossacks  as  the  great  benefactor,  and  is  chanted  in 
popular  songs — 

"  Ho,  you  father,  famous,  quiet  Don  ! 
Our  Nourisher,  Don  Ivanowitcb, 
You  enjoy  a  splendid  fame, 
A  splendid  fame  and  a  good  parole." 

It  is  a  mighty  river  1150  miles  long,  having  its  source  in  a  small  lake 
in  the  government  of  Tula,  and  falling  into  the  Sea  of  Azov  by  three 
mouths,  one  of  which  is  navigable.  It  receives  eighty  affluents,  of  which 
the  principal  are  the  Sosna  and  the  Donetz  on  the  right,  and  the 
Khoper,  the  Medvieditsa,  the  Sal,  and  the  Manitch  on  the  left.  Its 
course  is  obstructed  by  frequent  sandbanks  at  low  water,  but  in  high 
spring  water,  when  it  overflows  its  banks,  it  is  navigable  as  high  as 
Zadonsk,  600  miles  from  its  mouth. 

The  region  on  the  left  shore  of  the  Don  forms  mainly  a  low,  uniform, 
saltish,  infertile  plain,  constituting  a  prolongation  of  the  Aralo-Caspian 
steppes.  Its  monotony  is  occasionally  interrupted  hj  tumuli  (kurgan)  33 
to  50  feet  high,  considered  as  Huns'  and  Scythians'  graves.  On  the  right 
bank  of  the  Don  the  region  is  traversed  by  the  small  chain  of  the  hills 
of  Donetz  (about  500  feet  high).  Along  the  Don,  the  Khoper,  and  the 
Medvieditsa  there  are  many  lakes  and  marshes,  swarming  with  small  fish. 

The  districts  of  Donetz,  Tcherkask,  and  Miuz  are  Carboniferous ;  the 
northern  part  of  the  country  is  Cretaceous  ;  the  south-west  consists  of 
Miocene  beds.  The  Carboniferous  rocks  contain  sandstones,  argillaceous 
slates,  millstone,  and  are  rich  coal-measures.  The  Cossack  population 
is  about  1,064,000,  the  proportion  of  men  to  women  as  96  to  100, 

Kuhanland,  twice  as  large  as  Switzerland  (36,441  square  miles), 
consists  of  two  unequal  and  dissimilar  parts,  the  one  on  the  north 


246  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

of  the  Kuban  (ancient  Tchernomorie),  a  low  plain  slightly  descending 
fi'om  the  heights  of  Stavropol  towards  Azov,  traversed  by  numerous  rivers 
running  into  the  Sea  of  Azov,  and  the  main  chain  of  the  Caucasus,  and 
strewn  with  kanians,  covering  the  graves  of  its  ancient  inhabitants ; 
the  other  on  the  south  of  the  Kuban,  hilly  and  mountainous,  rapidly  in- 
creasing in  altitude  from  the  Taman  peninsula  eastwards  to  Mount 
Elburz ;  on  its  southern  limit  stretches  the  Black  Mountain,  above 
GOOO  feet,  which  slopes  gradually  northwards  and  very  abruptly  south- 
wards. It  is  traversed  by  many  rivers  (Laba,  Bjelaia,  Seleutchuk)  and 
gullies. 

The  low  part  of  the  Kuban  province  has  a  generally  fertile  soil,  but 
it  is  marshy,  partly  covered  with  jungle,  and  consequently  unhealthy ;  it 
is  poor  in  wood.     There  are  many  salt  lakes. 

Up  to  1868  the  Cossacks  were  recognised  as  the  sole  proprietors 
of  these  vast  lands,  granted  at  first  (1792)  to  those  of  the  former 
Zaporog  Cossacks  who  had  submitted  to  Russia  and  declared  them- 
selves willing  to  marry.  Since  that  date,  however,  this  exclusive 
ownership)  of  Cossacks  has  been  abolished,  and  the  land  left  open  to 
private  purchasers. 

The  total  population  was  estimated  twenty-six  years  ago  at  519,011 
Cossacks,  149,749  non-Cossacks.  The  first  have  increased  since  by  about 
30  per  cent,  and  are  estimated  now  at  675,000.  The  proportion  of  men  to 
women  is  as  100  to  97.  The  non-Cossack  population  is  very  mixed  and 
steadily  increasing  (Russian,  Tcherkess,  Abkhasian,  German,  etc.). 

The  Region  of  the  Tcnk  Cossacks  has  an  area  almost  as  great  as  tliat  of 
Bavaria  (26,822  square  miles),  and  consists  of  three  principal  parts — the 
eastern  one,  stretching  along  the  left  bank  of  the  Malka  and  the  Terek, 
down  to  its  estuaries;  it  is  marshy  and  flat,  and  subject  to  inundations; 
the  middle  one,  along  the  Sunzha,  is  hilly,  but  also  subject  to  inunda- 
tions ;  the  western,  from  Vladicavkas  to  the  mouth  of  the  Malka,  along 
the  left  bank  of  the  Terek,  is  mountainous.  On  the  east  there  are 
sand)'  deserts  or  steppes,  which  go  on  extending.  The  mountain  parts, 
in  the  upper  region  of  the  Sunzha,  the  Atta  and  the  Kembileivka,  all 
Terek's  tributaries,  are  woody,  difficult  to  cultivate,  and  have  a  rough 
and  humid  climate.  There  is,  however,  much  fertile  land  on  the  banks 
of  the  Terek,  and  there  are  met  excellent  fruit-trees,  vines,  pastures  and 
forests.  In  regard  to  this  river,  as  also  the  Kuban,  many  particulars 
have  been  given  in  this  Magazine  for  June  1899. 

The  portion  of  land  belonging  to  the  Cossacks  constitutes  about  32 
per  cent,  of  the  whole  area ;  the  rest  of  it  belongs  to  the  non-Cossack 
population.  About  14'5  per  cent,  of  the  land  is  considered  as  unfit  for 
culture;  14'7  is  under  forests  and  orchards.  The  rest  are  arable  and 
grazing  lands.  There  are  4,750,000  acres  of  communal  property,  316,000 
acres  belonging  to  officers,  and  almost  as  much  is  in  the  army  reserves  : 
mean  lot  for  every  Cossack,  58  acres. 

The  total  population  is  given  at  933,485,  of  whom  about  200,000 
are  Cossacks.     The  chief  town  is  Grosny. 

Thr  Astraclian  or  Volga  Cossack  lands,  on  both  sides  of  the  lower 
Volga,  cover  an  area  twice  as  large  as  that  of  Switzerland.     The  origin 


COSSACKS   AND  COSSACKDOM.  247 

of  this  Cossack  colony  is  not  exactly  known,  but  it  is  mentioned  in 
history  as  far  back  as  1581,  when  the  voeivodes  of  Astrac])an,  Lizki  and 
Pushkin,  were  ordered  to  start  against  the  Shanihal  of  Tarki  (Daghestan) 
with  1000  Volga  and  500  Yaik  Cossacks.  This  land  is  fertile  on  the 
borders  of  the  Saratov  and  Samara  provinces;  between  Tchernoi  Jar  and 
Yenotaevsk  (beneath  Zaritzin)  it  forms  an  argillaceous,  flat,  elevated 
plateau  ;  further  down  there  are  pastures  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Volga, 
whereas  on  its  left  bank  (Inner  Kirghiz  Horde)  sand  prevails. 

The  Volga  nourishes  the  Cossack,  and  constitutes  for  him  an  excellent 
waterway. 

The  total  Cossack  population  is  estimated  at  30,000  :  the  proportion 
of  men  to  women  as  95  to  100. 

Ural  or  Yaik  Cossack  land  (27,221  square  miles)  is  included  within 
the  governorship  of  Orenburg  and  stretches  along  the  right  bank  of  the 
Ural.  The  steppes  beyond  the  Volga  approach  the  Ural  and  possess  a 
mountainous  character,  consisting  of  a  long  succession  of  grey  or  whitish- 
grey  ridges,  variegated  with  brown  streaks  and  whitish-red  spots  of  naked 
land.  Usually  mournful  and  sunburned,  these  steppes  become  highly 
animated  in  the  spi'ing,  when  they  are  covered  with  rich  many-coloured 
pastures  on  which  the  Ural  Cossacks,  in  incessant  conflict  with  their 
enemies,  the  Kirghiz,  graze  their  flocks  and  herds  of  sheep  and  horses. 
The  area  belonging  to  the  Cossacks  is  almost  as  large  as  Bavaria,  and 
their  chief  settlement  is  Uralsk.  It  was  at  first  occupied  by  adventurous 
Don  Cossacks,  who  fled  hither  after  their  defeat  by  Murashkin  (1577), 
and  destroyed  the  Tartar  city  of  Saraitchek. 

The  Cossack  land  extends  on  the  gentle  southern  slopes  of  the 
Obschy-Syrt,  a  range  of  detached  hills,  some  of  which,  at  the  sources  of 
the  Derkul,  a  right  affluent  of  the  Ural,  have  an  altitude  of  600  feet, 
declining  gradually  to  70  feet.  The  land  is  most  fertile,  well  wooded, 
and  well  irrigated.  The  small  rivers  draining  the  mountain  range 
periodically  overflow  the  deepest  hollows  and  create  a  magnificent  graz- 
ing ground.  From  Uralsk  downwards  the  surface  is  flat,  gradually 
sinking  until  at  Kalmykovo  it  descends  almost  to  the  sea-level  and 
passes  into  the  sandy  desert.  The  Ural  delta  overflows  in  high  waters, 
and  is  permanently  covered  with  jungle  and  bush,  making  a  good  pro- 
tection for  cattle  in  winter. 

The  land  for  purposes  of  administration  is  divided  into  three  otdjely ; 
it  has  thirty  stanitsas  and  138  hamlets. 

The  total  Cossack  population  is  117,000  ;  the  proportion  of  men  to 
women  as  90  to  100. 

Orenhurg  Cossack  land  is  larger  than  Ireland,  and  is  the  northward 
prolongation  of  Ural  Cossack  land.  It  is  traversed  in  different  direc- 
tions by  broad  but  not  high  off"shoots  of  the  Ural  mountains.  Some 
parts  of  it,  viz.  the  district  between  the  Miuss  and  Ui  (secondary  tribu- 
taries of  the  Tobol)  are  almost  at  sea-level  and  are  covered  with  numerous 
salt,  briny  and  freshwater  lakes.  There  are  but  few  deserts  :  the  soil  is 
mostly  fertile,  and  is  partly  covered  with  deciduous  forests.  From  the 
main  chain  of  the  Ural,  at  the  sources  of  the  Ural  and  Ui  rivers,  there 
detaches  itself  a  secondary  watershed,  attaining  in  some  parts  an  alti- 


248  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

tude  of  1200  feet,  and  remarkable  for  its  vast  and  beautiful  forests. 
One  of  these — Dsliobyk-Karagai — measures  not  less  than  77,400  acres. 
Southwards  the  mountain  range  (Guberlinsky)  descends  rapidly  into 
the  valley  of  the  upper  Ural.     The  land  is  rich  in  mines. 

The  total  Cossack  population  attains  378,000;  the  proportion  of 
men  to  women  is  as  95  to  100. 

Siberian  Cossack  land  stretches  in  a  long  and  narrow  tract  beyond 
the  Ural,  along  the  Presnogorky,  Irtysh,  Buchtarminsk,  and  Bisk  lines, 
and,  partly  dispersed  in  the  steppes  of  the  Kirghiz  Horde,  covers  an 
area  almost  as  large  as  Bavaria. 

The  Presnogorky  line  along  the  Ishim,  on  the  south  of  Tobolsk  down 
to  the  steppes  of  Kirghiz,  is  strewn  with  numerous  salt,  bitter,  and  fresh- 
water lakes.  It  is  only  partly  fit  for  cultivation  in  its  alluvial  parts ; 
there  are  pastures  and  woods.  Cattle  and  horse-breeding  are  hampered 
by  the  want  of  good  water,  and  diseases  arising  from  the  sickly  emana- 
tions of  the  stagnant  waters  and  putrefying  vegetable  matters. 

The  Irtysh  line,  in  the  province  of  Akmolinsk,  covers  mostly  a  sandy, 
woodless  tract  along  the  river,  which  runs  from  Semipalatinsk  to  Omsk 
(462  miles)  without  an  affluent.  On  the  left  bank  of  the  Irtysh  there 
are,  however,  some  excellent  pastures. 

The  Buchtarminsky  Cossack  line  is  situated  on  the  northern  offshoots 
of  the  Altai  mountain  range  at  an  altitude  of  G80  to  900  feet.  In  the 
valleys  of  some  rivers  arising  in  these  mountains  there  is  little  wood, 
but  an  abundance  of  good  arable  land,  meadow,  and  pasture. 

The  Bisk  (Biisk)  line  on  the  upper  Obi,  also  on  the  northern  rami- 
fications of  the  Altai,  at  an  altitude  of  1000  to  2000  feet,  has  an 
abundance  of  pasture  and  arable  land,  and  is  besides  richly  covered  with 
wood. 

The  lands  of  the  Cossacks  in  the  Kirghiz  steppe  are  mostly  fertile 
and  favourable  for  grazing. 

The  total  Cossack  population  is  calculated  in  round  numbers  at 
124,000. 

Semiri/echinsh  Cossack  land  constitutes  a  part  of  the  government  of  the 
stepi)es  between  Siberia  and  Turkestan,  has  an  area  of  1041  square 
miles,  and  is  naturally  divided  into  a  mountainous  part,  belonging  to 
the  system  of  the  Thian-shan  and  a  flat  country  traversed  by  many 
rivers,  and  sprinkled  with  a  considerable  number  of  lakes  great  and 
small.  The  name  of  the  i)rovince  signifies  icven  rivers,  which  are  the 
Karatal,  and  its  afiluents  the  Kok-su,  the  Biien,  the  Akh-su  with  the 
Sarkan,  and  the  Baskan,  with  the  Lepsa. 

There  are  other  and  even  more  important  rivers  such  as  the  Hi, 
partly  navigable,  which  falls  into  Lake  Balkash  and  covers  with 
its  delta  an  area  of  above  5000  square  miles.  Among  the  lakes, 
Issik-kul  is  thrice  as  large  as  the  Lake  of  Geneva,  and  the  Ala-kul,  the 
Sassyk-kul,  the  Baskan,  are  also  noticeable.  The  low  region  slopes 
slightly  towards  the  NE.,  in  which  direction  the  rivers  floAV  into  the 
Balkash ;  it  is  an  argillaceous  sandy  steppe,  supposed  to  be  formerly  the 
bed  of  a  tertiary  sea,  being  then  in  communication  with  the. great  sea 
of  Central  Asia  (Han-hai).     The  Cossacks  are  mainly  settled  in  the 


COSSACKS  AND  COSSACKDOM.  249 

mountainous    country   of  Ala-tau,   at   an    altitude    of   2000    to    2500 
feet. 

There  is  now  a  very  mixed  population  :  about  51  per  cent.  Kirghiz, 
24  per  cent,  of  Sartes,  6  per  cent,  of  Euzbegs,  5  per  cent,  of  Tadjiks, 
3  per  cent,  of  Kuroraa,  and  the  rest  is  divided  between  the  Russians 
(whose  number  has  steadily  increased),  the  Kiptchak,  the  Tarantchis,  the 
Tartars,  Kalmucks,  Dungans,  and  Persians.  The  number  of  Cossacks  is 
not  much  above  26,000;  their  capital  is  Verny.  It  is  a  promised  land 
of  Eussian  immigration,  and  quite  recently  the  Cossacks  had  to  concede 
130,000  dessiatine  of  their  reserves  to  Russians. 

TranshaiM  Cossack  land  is  twice  as  large  as  Switzerland,  occupies 
the  southern  and  eastern  part  of  Transbaikalia,  and  is  divided  by  the 
Yablonovoi  (Stanovoy)  range  of  mountains,  which  converge  with  the 
northern  buttress  ranges  of  the  Aldan  high  plain,  into  two  parts — the 
eastern  one  with  a  mean  altitude  of  above  2000  feet,  and  the  western 
not  much  above  1000  feet.  The  first  and  higher  part  is  very  broken 
and  woody,  and  is  traversed  by  many  ranges  parallel  to  the  main  chain, 
and  enclosing  the  basins  of  the  Ingoda,  Onon,  Gasimur,  and  other  rivers  ; 
on  its  southern  extremity  it  passes  into  an  undulating  steppe.  The 
second  and  lower  part  lies  in  broad  and  elevated  valleys  formed  by  the 
Ingoda,  the  Selenga  and  its  affluents,  the  Dshida  and  Tshikoi.  As  there 
is  only  one  easy  passage  through  the  Stanovoy  range  (road  to  Tchita) 
comnumications  here  are  very  difficult. 

The  chief  town  is  Tchita      Total  Cossack  population,  187,000. 

Amoor  Cossack  land  extends  in  the  form  of  an  oasis  along  the  deserts 
of  the  Amoor  and  the  Ussury,  as  also  on  the  banks  of  the  lake  Chanka 
on  the  north  and  east  of  Manchuria.  This  colony,  which  is  of  recent 
origin,  is  divided  into  three  otdjely  (districts)  ;  it  has  seventeen  stanitsas, 
about  100  hamlets,  and  3200  farms;  its  chief  town  is  Blagovechensk 
(9300  inhabitants).  At  the  confluence  of  the  Zeya,  the  most  important 
tributary  of  the  Amoor,  the  Cossacks  settled  when  detached  in  1858 
from  the  Transbaikal  Cossacks,  and  they  were  obliged  to  fit  out  and 
maintain  two  mounted  regiments  and  two  foot  battalions.  This  land 
is  subject  to  inundations,  and  otherwise  the  conditions  of  life  must  be 
rather  dreary,  for  the  government  has  been  obliged  to  strengthen  their 
number  with  military  outposts. 

The  total  Cossack  population  may  be  estimated  at  28,000. 

Ethnography. — The  Cossacks  sprung  from  an  admixture  of  diff"erent 
races,  but  the  identity  of  their  calling  and  their  mode  of  life  and  warfare 
have  stamped  on  them  all  a  common  Russian  cachet.  The  great 
majority  of  Cossacks  are  Great  Russians,  they  are  settled  mainly  on 
the  Don  ;  Little  Russians  now  preponderate  in  the  Kuban  and  Terek 
Cossacks  army  ;  there  are  also  to  be  found  on  the  Don,  in  the  Orenburg, 
Semiryechinsk,  Siberian  and  Transbaikal  Cossack  colonies.  Tartars  are 
numerous  among  the  Don,  Ural,  Orenburg,  Siberian,  and  Semiryechinsk 
Cossacks  ;  they  are  also  to  be  found  among  the  first  three  Cossacks'  colonies 
a  not  inconsiderable  number  of  Kalmucks.  lu  the  Transbaikal  Cossack 
army  were  incorporated  a  number  of  Buriat  and  Tungus,  and  among  the 
Caucasian  Cossacks  there  are  now  some  Caucasian  Highlanders,  Lesghins, 


250  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL   MAGAZINE. 

Tclierkess,  Tchetchen,  and  others ;  finally,  in  the  Orenburg  Cossack 
army  there  are  Bashkir,  Mordvin,  and  Tchuvashes.  There  are  few  Jews, 
about  0"5  per  cent. 

Cossacks  are  generally  a  beautiful  race  of  men,  and  there  are  ever 
to  be  found  on  the  Don,  and  especially  on  the  Terek  and  Kuban, 
splendid  specimens  of  men  and  women.  They  are  almost  all  excellent 
horsemen,  robust,  enduring,  weather-beaten,  soldierlike,  hardened,  adroit, 
everything  that  the  bearing  of  arms,  the  life  in  the  open  air  on  horse- 
back can  make  them.  Each  Cossack  army  has,  however,  some  special 
peculiarities. 

The  Caucasian  Cossacks,  and  especially  those  of  Terek,  have  much 
intermingled  with  Caucasian  mountaineers — Tchetchen,  Tcherkess,  and 
also  Nogai  and  others ;  they  have  borrowed  of  them  many  of  their 
peculiarities  and  have  improved  in  bodily  structure.  The  Terek  Cossacks 
are  a  beautiful  tribe.  Their  women  are  particularly  remarkable,  and  are 
reputed  to  be  in  many  ways  superior  to  their  masters,  as  more  forward 
and  even  more  intelligent.  They  combine  the  classical,  regular  features 
of  Tchetchen  women  with  the  powerful  constitution  of  the  women  of 
the  Russian  northern  type. 

The  Cossacks  speak  Russian,  but  have  many  words  of  their  own, 
and  they  give  their  own  significance  to  some  Russian  words. 

The  Cossack  as  loarrior. — The  Cossack  is  a  born  freebooter,  he  has  all 
the  qualities  of  a  militia  horseman  and  is  quite  efficiently  adapted  for 
outpost  service.  Cossacks  are  excellent  for  foraging  parties,  surprising 
the  enemy,  cutting  off  his  communications,  pursuing  him  when  defeated. 
Only  fifty  years  ago  Cossackdom  constituted  a  military  caste  which 
it  was  forbidden  to  leave.  Among  the  Caucasian  Cossacks  even  a  female 
member  of  a  Cossack  family  could  marry  out  of  the  caste  only  by  special 
permission. 

In  1856  was  begun  the  reform,  realised  ten  years  later,  according 
to  which  Cossackdom  ceased  to  be  a  caste,  its  military  affairs  were 
separated  from  its  civil  business,  and  its  administration  from  justice. 
The  law  of  1874  thoroughly  remodelled  the  whole  military  organisation 
of  Cossacks ;  they  are  now  incorporated  in  the  field  troops.  The 
military  organisation  of  Cossacks  thus  underwent  considerable  change 
with  the  strengthening  of  the  central  power  of  the  State.  Very  loose 
at  first,  with  considerable  freedom  in  the  choice  of  the  chiefs,  mode 
of  operations  and  generalship,  it  became  more  stringent  and  more 
appropriate  not  only  to  military  requirements  but  also  to  the  increased 
civil  and  peaceful  interests  of  the  country. 

Before  1835  there  were  no  fixed  rules  for  the  military  obligations 
of  Cossacks;  each  individual  served  as  long  as  he  Avas  capable.  In  that 
year  it  was  decreed,  at  first  for  the  Don  Cossacks  and  later  for  the 
others,  that  each  capable  Cossack  of  nineteen  years  of  age  is  liable  to  serve 
for  thirty  years,  and  that  all  male  children  of  Cossacks,  on  the  attain- 
ment of  seventeen  years  of  age,  are  to  be  enrolled  as  minors  for  two  years 
in  the  recruiting  schools.  The  reforms  of  Alexander  ii.  have  consider- 
ably lightened  the  service  of  Cossacks,  they  have  introduced  stricter 
qualifications  for  recruits,  increased  the  number  of  the  dispensed,  and 


COSSACKS  AND   COSSACKDOM.  251 

thus  caused  a  greater  inequality  among  Cossacks,  many  of  whom  can 
pursue  different  peaceful,  lucrative  callings. 

Cossacks  are  now  called  at  nineteen  years  to  draw  lots,  save  pupils 
of  high  schools  and  professionals.  According  to  custom,  at  the  entrance 
into  active  service  the  recruits  simultaneously  admitted  exchange 
between  themselves  various  gifts.  Cossacks  when  set  free  constitute 
a  class  of  men  who  maintain  their  right  on  the  land,  but  have  to  pay 
during  twenty-two  years  a  special  tax  of  1 5  roubles  a  year. 

Cossacks,  treated  by  Napoleon  I.  as  miserabile  cavaUeria,  have  proved 
themselves  to  be  an  excellent  instrument  of  conquest  over  the  multitude 
of  mostly  semi-barbarous  people  Russia  has  encountered  in  her  ex- 
pansion ;  they  have  been  called  to  fight,  and  have  developed  in  quite 
an  extraordinary  degree  watchfulness,  vigilance,  readiness  for  an  un- 
guarded attack,  endurance — in  fact  all  the  qualities  necessary  for  the 
struggle  in  the  van  of  an  army. 

From  his  tenderest  years  a  Cossack  learns  to  ride,  and  with  maturity 
he  becomes  an  accomplished  horseman,  capable  of  performing  on  his 
enduring  and  well-trained  horse  the  tricks  one  admires  only  in  the 
circus.  His  horse  is  a  true  companion,  as  capable  as  himself  of  lying  in 
wait  for  hours  without  betraying  his  presence. 

Besides  Cossack  cavalry  (a  force  of  268  squadrons  [hundreds]  in 
time  of  peace  and  868  squadrons  on  war-footing)  there  are  also  some 
companies  of  Cossack  infantry  or  pladune  (to  lie  prostrate),  so  called 
because  their  special  task  is  to  search  for  traces  of  their  enemies  in  bush 
or  otherwise  covered  places,  and  to  lie  in  wait.  A.  plastunc  is  expected  to 
be  not  only  a  good  shot,  but  also  a  good  pedestrian,  enduring  and 
patient  in  the  highest  degree.  The  plastunes  acquired  great  renown  in 
the  wars  with  Tcherkess  on  the  Kuban. 

All  Cossacks  are  warlike  and  proud,  faithful  in  their  service  and 
true  to  their  Tzar.  All  the  traditions,  aspirations,  songs,  and  deeds 
of  the  Cossack's  life,  for  centuries,  have  centred  mainly  in  warlike 
prowess ;  war  has  ever  been  considered  by  them  as  a  glorious  undertaking, 
opening  a  large  field  for  audacious  daring  and  all  manly  virtues. 

In  their  dealings  with  their  enemies,  or  whom  they  are  bidden  to 
consider  as  such,  they  are  not  only  coarse,  cruel,  violent,  but  even 
ferocious,  and  it  would  be  easy  to  fill  volumes  with  instances  of  their 
atrocities.  In  a  Russian  popular  pamphlet  about  Cossacks  (Alexandrov, 
Moscow,  1899)  one  finds  narratives  of  how  the  Ural  Cossacks  knocked 
down  the  Kirghiz  so  unmercifully,  that  even  the  Ural  groaned  as  with 
pain,  how  they  pursued  them  like  wild  goats,  how  a  famous  Cossack — 
Vasily  Struniashof — descended  the  Ural  on  a  small  craft  with  two  guns, 
trying  to  approach  unperceived  the  Kirghiz  camp  and  kill  with  a  single 
shot  two  of  them.  When  in  pursuit  of  a  retreating  foe  they  utter  singular 
savage  cries,  and  woe  to  the  unfortunate  falling  in  their  hands.  The 
wars  with  Napoleon,  and  especially  the  Caucasian  wars,  have  left  as  inex- 
haustible chronicles  of  human  cruelties  as  of  heroic  deeds. 

The  Cossacks  form  about  6  per  cent,  of  the  regular  Russian  army ; 
the  proportion  is  7  per  cent,  for  West  Siberia  and  22  per  cent,  for 
Turkestan. 


252  SCOTTISH  GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

In  relation  to  different  arras  the  proportion  is  1  per  cent,  for  the 
infantry,  7  7  per  cent,  for  the  cavalry,  and  50  per  cent,  for  the  artillery. 

We  do  not  know  exactly  the  total  Cossack  force,  but  we  may  evaluate 
it  approximately  at  130,000  in  time  of  peace  and  four  times  this  number 
in  time  of  war.  The  Cossack  has  to  serve  twenty  years,  of  which  three 
years  are  for  training,  twelve  at  the  frontier,  and  five  in  reserve.  The 
twelve  years'  service  is  divided  into  three  callings,  four  years  each.  One 
third  of  the  male  Cossack  population  fit  to  bear  arms,  constitute  the 
regiments  of  the  first  calling  (49i  regiments).  Actually  the  Cossack 
has  only  three  years'  service.  The  highest  authority  is  vested  in  the 
superior  administration  of  the  Cossack  armies.  Don  and  Siberia 
Cossacks  have  their  Atamans,  nominated  by  the  Crown,  with  the  rights 
of  Governor-General ;  the  other  Cossacks,  vo'isho,  are  placed  under  the 
control  of  the  General-Governors  of  the  parts  of  the  empire  to  which 
they  belong.  The  supreme  Ataman  of  the  Don  Cossacks  is  the  heir- 
apparent. 

Uniform  and  Arms. — The  Caucasian  Cossacks  have  borrowed  their 
beautiful  uniform  from  the  Caucasian  Highlanders  (Tcherkess);  a 
close-fitting,  woollen  or  silken,  short  heskmei,  a  red  or  blue  shirt  with 
a  collar  and  an  upper  dark  green  coat — khcrlesslcn,  with  a  cartridge  box 
on  both  sides  of  the  breast,  a  papaclici  (shaggy  sheepskin  cap)  on  the 
head,  and  viatchiki  (soleless  morocco  boots),  for  the  feet,  as  well  as  j^orshni 
of  raw  skin  requiring  to  be  wetted  before  being  drawn  on.  For  protec- 
tion in  cold  weather,  and  for  a  covering  a  Caucasian  Cossack  has  his 
bitreca — a  large,  shaggy,  foldless  mantle,  and  his  hashh/J:  or  bonnet. 
Armed  and  dressed  as  a  Tcherkess,  the  Caucasian  Cossack  is  scarcely 
distinguishable  from  him.  Other  Cossacks  wear  dark  green  or  blue 
tunics  with  epaulets,  partlets,  and  collar  edgings  of  different  colours, 
broadly  striped  pantaloons  of  the  colour  of  the  coat,  and  a  cap  with  a 
coloured  band,  a  visor,  and  a  cockade. 

Most  Cossacks  are  armed  with  a  Berdan-gun,  a  shashJca  (a  crooked 
sabre),  and  the  famous  whip.  Caucasian  Cossacks  have  daggers,  and  the 
first  file  of  most  squadrons  bear  lances. 

The  Cossack  must  provide  himself  with  his  arms  and  his  equipment, 
as  also  his  horse  at  his  OAvn  cost;  he  wants  for  that  from  150  to  300 
roubles ;  he  must  keep  all  that  in  order ;  in  case  of  his  being  incapable 
of  providing  himself  with  all  necessary  for  the  service  he  is  helped  out 
of  communal  resources. 

A  Cossack  bears  all  his  arms  separately  so  as  not  to  allow  any  clank- 
ing ;  he  takes  good  care  of  them ;  and  though  his  dress  may  be  ragged, 
his  arms  are  always  in  good  order. 

The  Cossack  as  Policeman. — The  internal  troubles  of  Russia  have  recently 
caused  the  Government  of  the  Czar  to  employ  Cossacks  as  a  police  force, 
and  many  landlords  also  menaced  by  agrarian  disorders  recur  to  them 
for  the  protection  of  their  goods.  The  intervention  of  Cossacks  in  the 
maintenance  of  civil  order  has  a  brutal  and  often  a  sanguinary  result; 
they  do  not  proceed  with  much  nicety  and  discretion,  and  use  freely  their 
dreadful  nagaiJca,  and  even  their  firearms.  Called  to  bring  a  tumultuous 
crowd  to  reason,  they  do  not  endeavour  to  disperse  it,  but  they  pack  it 


COSSACKS  AND  COSSACKDOM.  253 

together  and  then  trample  upon  it,  playing  furiously  with  their  whips  and 
shashka.  They  do  often  exercise  violence  upon  the  population,  violate 
property,  outrage  women,  and  provoke  most  bitter  complaints  from 
the  civil  population.  All  Cossacks  do  not,  however,  approve  of  their 
employment  as  a  police  force,  and  in  the  midst  of  their  female  popula- 
tion, their  wives  and  their  sisters,  there  seems  to  reign  some  discontent 
at  such  pitiless  proceedings  against  the  revolutionary  elements  of  the 
Russian  people,  their  Christian,  though  slightly  inferior  brethren,  called 
a  little  disdainfully  the  catsap.  There  are  even  some  recorded  instances 
when  the  Cossacks  refused  to  be  employed  for  police  duties. 

The  Cossacks,  in  fact,  are  in  no  way  ideal  policemen  ;  they  are  rather 
too  brutal  for  these  delicate  functions,  and  besides,  they  enjoy  among 
the  Russian  people  the  not  wholly  unmerited  reputation  of  being  very 
clever  and  audacious  thieves — which  is  not  a  useful  quality  in  policemen. 
The  Cossack  as  Citizen — Customs  and  3fa7iners.— The  Cossack  is  not 
only  a  warrior  and  a  policeman,  but  he  is  also  a  peaceful  and  industrious 
citizen,  who  has  his  lands  to  till,  his  garden  to  cultivate,  his  cattle  and 
horses  to  raise ;  his  fishing,  hunting,  and  a  number  of  trades  and 
occupations  to  look  after.  Compared  with  ordinary  Russian  peasant 
and  tradesman,  the  Cossack  may  be  considered  as  a  privileged  being;  he 
is  more  cultured,  and  he  has  a  prouder  and  more  dignified  bearing  than 
the  Russian  peasant.  Cossacks  have  to  give  to  the  state  a  difficult  and 
perilous  service,  but  on  the  whole  they  enjoy  a  life  superior  to  that  of 
the  rest  of  Russia.  Their  allotments  are  superior  to  those  of  Russian 
peasants,  they  are  mostly  settled  along  great  rivers  abounding  in  fish, 
they  pay  no  taxes,  they  are  little  interfered  with  in  their  industries 
and  daily  work. 

The  Cossacks  are  in  consequence  and  on  the  whole  more  con- 
servative and  more  satisfied  with  their  lot  than  the  rest  of  the  Russians. 
There  has  certainly  been  manifested  some  dissatisfaction  in  the  ranks 
of  the  Cossacks,  and  there  are  some  elements  among  them  who  would 
like  to  reform  Cossackdom  in  a  radical  way,  but  the  great  majority 
remain  profoundly  conservative.  They  respect  their  elders,  maintain 
their  faith,  and  their  old  customs. 

To  understand  the  Cossacks  it  is  necessary  to  remember  that  they  are 
mostly  the  descendants  of  those  terrible  fanatics  of  liberty  and  orthodoxy, 
the  Zaporog  Cossacks,  who  in  their  appeal  to  new  recruits  said,  "  We 
urge  to  join  us  all  Avho  are  ready  to  be  impaled,  to  be  racked,  quartered, 
to  suffer  all  tortures  for  the  Christian  faith." 

The  Cossack  observes  severely  all  the  fasts  in  this  sense,  that  on 
those  days  he  does  not  eat  either  flesh,  nor  any  other  animal  food, 
except  fish,  and  that  his  meals  are  prepared  with  vegetable  oil.  He 
goes  to  church  on  holy  days,  and  he  likes  to  put  one  or  even  a  whole 
bunch  of  wax  tapers,  before  the  ikon  (holy  image) ;  he  does  not  eat 
before  the  mass,  and  on  Sunday  evenings  he  likes  to  read  the  Scriptures 
and  the  history  of  the  saints.  There  are  a  considerable  number  of 
starover  or  old  believers  among  the  Cossacks  (about  10  per  cent.),  and 
about  4  per  cent,  of  non-Christian  creeds. 

On  the  Don  and  the  Ural  the  wooden  or  stone  houses  of  the  Cossacks 


254  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

look  far  more  comfortable  and  are  more  spacious  than  the  ordinary- 
peasant  Russian  isba.  A  Cossack's  house  consists  usually  of  two  neat 
and  bright  rooms,  provided  with  a  large  Russian  stove,  adorned  with 
numerous  ikons  and  the  portraits  of  the  reigning  family,  and  furnished 
with  beds,  benches,  tables,  and  sideboards.  There  are  feather  beds, 
carpets,  cushions,  bedclothes ;  and  along  the  walls,  arms  and  copper 
ware. 

The  Cossack  eats  and  drinks  abundantly  and  well,  he  crosses  himself 
before  and  after  meals,  as  he  crosses  himself  also  when  yawning  and  on 
many  other  occasions.  At  dinner  on  week-days  he  has  bread,  cakes, 
curdled  milk,  cabbage  or  fish  soup,  and  mutton.  On  Sundays  he  has 
in  addition,  fish,  salt  beef,  fowls,  and  even  sometimes  venison  ;  on  fast- 
days  he  eats  freely  of  cucumbers,  water-melons,  pumpkins  or  gourds, 
dried  sturgeon,  caviare,  herring,  potatoes,  fruits,  etc.  He  does  not  eat 
without  drinking,  but  washes  down  his  food  with  bumpers  of  ichihir, 
taken  always  at  one  draught,  even  by  the  ladies.  The  Cossack's  capacity 
for  drinking  is  great,  for  he  can  take  at  once  a  whole  tchapura  !  a  wooden 
chalice  containing  eight  glasses.  In  their  leisure  hours  the  Cossack's 
youth,  and  especially  the  women,  gnaw  continually  grains  of  turnsole. 

Cossacks  are  strong  and  adroit,  but  they  willingly  leave  to  their 
strong  and  patient  women  not  only  house  but  also  field  and  other  work. 
They  indulge  in  warlike  sports — shooting,  wild  galloping,  lance-throwing, 
and  they  like  also  to  chant  songs  of  their  famous  heroes  of  old — Yermak, 
Razin,  Bulavin,  Nekrassof,  MinaefF,  Krasnoschekof,  Platov,  Ilovaisky, 
and  others. 

A  Cossack  will  endure  any  climate ;  he  has  admirable  instinct,  which 
permits  him  to  find  his  way  in  the  wildest  tract.  His  j)assions  are 
easily  aroused,  and  there  are  many  stories  of  sanguinary  conHict  between 
rivals,  and  even  between  father  and  son,  the  Cossack  marrying  young 
and  leaving  his  wife,  on  account  of  his  service,  for  a  long  time  alone. 

There  are  a  number  of  educated  men  among  Cossacks,  but  ordinary 
Cossacks  are  generally  very  ignorant  and  highly  superstitious ;  they 
seem  to  remain  in  some  respects  very  children  of  nature,  noisily  demon- 
strating their  joy  in  success,  but  also  easily  dispirited  in  adversity.  The 
Cossack  believes  in  devils,  sorcery,  spells,  etc.  With  all  this  they  are 
cunning  and  patient  in  stratagems.  They  are  very  hospitable.  Every  one 
is  happy  to  have  friends  (kunaJ:),  and  to  keep  faithful  to  his  friends.  The 
Cossacks  do  not  generally  exercise  any  marked  influence  on  the  aborigines 
they  are  brought  into  contact  with ;  on  the  contrary,  they  easily  adopt 
local  customs.  They  are  pious;  on  every  occasion  they  invoke  the  name 
of  God,  and  perhaps  as  often  that  of  the  devil.  At  the  beginning  of 
his  meals,  in  drinking  one's  health,  at  any  supposed  danger,  and  even 
at  the  moment  when,  pointing  at  his  enemy,  he  pulls  the  trigger  of 
his  musket,  the  Cossack  says  "  In  the  name  of  the  Father  and  the  Son." 

The  manners  of  Cossacks  are  what  their  warlike  habits,  the  use  of 
arras,  long  absence  from  home,  and  severe  duties  have  made  them.  To 
be  a  good  fellow  among  them  signifies  to  be  faithful  in  friendship  and 
hatred,  a  strong  drunkard,  an  adroit  robber  of  horses  and  cattle,  a  singer, 
and  a  player  on  the  balalaika,  a  good  sportsman,  a  hoaxer,  a  favourite 


COSSACKS   AND   COSSACKDOM,  255 

with  women,  and  before  all  a  djighif,  a  dauntless  horseman  prepared  to 
kill  and  to  be  killed. 

Cossack  ivomen  are  highly  praised,  and  considered  by  many  as 
superior  to  their  men  in  intelligence  and  industry.  They  do  not 
enjoy,  however,  from  their  men  the  consideration  due  to  their  value 
and  are  even  often  treated  harshly.  Heavy  work  in  the  house,  or 
courtyard,  and  the  field  is  left  to  them ;  to  them  is  principally  due  all 
the  welfare  and  comfort  the  Cossack  enjoys.  The  habit  of  heavy 
masculine  work  and  industry  have  developed  in  the  women  intelli- 
gence and  muscular  strength,  and  also  a  considerable  amount  of 
authority  in  the  family  life.  The  Cossack's  house  and  all  his  goods 
are  acquired  and  maintained,  thanks  to  the  labour  and  the  care  of  his 
women.  Affecting  for  them  before  a  stranger  a  kind  of  scorn,  the  rude 
Cossacks  cannot,  however,  but  recognise  their  skill,  powerful  good  sense, 
and  firmness  of  character. 

Cossack  industries. — Cossacks  possess  rich  lands,  beautiful  rivers  with 
plenty  of  fish,  herds  of  cattle  and  horses;  they  are  agriculturists,  gardeners, 
fishermen,  tradesmen,  and  men  of  commerce,  they  pursue  many  kinds 
of  industries,  but  with  all  that,  they  do  not  constitute  a  self-suflScient 
state  or  community  taking  the  ordinary  chances  in  the  universal  struggle 
for  life.  They  are  a  privileged  community,  or  rather  a  number  of 
communities,  provided  with  many  good  things  of  this  world  somewhat 
at  the  expense  of  the  state  of  which  they  are  members.  They  are 
insured  to  a  certain  degree  against  the  perils  accompanying  the  free 
struggle  for  existence,  and  probably  in  consequence  of  that,  as  also  of 
the  obligations  imposed  on  them  and  of  their  backward  state  of  culture, 
their  industries  are  not  progressive. 

Agriculture. — In  the  early  days  of  Cossackdom,  among  Zaporog 
and  Don  Cossacks  tillage  was  despised  and  even  interdicted,  it  being 
the  occupation  of  the  peasants  residing  among  them,  but  now  agriculture 
has  become  the  most  important  industry  of  Cossacks. 

Apart  from  the  considerable  extent  of  land  belonging  to  the  always 
increasing  class  of  civilians,  peasants,  artisans,  craftsmen,  etc.,  which  since 
1867  have  obtained  the  right  to  buy  land  and  become  proprietors  in  the 
formerly  exclusive  Cossacks  domain,  the  tillable  land  in  their  possession, 
which  has  been  estimated  in  the  seven  principal  Cossacks  regions  at 
about  90  million  acres,  falls  into  three  categories  :  communal  lauds,  about 
66  per  cent,  of  the  whole,  reserve  lands  22  per  cent.,  and  the  lands 
belonging  to  officers  12  per  cent.  These  numbers  are,  however,  only 
provisional.  The  communal  lands  are  in  the  possession  of  villages 
or  stanitsas,  they  are  divided  among  the  male  members  of  the  commune 
at  their  attainment  of  seventeen  years  of  age,  on  the  basis  of  an 
allotment  which  varies  in  diff"erent  Cossack  regions,  according  to  the 
quality  of  the  soil,  from  20  to  216  acres,  the  mean  being  12  dessiatine 
(32-7  acres). 

The  reserve  land  is  considered  as  belonging  to  an  entire  voisko,  and 
in  a  given  Cossacks  region  it  is  administered  by  local  authorities  under 
the  upper  control  of  the  War  Ministry.  It  is  a  state  fund  destined  to 
subsidise  the  Cossacks  in  case  of  particular  want,  to  help  in  furnishing 


256  SCOTTISH   GEOGRAPHICAL  MAGAZINE. 

armaments,  etc.     The  proceeds  of  the  land  go  to  supply  the  funds  in 
l^ossession  of  each  voishn. 

According  to  an  estimate  made  twenty-five  years  ago,  the  total  funds 
in  cash  at  the  disposal  of  the  Cossacks  were  eighteen  and  a  half  million 
roubles,  or  about  seventeen  roubles  per  head  for  the  male  population. 
We  have  no  more  recent  data. 

Prosperity  is  greatest  among  the  Ural  Cossacks ;  the  Don,  Kuban, 
Orenburg,  and  Siberian  are  also  well  off,  whereas  the  Transbaikal  and 
Amoor  Cossacks  suffer  from  the  great  distances  of  any  centre  of  civili- 
sation and  of  markets;  Terek,  Astrachan  and  Semireychinsk  Cossacks 
seem  to  be  the  poorest.  The  usual  cereal  crops  are  wheat,  rye,  barley, 
oats,  buckwheat,  millet,  and  potatoes. 

All  Cossack  lands,  save  the  Transbaikal  and  Astrachan  regions, 
produce  cereals  in  quantities  sufficient  for  the  needs  of  the  population, 
while  the  Don  and  Semireyechinsk  region  has  a  surplus.  Apart  from 
the  arable  land,  the  Cossacks  cultivate  orchards  and  gardens,  they  raise 
cabbages,  cucumbers,  melons,  apple,  cherry,  and  plum  trees,  and  they 
have  some  special  crops  such  as  flax,  hemp  and  tobacco.  The  Don  Terek 
Cossacks  have  a  considerable  acreage  under  vines,  and  all  have  vast 
stretches  of  meadow  and  pasture  land. 

The  agricultural  methods  of  Cossacks  are  of  a  primitive  description, 
their  plough  is  heavy  and  unmanageable,  and  they  do  not  generally 
introduce  new  agricultural  machines,  preferring  to  make  their  patient 
and  strong  women  do  the  work. 

The  Cossacks  are  also  apiculturists ;  in  the  Kuban,  Don,  Terek  and 
Siberian  Cossack  regions  they  produce  honey  and  wax  to  the  value  of 
about  half  a  million  roubles.  Next  to  agriculture,  the  most  important 
industry  of  Cossacks  is  cattle  and  horse  breeding. 

Their  live  stock  was  valued  some  time  ago  per  hundred  heads  of 
Cossack  male  and  female  population  for  all  the  ten  Cossack  regions  as 
follow : — 

Horses,  GO  (Ural  140,  Transbaikal  124,  Don  35). 

Cattle,  94  (Don  136,  Ural  134,  Kuban  126). 

Sheep,  161  (Ural  503,  Kuban  290,  Transbaikal  and  Don,  276). 

In  the  Kuban  and  Orenburg  regions  there  are  besides  about  300  pigs 
per  100  Cossacks. 

The  Cossack  horse  is  a  cross-breed  between  Russian,  Kalmuck, 
Kirghiz,  and  Bashkir  horses,  and  has  excellent  qualities.  It  is  rather  small 
(except  Black  Sea  Cossack  horses),  but  well  built,  extraordinarily  endur- 
ing even  under  bad  nurture  ;  being  left  much  at  liberty  in  the  steppes,  it 
has  acquired  much  prudence  and  very  acute  senses.  The  "Black  Sea" 
horse,  from  the  Dnieper,  has  a  short  neck,  is  strong,  enduring,  and 
sturdy.  The  Caucasian  Cossacks  have  excellent  horses  of  mixed  Arab 
and  Karabagh  blood ;  there  are  also  Nogai  and  Kabardine  horses, 
admirable  mountain  climbers. 

The  Russian  Government  favours  horse-breeding,  and  has  estab- 
lished studs  on  the  Don  and  the  Caucasus,  and  has  assigned  for  this 
purpose  in  the  Don  Cossack  region  an  area  of  above  two  million 
acres. 


COSSACKS  AND   COSSACKDOM.  257 

The  cattle  of  the  Don  Cossacks  are  renowned  for  their  size  and 
excellent  qualities.  The  sheep  (Moldovan  race)  have  long  but  hard 
wool.  The  poor  animals  are  badly  cared  for  and  often  perish  from  the 
inclemency  of  the  weather.  In  all  the  Cossack  lands  where  there  is  also 
some  percentage  of  non-Cossack  population,  the  number  of  live-stock 
belonging  to  the  first  is  far  superior  to  that  belonging  to  the  last  (in  the 
ratio  of  82  to  16). 

Fisheries. —  Cossacks  are  good  fishers,  and  as  almost  all  their  posses- 
sions extend  along  the  great  rivers,  abounding  in  fish,  or  are  on  the 
shores  of  the  Caspian,  Black,  and  Azov  seas,  or  on  the  great  lake  of 
Baikal,  fisheries  constitute  a  considerable  item  in  their  prosperity.  The 
streams  of  water  traversing  the  lands  of  Cossacks,  as  also  the  parts  of  the 
seas  adjoining  these  lands,  are  the  undivided  property  of  the  respective 
Cossack  voisko.  Fishing  is  permitted  to  all  Cossacks,  with  only  such 
restrictions  as  are  considered  necessary  to  secure  undisturbed  spawning. 
Besides  the  great  fisheries  belonging  to  the  headquarters  of  a  voisko, 
some  of  which  lie  even  outside  Cossack  land,  and  which  are  leased, 
there  are  also  fisheries  in  the  lakes  and  rivers  inside  the  limits  of  a 
stanitsa  and  belonging  to  all  its  members. 

The  richest  fisheries  are  on  the  Don  and  the  Ural;  after  them  come 
those  of  the  Kuban  and  Azov  Sea,  as  also  those  on  the  Caspian  and 
Volga.  In  these  waters  are  caught  some  kinds  of  sturgeon  (white  and 
stellated),  silure,  sandre,  bream,  cyprinus  viviba,  carp,  herring,  and  dab. 
On  the  Ural  they  distinguish  "  red  "  and  "  white  "  fish  :  "  red  "  fish  is 
more  valuable  but  scarce  (Acipenser  sturio,  A.  ruthenus) ;  it  is  reserved  for 
export ;  the  "  white,"  by  far  the  more  abundant,  is  consumed  by  the 
Cossacks  on  their  numerous  fast-days.  From  the  "  red  "  fish  is  obtained 
caviare,  viosiga  (dried  back  tendons),  and  isinglass.  In  the  cold  season 
the  fish  is  served  fresh,  in  hot  season  salted  or  dried. 

The  products  of  the  fisheries  are  not  unimportant,  and,  according  to 
some  statistics,  may  be  valued  at  about  four  to  five  million  roubles  a  year, 
more  than  half  of  which  belongs  to  the  Ural  region,  where  they  are  the 
main  source  of  income.  The  river  Ural  is  recognised  as  the  undivided 
property  of  the  Ural  voisko,  and  the  fishing  is  permitted  to  all  Cossacks 
on  the  condition  of  observing  certain  established,  pretty  complicated  rules. 
The  Ural  Cossacks  enjoy  also  the  right  of  fishing  on  the  Tcholkar  lake 
and  its  tributary,  the  Ankotys. 

In  the  Astrachan  voisko  all  waters  are  leased  for  fishing,  the  adminis- 
tration reserving  to  themselves  only  some  rights  regarding  train-oil  and 
the  salting. 

The  fisheries  on  the  Don  yield  about  1000  tons